Garnedd Ugain referred to as "Crib-y-Ddysgl", is a mountain in Wales that forms part of the Snowdon Massif. It is the second highest peak in Wales, lies just under one kilometre north of the summit of Snowdon itself, it is part of the Snowdon Horseshoe route, being linked to Crib Goch via the col at Bwlch Coch, to Snowdon summit via the col at Bwlch Glas. It is linked to Cwm Glas to the northeast via a steep arete called Clogwyn y Person, which joins the main Crib y Ddysgl ridge about 500m east of the summit. Both Garnedd Ugain and Crib-y-Ddysgl appear on the Ordnance Survey's maps of the area; the name Crib-y-Ddysgl refers to the east ridge whilst the summit is Carnedd Ugain. Crib-y-Ddysgl is the name used by Alan Dawson for the peak's listing as a Hewitt. Carnedd Ugain in Welsh means "Cairn of the Twenty"; this was named after the Roman legion based in Caernarfon. The web pages of the Welsh Mountaineering Club suggest that the name could be a corruption of "Carnedd Wgon", so named after the prince Wgon sung of by Dafydd ap Gwilym or after the 13th-century poet Gwgon Brydydd
Snowdonia is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of 823 square miles in area. It was the first to be designated of the three national parks in Wales, in 1951, it contains the highest peaks in the United Kingdom outside of Scotland. The English name for the area derives from Snowdon, the highest mountain in Wales at 3560 ft. In Welsh, the area is named Eryri. A held belief is that the name is derived from eryr, thus means'the abode/land of eagles', but recent evidence is that it means Highlands, is related to the Latin oriri as leading Welsh scholar Sir Ifor Williams proved; the term Eryri first appeared in a manuscript in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, in an account of the downfall of the semi-legendary 5th-century king Gwrtheyrn. In the Middle Ages the title Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdonia was used by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. Before the boundaries of the national park were designated, "Snowdonia" was used to refer to a smaller area, namely the upland area of northern Gwynedd centred on the Snowdon massif, whereas the national park covers an area more than twice that size extending far to the south into Meirionnydd.
This is apparent in books published prior to 1951, such as the classic travelogue Wild Wales by George Borrow and The Mountains of Snowdonia by H. Carr & G. Lister. F. J. North, as editor of the book Snowdonia, states "When the Committee delineated provisional boundaries, they included areas some distance beyond Snowdonia proper." The traditional Snowdonia thus includes the ranges of Snowdon and its satellites, the Glyderau, the Carneddau and the Moel Siabod group. It does not include the hills to the south of Maentwrog; as Eryri, this area has a unique place in Welsh history and culture. Snowdonia National Park was established in 1951 as the third national park in Britain, following the Peak District and the Lake District, it covers 827 square miles, has 37 miles of coastline. The Snowdonia National Park covers parts of the counties of Conwy; the park is governed by the Snowdonia National Park Authority, made up of local government and Welsh representatives, its main offices are at Penrhyndeudraeth.
Unlike national parks in other countries, Snowdonia are made up of both public and private lands under central planning authority. The makeup of land ownership at Snowdonia is as follows: More than 26,000 people live within the park. 58.6% of the population could speak Welsh in 2011. While most of the land is either open or mountainous land, there is a significant amount of agricultural activity within the park. Since the local government re-organisation of 1998, the park lies in the county of Gwynedd, in the county borough of Conwy, it is governed by the 18-member Snowdonia National Park Authority. Unusually, Snowdonia National Park has a hole in the middle, around the town of Blaenau Ffestiniog, a slate quarrying centre; this was deliberately excluded from the park when it was set up to allow the development of new light industry to replace the reduced slate industry. The Snowdonia Society is a registered charity formed in 1967, it is a voluntary group of people with an interest in its protection.
