Crevasse rescue is the process of retrieving a climber from a crevasse in a glacier. Because of the frequency with which climbers break through the snow over a crevasse and fall in, the first step is to stabilize the situation and free up the climbers still outside the crevasse. The Z-pulley technique is a complicated arrangement using a small moving pulley to reduce the hauling effort. The single-pulley technique entails dropping a pulley attached to another length of rope, if the climber in the crevasse is able to move, he or she may be able to use prusik knots with slings or Jumars to ascend the rope. The related bilgeri technique involves the use of a second rope, although the mechanical principle of rescue is simple, the reality is far messier. It may be that additional crevasses are nearby, and rescuers have died in unsuspected crevasses because they unroped in order to set up a rescue of the first victim. The experience of world-class climbers Jim Wickwire and Chris Kerrebrock on Mount McKinley in 1981 shows how much can go wrong, only a two-person team, when Kerrebrock fell in, Wickwire was pulled in after.
Wickwire managed to get out of the crevasse, but Kerrebrock was jammed in the bottom, Glacier Mountaineering, The Illustrated Guide to Glacier Travel and Crevasse Rescue Mountaineering, The Freedom of the Hills
The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. The Swiss Alps comprise almost all the highest mountains of the Alps, such as Dufourspitze, the Dom, the Liskamm, the Weisshorn, the other following major summits can be found in this list of mountains of Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history, the region north of St Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. The Alps cover 65% of Switzerlands total 41,285 square kilometres surface area, making it one of the most alpine countries. The glaciers of the Swiss Alps cover an area of 1,220 square kilometres — 3% of the Swiss territory, the Swiss Alps are situated south of the Swiss Plateau and north of the national border. The limit between the Alps and the runs from Vevey on the shores of Lake Geneva to Rorschach on the shores of Lake Constance, passing close to the cities of Thun.
The not well defined regions in Switzerland that lie on the margin of the Alps, the Swiss Prealps are mainly made of limestone and they generally do not exceed 2,500 metres. The Alpine cantons are Valais, Graubünden, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Obwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg and Zug. The countries with which Switzerland shares mountain ranges of the Alps are, Italy, the Alps are usually divided into two main parts, the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, whose division is along the Rhine from Lake Constance to the Splügen Pass. The western ranges occupy the greatest part of Switzerland while the more numerous eastern ranges are smaller and are all situated in the canton of Graubünden. The latter are part of the Central Eastern Alps, except the Ortler Alps which belong to the Southern Limestone Alps, the Pennine and Bernina Range are the highest ranges of the country, they contain respectively 38,9 and 1 summit over 4000 metres. The lowest range is the Appenzell Alps culminating at 2,500 metres, Western Alps Eastern Alps The north side of the Swiss Alps is drained by the Rhône, Rhine and Inn while the south side is mainly drained by the Ticino.
The rivers on the empty into the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The major triple watersheds in the Alps are located within the country, they are, Piz Lunghin, Witenwasserenstock, between the Witenwasserenstock and Piz Lunghin runs the European Watershed separating the basin of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The European watershed lies in fact only partially on the main chain, Switzerland possesses 6% of Europes fresh water, and is sometimes referred to as the water tower of Europe. Since the highest dams are located in Alpine regions, many mountain lakes are artificial and are used as hydroelectric reservoirs. Some large artificial lakes can be found above 2,300 m, the melting of low-altitude glaciers can generate new lakes, such as the 0.25 km² large Triftsee which formed between 2002–2003. The following table gives the area above 2000 m and 3000 m
It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14,411 feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States. Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles and other equipment, food processing and metal products, chemicals. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, flood control, the Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The area was part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. The area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, Washington is the only U. S. state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U. S. capital, which is named for George Washington, Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State, or, in more formal contexts. Washingtonians and other residents of the Pacific Northwest refer to the state simply as Washington, calling the nations capital Washington, D. C. or, Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States. Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades. Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches in Pullman, the Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state
Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering. It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks, stratigraphy has two related subfields, lithologic stratigraphy or lithostratigraphy, and biologic stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. The first practical application of stratigraphy was by William Smith in the 1790s. Another influential application of stratigraphy in the early 19th century was a study by Georges Cuvier, variation in rock units, most obviously displayed as visible layering, is due to physical contrasts in rock type. This variation can occur vertically as layering, or laterally, and these variations provide a lithostratigraphy or lithologic stratigraphy of the rock unit. Key concepts in stratigraphy involve understanding how certain geometric relationships between rock layers arise and what these geometries imply about their original depositional environment. The basic concept in stratigraphy, called the law of superposition, states, in a stratigraphic sequence.
