The Upper Paleolithic is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. Broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, according to some theories coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. Anatomically modern humans are believed to have emerged out of Africa around 200,000 years ago, although these lifestyles changed little from that of archaic humans of the Middle Paleolithic, until about 50,000 years ago, when there was a marked increase in the diversity of artefacts; this period coincides with the expansion of modern humans from Africa throughout Asia and Eurasia, which contributed to the extinction of the Neanderthals. The Upper Paleolithic has the earliest known evidence of organized settlements, in the form of campsites, some with storage pits. Artistic work blossomed, with cave painting, petroglyphs and engravings on bone or ivory; the first evidence of human fishing is found, from artefacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa.
More complex social groupings emerged, supported by more varied and reliable food sources and specialized tool types. This contributed to increasing group identification or ethnicity; the peopling of Australia most took place before c. 60 ka. Europe was peopled after c. 45 ka. Anatomically modern humans are known to have expanded northward into Siberia as far as the 58th parallel by about 45 ka; the Upper Paleolithic is divided during about 25 to 15 ka. The peopling of the Americas occurred during this time, with East and Central Asia populations reaching the Bering land bridge after about 35 ka, expanding into the Americas by about 15 ka. In Western Eurasia, the Paleolithic eases into the so-called Epipaleolithic or Mesolithic from the end of the LGM, beginning 15 ka; the Holocene glacial retreat begins 11.7 ka, falling well into the Old World Epipaleolithic, marking the beginning of the earliest forms of farming in the Fertile Crescent. Both Homo erectus and Neanderthals used the same crude stone tools.
Archaeologist Richard G. Klein, who has worked extensively on ancient stone tools, describes the stone tool kit of archaic hominids as impossible to categorize, it was as if the Neanderthals made stone tools, were not much concerned about their final forms. He argues that everywhere, whether Asia, Africa or Europe, before 50,000 years ago all the stone tools are much alike and unsophisticated. Firstly among the artefacts of Africa, archeologists found they could differentiate and classify those of less than 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, drilling and piercing tools; these new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other. The invaders referred to as the Cro-Magnons, left many sophisticated stone tools and engraved pieces on bone and antler, cave paintings and Venus figurines; the Neanderthals continued to use Mousterian stone tool technology and Chatelperronian technology. These tools disappeared from the archeological record at around the same time the Neanderthals themselves disappeared from the fossil record, about 40,000 cal BP.
Settlements were located in narrow valley bottoms associated with hunting of passing herds of animals. Some of them may have been occupied year round, though more they appear to have been used seasonally. Hunting was important, caribou/wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting."Technological advances included significant developments in flint tool manufacturing, with industries based on fine blades rather than simpler and shorter flakes. Burins and racloirs were used to work bone and hides. Advanced darts and harpoons appear in this period, along with the fish hook, the oil lamp and the eyed needle; the changes in human behavior have been attributed to changes in climate, encompassing a number of global temperature drops. These led to a worsening of the bitter cold of the last glacial period; such changes may have reduced the supply of usable timber and forced people to look at other materials. In addition, flint may not have functioned as a tool.
Some scholars argue that the appearance of complex or abstract language made these behavior changes possible. The complexity of the new human capabilities hints that humans were less capable of planning or foresight before 40,000 years, while the emergence of cooperative and coherent communication marked a new era of cultural development; the climate of the period in Europe saw dramatic changes, included the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest phase of the last glacial period, which lasted from about 26.5 to 19 kya, being coldest at the end, before a rapid warming. During the Maximum, most of Northern Europe was covered by an ice-sheet, forcing human populations into the areas known as Last Glacial Maximum refugia, including modern Italy and the Balkans, parts of the Iberian Peninsula and areas around the Black Sea; this period saw cultures such as the Solutrean in Spain. Human life may have continued on top of the ice sheet, but we know next to nothing about it, little about the human life that preceded the European glaciers.
