Joan Crespí or Juan Crespí was a Franciscan missionary and explorer of Las Californias. A native of Majorca, Crespí entered the Franciscan order at the age of seventeen, he came to New Spain in 1749, accompanied explorers Francisco Palóu and Junípero Serra. In 1767 he went to the Baja California Peninsula and was placed in charge of the Misión La Purísima Concepción de Cadegomó. In 1769, Crespí joined the expedition led by Gaspar de Junípero Serra, he traveled in the vanguard of the land expedition to San Diego, led by Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada, where a presidio and mission were established. Crespí continued north with Portolá and Rivera to identify the port of Monterey; because he was the only one of the Franciscans to make the entire journey by land, Crespí became the first official diarist for the missions. He was one of three diarists to document the first exploration by Europeans of interior areas of Alta California. After reaching Monterey in October 1769, Crespí continued with the expedition that explored as far north as present-day San Francisco, became one of the first Europeans to see San Francisco Bay.
All told, the expedition traveled in the future state of California through the present-day coastal counties of San Diego, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, San Francisco. In 1772, Crespí accompanied Captain Pedro Fages on an exploration of areas to the east of San Francisco Bay; the Fages expedition members were the first Europeans to see the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin Valley. In 1774, Crespí was chaplain of the expedition to the North Pacific conducted by Juan José Pérez Hernández, his diaries, first published in H. E. Bolton's Fray Juan Crespi, published in the original Spanish with facing page translations as A Description of Distant Roads: Original Journals of the First Expedition into California, 1769-1770 provided valuable records of these expeditions. One chapel he built, at the Misión San Francisco del Valle de Tilaco in Landa, is reported as still standing. Joan Crespí at Find a Grave
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it
Harry Edward Welch Jr.
Harry Edward Welch Jr. is a retired American football coach, considered one of the most successful coaches in California prep football history. In a 42-year coaching career, 25 of which were as a head coach, Welch averaged over 10 wins per season and won nine California Interscholastic Federation – Southern Section Championships and three state championships, he coached 17 CIF-SS Divisional Players of the Year in his career. His career accomplishments include a 46-game winning streak, a 30-game winning streak, nine CIF sectional titles, including four in a row from 2006 to 2009, a Division 1 California State Championship in 2006 with Canyon High School in Canyon Country, a second California State Championship in 2008 in the Small School Division with St. Margaret's Episcopal School and a third State Championship with Santa Margarita Catholic High School in 2011, he is 3 -- 0 in California State Championship games. Harry Welch was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 4, 1945, to Harry Edward Welch Sr. and Marie Snow.
He moved to Tarzana, California, at age 9 and attended Crespi Carmelite High School, where he played quarterback before graduating in 1963. He attended Santa Clara University for one year before returning to the San Fernando Valley, where he received his bachelor's degree from California State University, Northridge in 1968, he earned a master's degree. Coach Welch began his coaching career as an assistant at Crespi High in 1969. One of his notable players was Randy Cross, an offensive lineman who would go on to play at the University of California, Los Angeles and for the San Francisco 49ers, he moved on to become an assistant coach at Los Angeles Valley College, where he served from 1974 to 1975, before returning to the high school ranks in 1976 at Canyon High. In 1982, at age 37, Welch was named the head coach of the Canyon Cowboys and served in that capacity for twelve seasons from 1982 through 1993, winning three consecutive CIF-SS Championships, posting a 46-game winning streak along the way, playing for a fourth title in 1988.
He led Canyon to the 1983 Northwestern Conference title, defeating Bishop Montgomery 40-24 at College of the Canyons. The following year his team defeated Santa Maria 33-6 for the Northwestern Conference title at College of the Canyons. In 1985, the Cowboys made it three in a row with a 9–7 win over Antelope Valley at Canyon High School. In 1998, Canyon lost the Division II title to Antelope Valley 22–28. In 1993, after twelve successful seasons, Welch retired. In 2001 he returned as the head coach at Canyon and led the Cowboys to two consecutive CIF-SS Division III titles in 2005 and 2006. In the 2005 Division II title game the Cowboys defeated Hart 21-13 at the Home Depot Center, his 2006 team defeated Moorpark 24-22 in the Northern Division Championship game and rolled past Concord De La Salle 27–13 on December 16, 2006, in the State Division I Championship for the first of his three state titles. By this time he had accumulated a career record of 179-46-2 in 18 seasons, he retired again from his position at Canyon, the football facility at Canyon High School was renamed Harry Welch Stadium in 2007.