Chemostratigraphy studies the changes in the proportions of trace elements and isotopes within. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios vary with time, and researchers can use those to map subtle changes that occurred in the paleoenvironment and this has led to the specialized field of isotopic stratigraphy. Biostratigraphy or paleontologic stratigraphy is based on evidence in the rock layers. Strata from widespread locations containing the fossil fauna and flora are said to be correlatable in time. Biologic stratigraphy was based on William Smiths principle of succession, which predated. It provides strong evidence for the formation and extinction of species, the geologic time scale was developed during the 19th century, based on the evidence of biologic stratigraphy and faunal succession. One important development is the Vail curve, which attempts to define a global historical sea-level curve according to inferences from worldwide stratigraphic patterns, stratigraphy is commonly used to delineate the nature and extent of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir rocks and traps of petroleum geology.
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that places an absolute age, a gap or missing strata in the geological record of an area is called a stratigraphic hiatus. This may be the result of a halt in the deposition of sediment, the gap may be due to removal by erosion, in which case it may be called a stratigraphic vacuity. It is called a hiatus because deposition was on hold for a period of time, a physical gap may represent both a period of non-deposition and a period of erosion. A geologic fault may cause the appearance of a hiatus, magnetostratigraphy is a chronostratigraphic technique used to date sedimentary and volcanic sequences
A bergschrund is a crevasse that forms where moving glacier ice separates from the stagnant ice or firn above. It is often an obstacle for mountaineers, who sometimes abbreviate bergschrund to schrund. In a corrie or cirque, the bergschrund is positioned at the rear and it is caused by the rotational movement of the glacier. In a longitudinal glacier, the bergschrund is at the top end of the glacier at an angle to the flow of the glacier. It is caused by the flow of the glacier. Bergschrunds extend to the bedrock and can have a depth of well over 100 metres, in winter, a bergschrund is often filled by snow from avalanches from the mountain above it. In summer, due to melting, it lies open, the bergschrund is distinct from the randkluft, which is the crevasse of which one face is the rock, back wall of the corrie. The randkluft arises in part from the melting of the ice arising from the presence of the rock face. However, the randkluft is sometimes called a bergschrund, on the South Col route to reach the summit of Mount Everest, a deep bergschrund lies at the bottom of the Lhotse face, separating Camp II from Camp III
A fracture is any separation in a geologic formation, such as a joint or a fault that divides the rock into two or more pieces. A fracture will form a deep fissure or crevice in the rock. Fractures are commonly caused by exceeding the rock strength, causing the rock to lose cohesion along its weakest plane. Fractures can provide permeability for fluid movement, such as water or hydrocarbons, highly fractured rocks can make good aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs, since they may possess both significant permeability and fracture porosity. Fractures are forms of brittle deformation, there are two types of primary brittle deformation processes. Shear fractures are the first initial breaks resulting from shear forces exceeding the strength in that plane. After those two initial deformations, several types of secondary brittle deformation can be observed, such as frictional sliding or cataclastic flow on reactivated joints or faults. Most often, fracture profiles will look like either a blade, Fractures in rocks can be formed either due to compression or tension.
Fractures due to include thrust faults. Fractures may be a result from shear or tensile stress, some of the primary mechanisms are discussed below. First, there are three modes of fractures occur, Mode I crack – Opening mode Mode II crack – Sliding mode Mode III crack – Tearing mode For more information on this. This deformation creates propagation of fractures into previously unfractured rock, when the rock is subjected to tensile stress, in the case of a homogenous stress field, the crack will propagate in the direction perpendicular to the least principal stress. Engineers studying elasticity found that the due to a load distant from the region of interest is concentrated around material flaws. A. W. Griffith took this example and applied the concept of stress concentration to the ends of fractures, Griffith asserted that all material have microcracks or flaws where the stress concentration naturally occurs, and that these were the flaws where, under increasing stress, fractures propagate.