In the early part of the period, up to a
In archaeology a type site is a site, considered the model of a particular archaeological culture. For example, the type site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A culture is Jericho, in the West Bank. A type site is often the eponym. For example, the type site of the pre-Celtic/Celtic Bronze Age Hallstatt culture is the lakeside village of Hallstatt, Austria. In geology the term is used for a site considered to be typical of a particular rock formation etc. A type site contains artifacts, in an assemblage. Type sites are the first or foundational site discovered about the culture they represent; the use of this term is therefore similar to that of the specimen type in biology or locus typicus in geology. A river terrace of the River Somme, of the Abbevillian culture Aurignac, of the Aurignacian culture Hallstatt, of the Hallstatt culture La Tène, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, of the La Tène culture Vinča, Serbia, of the Vinča culture Abri de la Madeleine, of the Magdalenian culture Le Moustier, of the Mousterian culture Saint Acheul, of the Acheulean culture Butmir, of the Butmir culture Tell Halaf, for the Halaf culture Tell Hassuna, for the Hassuna culture Jemdet Nasr, for the Jemdet Nasr period Tell al-'Ubaid, for the Ubaid period Uruk, for the Uruk period Uaxactun Dzibilchaltun Monte Alban Folsom, New Mexico, United States Clovis, New Mexico, United States: accepted as the type site for one of the earliest human cultures in the North America La Plata County, United States Barton Gulch of the Blackwater Draw Paleo-Indian culture Adena Mound, United States Borax Lake Site, for two of the earliest cultural traditions in California: the Post Pattern and Borax Lake Pattern.
New Caledonia, of the Lapita culture. Kot Diji Harappa Banpo Liangzhu Town, near Hangzhou Songguk-ri Suemura cluster of kilns--Kilns of Sue warew:ja:須恵器 Sanage cluster of kilns—Kilns of Green Glazed Warew:ja:緑釉陶器 and Ash Glazed Warew:ja:灰釉陶器
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Derby Museum and Art Gallery
Derby Museum and Art Gallery was established in 1879 in Derby, along with Derby Central Library, in a new building designed by Richard Knill Freeman and given to Derby by Michael Thomas Bass. The collection includes a gallery displaying many paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby. Further displays include archaeology, natural history, military collections and world cultures; the Art Gallery was opened in 1882. The museum can trace its start to the formation of the Derby Town and County Museum and Natural History Society on 10 February 1836; the society was housed by Full Street Public Baths but it was a private society funded by its members' subscriptions. Its collections were created by donations from Dr Forrester, a President of Derby Philosophical Society; the patron of the Museum Society was William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, the President was Sir George Crewe, a keen naturalist. Col. George Gawler contributed a collection of minerals and exotic stuffed birds which included an albatross from his time as governor in South Australia.
In 1839 a major exhibition was held at the Mechanics' Institute which contained many items including those from Joseph Strutt's collection. Many of these made their way into Derby Museum's collection; the society moved in 1840 to the Athenaeum in Victoria Street. The society's collections grew in 1856 and they were first offered for incorporation into the town by William Mundy, but the offer was rejected. In 1857, Llewellyn Jewitt became secretary and the museum was opened to the general public on Saturday mornings. In 1858 the Derby Philosophical Society moved to a house on the Wardwick in Derby as it merged with what was called the Derby Town and County Museum and the Natural History Society; this move included the society's library of 4,000 volumes and scientific apparatus and its collection of fossils. In 1863 the botanist Alexander Croall was appointed the first Librarian and Curator and the following year the museum and library were joined together. Croall left in 1875 to become the curator of the Smith Institute in Stirling.
The Derby Town and County Museum was transferred into the ownership of Derby Corporation in 1870, but there were difficulties in finding space to display the collections. After placing all the artefacts into storage for three years, the museum was opened to the public on 28 June 1879; the Art Gallery opened in 1882 and in 1883 the museum had electricity supplied for new lighting. In 1936 the museum was given a substantial collection of paintings by Alfred E. Goodey, collecting art for 50 years. At his death in 1945 he left £13,000 to build an extension to the museum; the extension, which now houses the museum, was completed in 1964. Refurbishment to parts of both the new and old buildings were undertaken in 2010–11. In 2012, over 1,000 items were stolen from 19 June; the museum did not know about the theft until they accessed the facility to remove an item from storage. Stolen items included coins and watches. A man was charged with receiving stolen goods in connection with the theft in January 2013.