Amory Lovins led the successful 1970s opposition to stop Rio Tinto digging up the area for a massive mine. Research indicates that there were 3.67 million visitors to Snowdonia National Park in 2013, with 9.74 million tourist days spent in the park during that year. Total tourist expenditure was £433.6 million in 2013. Snowdonia may be divided into four areas: The northernmost area is the most popular with tourists, includes Moel Hebog, Mynydd Mawr and the Nantlle Ridge; these last three groups are the highest mountains in Wales, include all Wales' mountains higher than 3000 feet. The second area includes peaks such as Moel Siabod, the Moelwynion, the mountains around Blaenau Ffestiniog; the third area includes the Rhinogydd in the west as well as the Arenig and the Migneint, Rhobell Fawr. This area is not as popular with tourists as the other areas, due to its remoteness; the southernmost area includes Cadair Idris, the Tarren range, the Dyfi hills, the Aran group, including Aran Fawddwy, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom south of Snowdon.
The Berwyn range to the south east, has the western part of it in the park, but the highest summits to the east have been omitted. Many of the hikers in the area concentrate on Snowdon itself, it is regarded as a fine mountain, but at times gets crowded. The other high mountains with their boulder-strewn summits—as well as Tryfan, one of the few mountains in the UK south of Scotland whose ascent needs hands as well as feet—are very popular. However, there are some spectacular walks in Snowdonia on the lower mountains, they tend to be unfrequented. Among hikers' favourites are Y Garn along the ridge to Elidir Fawr.
National parks of England and Wales
The national parks of England and Wales are areas of undeveloped and scenic landscape that are designated under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Despite their similar name, national parks in England and Wales are quite different from national parks in many other countries, which are owned and managed by the government as a protected community resource, which do not include permanent human communities. In England and Wales, designation as a national park may include substantial settlements and human land uses which are integral parts of the landscape, land within a national park remains in private ownership. There are thirteen national parks in England and Wales; each park is operated by its own national park authority, with two "statutory purposes": to conserve and enhance the natural beauty and cultural heritage of the area, to promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the park's special qualities by the public. When national parks carry out these purposes they have the duty to: seek to foster the economic and social well-being of local communities within the national parks.
An estimated 110 million people visit the national parks of Wales each year. Recreation and tourism bring visitors and funds into the parks, to sustain their conservation efforts and support the local population through jobs and businesses; these visitors bring problems, such as erosion and traffic congestion, conflicts over the use of the parks' resources. Access to cultivated land is restricted to bridleways, public footpaths, permissive paths, with most uncultivated areas in England and Wales having right of access for walking under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. Archaeological evidence from prehistoric Britain shows that the areas now designated as national parks have been occupied by humans since the Stone Age, at least 5,000 years ago and in some cases much earlier. Before the 19th century wild, remote areas were seen as uncivilised and dangerous. In 1725 Daniel Defoe described the High Peak as "the most desolate and abandoned country in all England". However, by the early 19th century, romantic poets such as Byron and Wordsworth wrote about the inspirational beauty of the "untamed" countryside.
Wordsworth described the English Lake District as a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy" in 1810. This early vision, based in the Picturesque movement, took over a century, much controversy, to take legal form in the UK with the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949; the idea for a form of national parks was first proposed in the United States in the 1860s, where national parks were established to protect wilderness areas such as Yosemite. This model has been used in many other countries since, but not in the United Kingdom. After thousands of years of human integration into the landscape, Britain lacks any substantial areas of wilderness. Furthermore, those areas of natural beauty so cherished by the romantic poets were only maintained and managed in their existing state by human activity agriculture. By the early 1930s, increasing public interest in the countryside, coupled with the growing and newly mobile urban population, was generating increasing friction between those seeking access to the countryside and landowners.