In addition to being an accomplished football coach, Harry Welch was a distinguished English literature teacher at Canyon, he became popular with students for his engaging Bible as Literature course. In 2007, Coach Welch moved to Coto de Caza and shortly thereafter accepted the head coaching position at in San Juan Capistrano, coaching there for three seasons until 2009. Coach Welch led the program to an overall 42–1 record, including a 30-game winning streak, three CIF-SS Championships and one California State Bowl Championship over this three season period, 2006–2009. In 2007, the Tartans finished 14–0, winning the CIF-SS Northeast Division title defeating [Brentwood School), in Los Angeles, California, 37–6 at Notre Dame High School, Sherman Oaks, California; the Tartans scored a Orange County, California record 674 points. In 2008, the Tartans moved up a division level and finished 14–0, winning the CIF-SS East Valley Division against at St. Margaret's; the following week the Tartans achieved a historic 59–7 win in the inaugural 2008 California State Small School Championship game on December 19, 2008, against at the Home Depot Center in Carson, California, to finish the season 15–0.
A highlight of the 2008 season was the 742 points the team scored – the Orange County record and fourth best total in CIF-Southern Section history. Coach Welch achieved his 200th career win during this season against Western Christian of Covina, winning 58–7. Http://www.ocvarsity.com/articles/tartans-12562-mothander-longest.html In 2009, the Tartans finished 13–1, repeating as the CIF-SS East Valley Division Champions against in Ontario, California... The road to the CIF Championship game became "CIF Playoff lore" as the Tartans traveled over to play a semifinal game against in Bishop, California... Weather conditions were considered to be the "coldest recorded game" in CIF-SS history with, but the Tartans prevailed winning 47–6... The following week in the CIF Championship game against in Ontario, California the elements were as challenging as monsoon type conditions of played havoc throughout the contest with the Tartans winning 12–6... A highlight of the 2009 season was achieving their fourth consecutive CIF-Southern Section title, an Orange County record and placing the Tartans in
Jeffrey Scot Suppan, known as Jeff Suppan, is an American retired professional baseball pitcher and current professional baseball coach who played 17 seasons in Major League Baseball. He played for the Boston Red Sox, Arizona Diamondbacks, Kansas City Royals, Pittsburgh Pirates, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers and San Diego Padres. Since 2015, Suppan has been the pitching coach for the Idaho Falls Chukars in the Kansas City Royals system. Suppan pitched at Crespi Carmelite High School in California's San Fernando Valley, he pitched one no-hitter as a freshman and another as a senior against Harvard-Westlake School in the midst of a 42-inning scoreless streak. Suppan played first base and hit.480 with a.950 slugging percentage as a senior. As a pitcher, he had a 0.73 WHIP, a 0.92 earned a 9.07 strikeout-to-walk ratio. The Los Angeles Times named him their 1993 San Fernando Valley Player of the Year. Suppan committed to play college baseball at UCLA over offers from USC, Nevada and Cal State Long Beach.
He was selected by the Boston Red Sox with the 49th pick of the 1993 Major League Baseball draft and signed for $190,000. He played with the Red Sox through the 1997 season. In his first three seasons, Suppan compiled a 9-6 record, his 1997 season marked his only season in Boston in which he made more than 10 starts. Although his record was 7-3 in 1997, his ERA was 5.69 in 22 starts. Suppan was picked up by the expansion Arizona Diamondbacks in 1998. In his lone season with Arizona, Suppan was 1-7 in 13 starts with a 6.68 ERA. Late in the 1998 season, he was traded to the Kansas City Royals. Suppan was a mainstay for the Royals rotation, averaging 33 starts and 10 wins through his 4 seasons with the team. From 1999 to 2001, Suppan won 10 games in each season. In 2002, Suppan suffered his worst season as a Royal. In 2003, he opened the season for the Pittsburgh Pirates after signing a one-year deal with them in January. Through 21 starts, Suppan was 10-7 with a 3.57 ERA for the Pirates. Suppan was dealt at the trading deadline back to the Red Sox for their playoff stretch run.