Derby was significant in the eighteenth century for its role in the Enlightenment, a period in which science and philosophy challenged the divine right of kings to rule. The enlightenment has many strands, including the philosophical "Scottish enlightenment" centred around the philosopher David Hume, political changes that culminated in the French revolution, but the English Midlands was an area where many key figures of industry and science came together; the Lunar Society included Erasmus Darwin, Matthew Boulton, Joseph Priestley and Josiah Wedgwood with Benjamin Franklin corresponding from America. Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin, started the Derby Philosophical Society when he moved to Derby in 1783; some of the paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby, which are renowned for their use of light and shade, are of Lunar Society members. The Derby Gallery possesses over 300 sketches and 34 oil paintings by Wright, holds a document collection. One of the paintings is entitled The Alchymist in Search of the Philosopher's Stone and it depicts the discovery of the element phosphorus by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669.
A flask into which a large quantity of urine has been boiled down is seen bursting into light as the phosphorus, abundant in urine, ignites spontaneously in air. A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery shows an early mechanism for demonstrating the movement of the planets around the sun, an actual orrery is on display in the centre of the gallery in front of the painting; the Scottish scientist and lecturer James Ferguson undertook a series of lectures in Derby in July 1762. They were based on his book Lectures on Select Subjects in Mechanics, Pneumatics, Optics &c. published in 1760. In order to illustrate his lectures he used various machines and instruments. Wright attended Ferguson’s lecture as tickets for the event were available from John Whitehurst, his close neighbour, the clockmaker and scientist; the artist could have drawn on Whitehurst's practical knowledge to find out more about the orrery and its operation. These factual paintings are considered to have metaphorical meaning too, the bursting into light of the phosphorus in front of a praying figure signifying the problematic transition from faith to scientific understanding and enlightenment, the various expressions on the figures around the bird in the airpump indicating concern over the possible inhumanity of the coming age of science.
These paintings represent a high point in scientific
The Arctic hare is a species of hare, adapted to living in the Arctic tundra, other icy biomes. The Arctic hare survives with shortened ears and limbs, a small nose, fat that makes up 20% of its body, a thick coat of fur, it digs holes in the ground or under snow to keep warm and sleep. Arctic hares look like rabbits but have shorter ears, are taller when standing, unlike rabbits, can thrive in extreme cold, they can travel together with many other hares, sometimes huddling with dozens or more, but are found alone, sometimes taking more than one partner. The Arctic hare can run up to 60 kilometres per hour. Known predators of the Arctic hare are the Arctic fox, red fox, mountain lion, ermine, snowy owl, rough-legged hawk, humans; the Arctic wolf is the most successful predator of the Arctic hare, young wolves in their first autumn can catch adult hares. Arctic foxes and ermines, which are smaller prey on young hares. Gyrfalcon carry hares to their nests. Peregrine falcons prey on Arctic hares in the southern end of the hares' range.
The Snowy owls targets young hare. Four groups of parasites have been known to use Arctic hares as a host: protozoans. Fleas are more common than parasitic worms; the Arctic hare is distributed over the northernmost regions of Greenland, the Canadian Arctic islands and Northern Canada, including Ellesmere Island, further south in Labrador and Newfoundland. The Arctic hare is well-adapted to the conditions found in the tundras and treeless coasts of this region, including cold weather and frozen precipitation; the Arctic hare may be found at elevations between 900 m. In Newfoundland and southern Labrador, the Arctic hare changes its coat color and growing new fur, from brown or grey in the summer to white in the winter, like some other Arctic animals including ermine and ptarmigan, enabling it to remain camouflaged as their environments change. However, the Arctic hares in the far north of Canada, where summer is short, remain white all year round; the Arctic hare is one of the largest living lagomorphs.