As a result, these flaws were named Griffith cracks. From this assumption, tensile fracture development may be examined, the first form is in axial stretching. In this case, remote tensile stress is applied, allowing microcracks to open throughout the tensile region. As these cracks open up, the stresses at the crack tips intensify, eventually exceeding the rock strength and this can occur at times of rapid overburden erosion
Mount Baker, known as Koma Kulshan or simply Kulshan, is an active glaciated andesitic stratovolcano in the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the North Cascades of Washington in the United States. Mount Baker has the second-most thermally active crater in the Cascade Range after Mount Saint Helens, about 31 miles due east of the city of Bellingham, Whatcom County, Mount Baker is the youngest volcano in the Mount Baker volcanic field. While volcanism has persisted here for some 1.5 million years, the current glaciated cone is likely no more than 140,000 years old, older volcanic edifices have mostly eroded away due to glaciation. It is one of the snowiest places in the world, in 1999, Mount Baker Ski Area, located 14 km to the northeast, set the world record for recorded snowfall in a single season—1,140 in. Located in the Mount Baker Wilderness, it is visible much of Greater Victoria, Nanaimo. The explorer George Vancouver renamed the mountain for 3rd Lieutenant Joseph Baker of HMS Discovery, Mount Baker was well-known to indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest.
Indigenous names for the mountain include Koma Kulshan or Kulshan, Quck Sam-ik, Kobah (Skagit, qwúbə’, white sentinel, and Tukullum or Nahcullum. In 1790, Manuel Quimper of the Spanish Navy set sail from Nootka, accompanying Quimper was first-pilot Gonzalo Lopez de Haro, who drew detailed charts during the six-week expedition. Although Quimpers journal of the voyage does not refer to the mountain, the Spanish named the snowy volcano La Gran Montana del Carmelo, as it reminded them of the white-clad monks of the Carmelite Monastery. The British explorer George Vancouver left England a year and his mission was to survey the northwest coast of America. Vancouver and his crew reached the Pacific Northwest coast in 1792, apparently at a very remote distance. Six years later, the narrative of this voyage was published. By the mid-1850s, Mount Baker was a feature on the horizon to the explorers. Stevens, the first governor of Washington Territory, wrote about Mount Baker in 1853, Mount Baker. Is one of the loftiest and most conspicuous peaks of the northern Cascade range, it is nearly as high as Mount Rainier and it is visible from all the water and islands.
And from the southeastern part of the Gulf of Georgia. It is for this region a natural and important landmark, edmund Thomas Coleman, an Englishman who resided in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada and a veteran of the Alps, made the first attempt to ascend the mountain in 1866. He chose a route via the Skagit River, but was forced to back when local Native Americans refused him passage
A splitboard is a snowboard that can be separated into two ski-like parts used with climbing skins to ascend slopes the same way alpine touring or telemark skis are. The two halves can be connected to form a regular snowboard for descent, when snowboarding originated, it was often prohibited on pistes. Early snowboarders sought out pristine snow conditions as a necessity, the development of splitboards has simplified backcountry snowboarding where pristine powder snow is more likely to be found. Splitboards address the inherent weakness of snowboards of having limited backcountry range away from lift systems and this weakness stems from snowboard riders having both feet fixed to a board, so a standard snowboard cant climb up hills the way skiers can. Splitboarding started in the mid-1990s and has grown in popularity, in 1991, Brett Cowboy Kobenik brought a crude prototype of the first splitboard to Mark Wally Wariakois, the founder of Voile. At the time Wally was intensely focused on innovating new backcountry ski and telemark binding designs, over the next few years and Wally refined this idea and in 1994 released the first DIY Voile Split Kit.