Suppan did not perform well during Boston's stretch run. He went 3-4 with a 5.57 ERA and surrendering 12 home runs. The Cardinals signed Suppan as a free agent in 2004, he embarked upon a career year, posting a 16–9 record and a 4.16 earned run average, with 110 strikeouts, 65 walks, 192 hits allowed in 188 innings. Suppan helped lead the Cards to the 2004 World Series, where he started Game 3, his baserunning blunder in game 3 was one of the defining moments of the Series. In 2005, he improved on his previous year's performance, going 16–10 with a 3.57 ERA. He started Game 4 of the National League Championship series against the Houston Astros, allowing one run over five innings but came away with a no-decision after the Astros took the lead in the game. Suppan has hit two career Major League home runs, both off Steve Trachsel of the New York Mets, his first was on September 10, 2005. The Cardinals won the game 4–2, he hit his second in Game 3 of the 2006 National League Championship Series. The Cardinals would win the game 5 -- 0.
Suppan started Game 7 of the 2006 NLCS against the New York Mets. He did not factor in the decision, giving up only one run in seven innings, but the Cardinals won 3–1, earning him the National League Championship Series MVP. Suppan in the 2006 NLCS had a 0.60 ERA in 15 innings pitched. During the 2006 offseason Suppan signed a four-year, $42 million contract with the Milwaukee Brewers. Initial excitement in Milwaukee waned as Suppan's performance declined over time. From 2007 to 2009, his walk rate, home runs allowed, ERA climbed while his strikeouts declined. While pitching in Milwaukee fans began an odd practice of wearing paper bags over their heads and throwing soup cans on to the field during Suppan's starts. Between 1995 and 2006, Suppan held a career ERA of 1.76 at Miller Park, where he was to pitch for the Brewers in 2007. Suppan is one of only 8 ballplayers who pitched in the NL in 2007 who won at least 12 games in each year from 2004–07, the others being Carlos Zambrano, Greg Maddux, Roy Oswalt, Tim Hudson, Derek Lowe, Jason Marquis and Johan Santana.
Suppan, along with teammates J. J. Hardy, Bill Hall, Chris Capuano appeared in an episode of The Young and the Restless which aired on CBS on June 20, 2007. On June 7, 2008, Suppan was placed on the 15-day disabled list, his first DL stint since 1996. After being sent to the bullpen, Suppan's run with Milwaukee ended after 15 appearances. On June 7, 2010, the Brewers released Suppan, he signed with the St. Louis Cardinals on June 14, 2010. On January 25, 2011, the San Francisco Giants signed Suppan to a minor league deal. On March 29, the Giants released Suppan. On April 4, 2011, the Kansas City Royals signed Suppan to a minor league deal, he remained the entire season in Omaha. He signed a minor league contract with the San Diego Padres on February 8, 2012. After a rash of injuries to the Padres rotation, Suppan was called up to the majors, he made his first start on May 2, 2012. It was his first time making a start since the 2010 season. Suppan opted for free agency over a minor league assignment with the Padres on June 5, 2012, according to the Padres' official website.
Suppan announced his retirement as a player on his 39th birthday. The announcement was timed for 2 p.m. PST, to honor his mother, Kathleen Suppan, who died six years earlier on the same day and at the same time. Since 2015, Suppan has been the pitching coach for the Idaho Falls Chukars of the Pioneer League; the Chukars are the Rookie-Advanced affiliate of Suppan's former team, the Kansas City Royals.. In 2019, Suppan left the Chukars to become a roving minor league co-ordinator for the Royals orga
The Celts are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities. The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial; the exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. According to a theory proposed in the 19th century, the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age Hallstatt culture in central Europe, named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria, thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the La Tène period, this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles and the Low Countries, Bohemia and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula and northern Italy and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.
The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although they were being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century CE. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th-century recensions. By the mid-1st millennium, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and migrating Germanic tribes, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Brittany. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity, they had a common linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use. Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain and other European territories, such as Portugal and Spanish Galicia. Today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival; the first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to an ethnic group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC, when writing about a people living near Massilia. In the fifth century BC, Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube and in the far west of Europe; the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel'to hide', IE *kʲel'to heat' or *kel'to impel'. Several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks.
Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the latter group, suggests the meaning "the tall ones". In the 1st century BC, Julius Caesar reported that the people known to the Romans as Gauls called themselves Celts, which suggests that if the name Keltoi was bestowed by the Greeks, it had been adopted to some extent as a collective name by the tribes of Gaul; the geographer Strabo, writing about Gaul towards the end of the first century BC, refers to the "race, now called both Gallic and Galatic," though he uses the term Celtica as a synonym for Gaul, separated from Iberia by the Pyrenees. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani and Iberi. Pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed. Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name perhaps one borrowed into Latin during the Celtic expansions into Italy during the early fifth century BC.