Alongside of direct action trespasses, such as the mass trespass of Kinder Scout, several voluntary bodies took up the cause of public access in the political arena. In 1931, Christopher Addison chaired a government committee that proposed a'National Park Authority' to choose areas for designation as national parks. A system of national reserves and nature sanctuaries was proposed: " to safeguard areas of exceptional natural interest against disorderly development and spoliation; the voluntary Standing Committee on National Parks first met on 26 May 1936 to put the case to the government for national parks in the UK. After World War II, the Labour Party proposed the establishment of national parks as part of the post-war reconstruction of the UK. A report by John Dower, secretary of the Standing Committee on National Parks, to the Minister of Town and Country Planning in 1945 was followed in 1947 by a Government committee, this time chaired by Sir Arthur Hobhouse, which prepared legislation for national parks, proposed twelve national parks.
Sir Arthur had this to say on the criteria for designating suitable areas: The essential requirements of a National Park are that it should have great natural beauty, a high value for open-air recreation and substantial continuous extent. Further, the distribution of selected areas should as far as practicable be such that at least one of them is accessible from each of the main centres of population in England and Wales. Lastly there is merit in variety and with the wide diversity of landscape, available in England and Wales, it would be wrong to confine the selection of National Parks to the more rugged areas of mountain and moorland, to exclude other districts which, though of less outstanding grandeur and wildness, have their own distinctive beauty and a high recreational value; the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 was passed with all party support. The first ten national parks were designated as such in the 1950s under the Act in poor-quality agricultural upland. Much of the land was
Elidir Fawr is a mountain in Snowdonia, north Wales, the northernmost peak in the Glyderau. To the north of the summit is a small lake, Marchlyn Mawr, the upper reservoir for Dinorwig power station, a pump-storage power station hidden inside the mountain. Water from this lake flows through huge tunnels into the lower reservoir Llyn Peris. From the north, Elidir Fawr is prominent, can appear to be higher than the higher mountains behind it. From Llanberis, the mountain is dominated by the former Dinorwic slate quarries and the waste they have left behind, it is a reasonably short, but steep walk up to the summit, this can be undertaken from the Deiniolen side or from Nant Peris. The Deiniolen walk provides views down to Llanberis, while the Nant Peris approach is short and quite steep; the summit can be reached from Ogwen Cottage via a traverse of Y Garn and Foel-goch. The route makes its way around the headwall of Cwm Dudodyn to Bwlch y Brecan and up to the rocky summit of Elidir Fawr. Walks to the summit www.geograph.co.uk: photos of and from Elidir Fawr
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Llyn Llydaw is a natural lake in Snowdonia National Park on the flanks of Snowdon, Wales' highest mountain. This long thin lake has formed in a cwm about one-third of the way up the mountain, its special significance is. Thousands of people every year visit Snowdon and many walk past this lake on the Miners' Track. Llyn Llydaw is the largest of the three lakes on Snowdon's eastern flank. Higher up lies Glaslyn, lower down lies Llyn Teyrn; the lake featured in Robson Green's Wild Swimming Adventure, chosen because it is the coldest lake in Britain. Green's website states that the water was 7 degrees Celsius, but other Welsh lakes are colder than this. Www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Llyn Llydaw and surrounding area
Manchester Evening News
The Manchester Evening News is a regional daily newspaper covering Greater Manchester in North West England. Founded in 1868, the paper is published Monday–Saturday; the newspaper is owned by Reach one of Britain's largest newspaper publishing groups. Since adopting a'digital-first' strategy in 2014, the publication has experienced huge online growth, while its average print daily circulation for the first half of 2018 was 36,715. In the 2018 British Regional Press Awards, it was named Newspaper of the Year and Website of the Year; the Manchester Evening News was first published on 10 October 1868 by Mitchell Henry as part of his Parliamentary election campaign, with its first issue four pages long and costing a halfpenny. The newspaper was ran from a small office on Brown Street, with a dozen staff. Upon the newspaper's launch, Henry said: "In putting ourselves into print, we have no apology to offer, but the assurance of an honest aim to serve the public interest." Henry's quote is displayed on the entrance wall to the newspaper's modern offices.