This was the beginning of the splitboard revolution, for the first time riders had a truly innovative and easier way to access backcountry powder. Some companies have begun making splitboard specific bindings and these bindings are designed to reduce the weight associated with the adapter plate/standard binding combination. The reduced weight increases the range and duration of extended uphill climbs, the bindings lower foot bed increases board feel. DIY Kits & Boards How a Splitboard Works on YouTube splitboard. com SplitboardReviews. com splitboarding. eu / German and English Team SPLIT Splitboard Tirol - Splitboard and Freeride Community
Science, widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the worlds top academic journals. It was first published in 1880, is circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve an audience, its estimated readership is 570,400 people. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a field, Science. According to the Journal Citation Reports, Sciences 2015 impact factor was 34.661, although it is the journal of the AAAS, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in Science. Papers are accepted from authors around the world, competition to publish in Science is very intense, as an article published in such a highly cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 7% of articles submitted are accepted for publication, Science is based in Washington, D. C. United States, with an office in Cambridge, England.
Science was founded by New York journalist John Michels in 1880 with financial support from Thomas Edison, the journal never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Entomologist Samuel H. Scudder resurrected the journal one year and had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, however, by 1894, Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500. In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, after Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS. After Cattells death in 1944, the journal lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShanes leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly, physicist Philip Abelson, a co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency of the process was improved and the publication practices were brought up to date.
During this time, papers on the Apollo program missions and some of the earliest reports on AIDS were published, biochemist Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. served as editor from 1985 until 1995. From 1995 until 2000, neuroscientist Floyd E. Bloom held that position, biologist Donald Kennedy became the editor of Science in 2000. Biochemist Bruce Alberts took his place in March 2008, geophysicist Marcia McNutt became editor-in-chief in June 2013. During her tenure the family of journals expanded to include Science Robotics and Science Immunology, jeremy M. Berg became editor-in-chief on July 1,2016
Greenland ice sheet
The Greenland ice sheet is a vast body of ice covering 1,710,000 square kilometres, roughly 80% of the surface of Greenland. It is the second largest ice body in the world, after the Antarctic ice sheet, the ice sheet is almost 2,400 kilometres long in a north-south direction, and its greatest width is 1,100 kilometres at a latitude of 77°N, near its northern margin. The mean altitude of the ice is 2,135 metres, the thickness is generally more than 2 km and over 3 km at its thickest point. It is not the only ice mass of Greenland – isolated glaciers, if the entire 2,850,000 cubic kilometres of ice were to melt, it would lead to a global sea level rise of 7.2 m. The Greenland Ice Sheet is sometimes referred to under the term inland ice, or its Danish equivalent and it is sometimes referred to as an ice cap. From about 11 million years ago to 10 million years ago, the Greenland Ice Sheet formed in the middle Miocene by coalescence of ice caps and glaciers. There was an intensification of glaciation during the Late Pliocene, Ice sheet formation occurred in connection to uplift of the West Greenland and East Greenland uplands.
The Western and Easter Greenland mountains constitute passive continental margins that were uplifted in two phases,10 and 5 million years ago, in the Miocene epoch, computer modelling shows that the uplift would have enabled glaciation by producing increased orographic precipitation and cooling the surface temperatures. The oldest known ice in the current ice sheet is as old as 110,000 years, if the ice suddenly disappeared, Greenland would most probably appear as an archipelago, at least until isostasy lifted the land surface above sea level once again. The ice surface reaches its greatest altitude on two elongated domes, or ridges. The southern dome reaches almost 3,000 metres at latitudes 63°–65°N, the crests of both domes are displaced east of the centre line of Greenland. The unconfined ice sheet does not reach the sea along a broad front anywhere in Greenland, the ice margin just reaches the sea, however, in a region of irregular topography in the area of Melville Bay southeast of Thule.