This species measures from 43 to 70 cm long, not counting a tail length of 4.5 to 10 cm. The body mass of this species is between 2.5–5.5 kg, though large individuals can weigh up to 7 kg. The Arctic hare is a herbivore, a folivore. Arctic hares feed on woody plants, willow constitutes 95 percent of their diet year-round. Arctic hares predominantly consume such as saxifrage and dwarf willow, but can eat a variety of other foods, including lichens and mosses, other species' leaves and roots, mountain sorrel and macroalgae. Arctic hare diets are more diverse in summer, but still consists of willow and grasses. Arctic hare have been reported to eat meat, including fish and the stomach contents of eviscerated caribou, they eat snow to get water. Female hares can have up to eight baby hares called leverets; the leverets stay within the mother's home range. There is little information on the lifespan of Arctic hare; some anecdotal evidence suggests. Arctic hares do not survive well in living only a year and a half at most.
There are four subspecies of this hare: Lepus arcticus arcticus Lepus arcticus banksii Lepus arcticus groenlandicus Lepus arcticus monstrabilis
In prehistoric archaeology, scrapers are unifacial tools thought to have been used for hideworking and woodworking. Many lithic analysts maintain that the only true scrapers are defined on the base of use-wear, are those that were worked on the distal ends of blades—i.e. "end scrapers". Other scrapers include the so-called "side scrapers" or racloirs, which are made on the longest side of a flake, notched scrapers, which have a cleft on either side that may have been used to attach them to something else. Scrapers are formed by chipping the end of a flake of stone in order to create one sharp side and to keep the rest of the sides dull to facilitate grasping it. Most scrapers are either blade-like in shape; the working edges of scrapers tend to be convex, many have trimmed and dulled lateral edges to facilitate hafting. One important variety of scraper is a scraper shaped much like its namesake; this scraper type is common at Paleo-Indian sites in North America. Scrapers are one of the most varied lithic tools found at archaeological sites.
Due to the vast array of scrapers there are many typologies that scrapers can fall under, including tool size, tool shape, tool base, the number of working edges, edge angle, edge shape, many more. The edge of the scraper, angled is the working edge; this edge is used to soften hides or cleaning the meat off of the hides, in addition to being used for wood work. As the term scraper suggests, this tool was scraped at the hide or wood in order to reach the end goal, they made the scraper to skin animal also. Scrapers tended to be large enough to fit comfortably in the hand and could be used without being mounted on wood or bone. However, it is likely that scrapers were mounted on short handles though it is rare to find mounted scrapers; as scrapers are used they have to be resharpened in order to stay effective. This causes them to get progressively smaller as they are used, used and used again; the majority of the scrapers that are found on sites are ones that have been resharpened and used to the point of being no longer functional.
The two main classifications of scrapers are either end scrapers or side scrapers. End scrapers have working edges on one or both ends of a blade or flake, whereas side scrapers have a working edge along one of the long sides. There are a couple of types of scrapers based on their specific use when it comes to wood and hide or based on the shape and design of the scraper itself; the grattoir is a type of scraper made made of flint and its main uses were to work wood and to clean hides. This type of scraper has its working edge along the long axis of the blade; the nose scraper has a smaller working edge either at both ends or just one end. This type of scraper is used in more fine tuning work; the hollow scraper is a type of scraper that has a notch worked into the end of the scraper. Tool size: This can be determined by either weight or dimensions and divided into either large or small scrapers. Tool shape: There are many different shapes scrapers can be, including rectangular, irregular, domed, or keeled.
In many cases it can be hard to determine the classification for the shape of the scraper. The shape of the scraper is considered diagnostic. Shaping vs. Use Damage: Scrapers are divided between ones that have been purposefully shaped for a specific use and ones that have been shaped due to their use. Tool base: Scrapers are classified based on if they originated from a blade or a flake. Number of working edges: Some scrapers have only one working edge while other scrapers have 2 working edges, it is uncommon for there to be a scraper with three working edges. Edge angle: Some scrapers have vertical working edges while other scrapers have acute working edges. Edge shape: There is distinction between concave and convex working edges on scrapers. Location of functional edges: One of the main distinctions in scrapers, depends on if the working edge is on the end or the side of the scraper. Http://www.archaeologywordsmith.com/lookup.php?category=&where=headword&terms=Scraper http://www.sandiegoarchaeology.org/Laylander/Issues/funct.scraper.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20130525042012/http://www.ou.edu/cas/archsur/OKArtifacts/scrapers.htm
Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th