With his Parliamentary bid unsuccessful, Henry lost interest in the business, selling the publication to John Edward Taylor Jr. the son of newspaper proprietor John Edward Taylor, founder of the Manchester Guardian. The newspaper became the evening counterpart and sister title to The Manchester Guardian and the two titles began sharing an office, located on Cross Street, from 1879. Taylor brought his brother-in-law Peter Allen in as a partner in the Manchester Evening News and, after Taylor's death in 1907, the Guardian was sold to its editor C. P. Scott while the Evening News passed into the hands of the Allen family. In 1924, C. P. Scott's son John Russell Scott reunited the papers, buying out the Manchester Evening News and forming The Manchester Guardian and Evening News Ltd, which in turn became the Guardian Media Group. In 1936, John Russell Scott formed the Scott Trust in order to protect the company from death duties, following the deaths of his father and younger brother Ted in close succession.
The contents of the original deeds were not disclosed by the company, but a copy obtained by The Independent revealed the terms compelled trustees to "use their best endeavours to procure that the Manchester Guardian and Manchester Evening News shall be carried on as nearly as may be upon the same principles as they have heretofore."During the editorship of William Haley in the 1930s, the newspaper's circulation grew to over 200,000. By 1939 the publication was the largest provincial evening newspaper in the country; the newspaper was a cash cow for its parent company and kept its stablemate The Manchester Guardian afloat. The financial success of the Manchester Evening News was reflected in Haley's salary, greater than John Scott's, with Scott himself acknowledging, "after all, you make the money we spend."In 1961, The Manchester Guardian and Evening News Ltd bought out the Manchester Evening News's ailing rival, the Manchester Evening Chronicle, two years merged the papers. Following this, the Manchester Evening News's circulation increased to over 480,000.
In December 2009, GMG confirmed it had held "exploratory talks" about selling the Manchester Evening News, following a report by The Daily Telegraph which named Trinity Mirror as a potential buyer and claimed the "disposal would amount to a fire sale" due to the current value of the business. The title estimated the Manchester Evening News alone to be worth about £200m prior to the collapse in newspaper advertising. In February 2010, the Manchester Evening News was sold along with GMG's 31 other regional titles to Trinity Mirror, severing the historic link between The Guardian and the Manchester Evening News; the sale was valued at £44.8m – £7.4m in cash and the remainder from GMG extricating itself from a £37.4m decade-long contract with Trinity Mirror to print its regional titles. The sale of GMG's regional arm was negotiated to offset company losses, with The Guardian and its Sunday title Observer accruing losses of £100,000 a day; the sale was described by stockbrokers Numis as "the deal of the decade" for Sly Bailey, Trinity Mirror's chief executive, while The Guardian's Steve Busfield said the sale was indicative of the declining business value of regional media, comparing the sale to that of Johnston Press's acquisition of 53 regional titles including The Yorkshire Post eight years earlier, for £560m.
In the year prior to the newspaper's sale, GMG had reduced the number of journalists at the newspaper to 50. Judy Gordon, the National Union of Journalists mother of the chapel, said: "The Guardian has not got any money of its own, it has only got. We've made all those changes to stem the fact, they ask:'How much can you give us now? Nothing? OK, Bye.'"The Manchester Evening News headquarters were relocated from Scott Place in the Spinningfields area of Manchester city centre to an existing Trinity Mirror plant in Chadderton, where other Trinity Mirror titles in North West England are printed. In 2013, the title surpassed 10 million monthly online readers for the first time, recording 10,613,119 visitors. Despite its "evening" title, the newspaper began publication of a morning edition in November 2004, a controversial move which brought union members to the brink of strike action over new work rotas. For years the paper was famous for its "Football Green" edition. After the MEN merged with the rival Manchester Evening Chronicle in the 1960s, its more popular "Sporting Pink" was adopted as the "Football Pink".