The best known of these outlet glaciers is Jakobshavn Glacier, which, at its terminus, on the ice sheet, temperatures are generally substantially lower than elsewhere in Greenland. The lowest mean annual temperatures, about −31 °C, occur on the part of the north dome. During winter, the ice sheet takes on a clear blue/green color, during summer, the top layer of ice melts leaving pockets of air in the ice that makes it look white. The ice sheet, consisting of layers of compressed snow from more than 100,000 years, in the past decades, scientists have drilled ice cores up to 4 kilometres deep. This variety of climatic proxies is greater than in any other natural recorder of climate, many scientists who study the ice melt in Greenland consider that a two or three °C temperature rise would result in a complete melting of Greenland’s ice. Positioned in the Arctic, the Greenland ice sheet is especially vulnerable to climate change, Arctic climate is believed to be now rapidly warming and much larger Arctic shrinkage changes are projected
An arch is a curved structure that spans a space and may or may not support weight above it. Arch may be synonymous with vault, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof, an arch is a pure compression form. It can span an area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and. This is sometimes referred to as arch action, as the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases, in order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments. The most common true arch configurations are the arch, the two-hinged arch. The fixed arch is most often used in reinforced concrete bridge and tunnel construction, because it is subject to additional internal stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction, this type of arch is considered to be statically indeterminate.
The two-hinged arch is most often used to long spans. This type of arch has pinned connections at the base, unlike the fixed arch, the pinned base is able to rotate, allowing the structure to move freely and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature. However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is statically indeterminate, the three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well. The additional connection at the mid-span allows the arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction. This type of arch is not subject to additional stress caused by thermal change. The three-hinged arch is said to be statically determinate. It is most often used for structures, such as large building roofs. Another advantage of the arch is that the pinned bases are more easily developed than fixed ones, allowing for shallow. Arches have many forms, but all fall into three categories, circular and parabolic.
Arches can be configured to produce vaults and arcades, Arches with a circular form, referred to as rounded arches, were commonly employed by the builders of ancient, heavy masonry arches. Ancient Roman builders relied heavily on the arch to span large
The Gorner Glacier is a valley glacier found on the west side of the Monte Rosa massif close to Zermatt in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. It is about 12.4 km long and 1 to 1.5 km wide, the entire glacial area of the glacier related to Gorner Glacier is 57 km2, which makes it the second largest glacial system in the Alps after the Aletsch Glacier system. Numerous smaller glaciers connect with the Gorner Glacier and its tributaries are, Monte Rosa Gletscher, Zwillingsgletscher, Schwärzegletscher, Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher. The Grenzgletscher between the central Monte Rosa massif and the Liskamm to the south is nowadays by far the lower Gorner Glaciers main tributary, the Gorner Glaciers upper part is almost already disconnected from its lower part. Also the former tributaries Breithorngletscher and Unterer Theodulgletscher left their connections to the Gorner Glacier during the last century, the Lower Theodul Glacier in the 1980s. An interesting feature of this glacier is the Gornersee, an ice marginal lake at the area of the Gorner-.
This lake fills every year and drains in summer, usually as a Glacial lake outburst flood and this is one of few glacial lakes in the Alps exhibiting this kind of behaviour. There are several interesting features including crevasses and table top forms where large surface boulders have been left stranded above the glaciers surface. Supported by ice that the boulder has sheltered from melting that has effected the more exposed surrounding ice, due to the immense information about the glacier, it is perfect for a glacier project. It is the source of the river Gornera which flows down through Zermatt itself, most of its water gets captured by a water catchment station of the Grande Dixence hydroelectric power plant. This water ends up in the Lac des Dix, the reservoir of Grande Dixence. The glacier as well as the mountains can be seen from the Gornergrat. Like almost all glaciers in the Alps, and most glaciers on the globe as well. And in a dramatic way. Nowadays, Gorner Glacier retreats with about 30 metres every year, since its last major expansion in 1859 it lost more than 2,500 metres in distance.
However, the upper Gorner Glacier traditionally is to be found on the north side, the reason is that the upper part of the Gorner Glacier is currently losing contact with its lower part and now the Grenzgletscher has become its much larger tributary. So it is easy to mismatch the Border Glacier as the upper Gorner Glacier, but this was not the case in earlier times, as the following comparison impressively shows, List of glaciers in Switzerland Gorner Glacier glaciology. ethz. ch Gorner Glacier swisseduc. ch