Its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning "power, strength", hence Old Irish gal "boldness, ferocity" and Welsh gallu "to be able, power". The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most have the same origin; the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Classical writers did not apply the terms Κελτοί or Celtae to the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, which has led to some scholars preferring not to use the term for the Iron Age inhabitants of those islands. Celt is a modern English word, first attested in 1707, in the writing of Edward Lhuyd, whose work, along with that of other late 17th-century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of the early Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain; the English form Gaul (first recorded in the 17th cent
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles
The Archdiocese of Los Angeles is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the U. S. state of California. Based in Los Angeles, the archdiocese comprises the California counties of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and Ventura; the cathedral is the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, its present archbishop is José Horacio Gómez. With five million professing members, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles is numerically the single largest diocese in the United States; the Archbishop of Los Angeles serves as metropolitan bishop of the suffragan dioceses within the Ecclesiastical Province of Los Angeles, which includes the Dioceses of Fresno, Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego. Following the establishment of the Spanish missions in California, the diocese of the Two Californias was established on 1840, when Los Angeles region was still part of Mexico. In 1848, the Mexican California was ceded to the United States, the U. S. portion of the diocese was renamed the Diocese of Monterey. The diocese was renamed the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles in 1859, the episcopal see was moved to Los Angeles upon the completion of the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana in 1876.
Los Angeles split from Monterey to become the Diocese of Los Angeles-San Diego in 1922. The diocese was split again in 1936 to create the Diocese of San Diego, the Los Angeles see was elevated to an archdiocese; the archdiocese's present territory was established in 1976, when Orange County was split off to establish the Diocese of Orange. Christianity in southern California dates back to the Spanish establishment of missions in what was known as the Las Californias province of New Spain. From 1769 to 1823, the Franciscan order led by Junípero Serra and by Fermín de Francisco Lasuén established twenty-one missions between present-day San Diego and Sonoma, six of which were located in the present-day territory of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. In response to the 1781 establishment of the Pueblo de Los Angeles, in 1784 priests from Mission San Gabriel Arcángel set out for the pueblo and established the Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles Asistencia as a sub-mission; the asistencia fell into disrepair after being abandoned several years and La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles was built on the site in 1814.
Las Californias was split into two provinces in 1804, the area comprising present-day California became part of Alta California. In 1840, the diocese of the Two Californias was erected to recognize the growth of the provinces of Alta California and Baja California; the diocese was a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Mexico with its episcopal see located in Monterey, included all Mexican territory west of the Colorado River and the Gulf of California. In 1848, Alta California was ceded to the United States after the Mexican–American War, the Mexican government objected to an American bishop having jurisdiction over parishes in Mexican Baja California; the diocese was split into American and Mexican sections, the American section was renamed the Diocese of Monterey. Another large split occurred in 1853, when much of present-day northern California, as well as present-day Nevada and Utah, formed the Archdiocese of San Francisco. In 1859 the diocese became known as the Diocese of Monterey-Los Angeles to recognize the growth of the city of Los Angeles.
On June 1, 1922, the diocese split again, this time into the Dioceses of Monterey-Fresno and Los Angeles-San Diego. On July 11, 1936 the diocese was elevated to become the Archdiocese of Los Angeles with John Joseph Cantwell as its first archbishop. On March 24, 1976, Orange County was split to form the Diocese of Orange, establishing the archdiocese's present-day territory consisting of Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Ventura Counties. In addition to the dioceses of Monterey and San Diego, the archdiocese's present-day suffragan dioceses are Fresno and San Bernardino. In 1986, Archbishop Roger Mahony subdivided the Archdiocese of Los Angeles into five administrative pastoral regions; each region is geographical, is headed by an auxiliary bishop who functions as the region's episcopal vicar. The five regions are: Our Lady of the Angels, covering downtown and central Los Angeles west to Malibu, south to Los Angeles International Airport; the region has 78 parishes, 11 Catholic high schools, 5 Catholic hospitals, 5 missions.
The Episcopal Vicar is Bishop Edward William Clark. San Fernando, covering the San Fernando, Santa Clarita and Antelope Valleys and northeast Los Angeles; the region has 12 Catholic high schools, 2 Catholic hospitals and 5 missions. Archbishop Gomez appointed Bishop Joseph V. Brennan Episcopal Vicar for the San Fernando Pastoral Region in 2015. San Gabriel, covering East Los Angeles through the San Gabriel Valley and th