British Standards are the standards produced by the BSI Group, incorporated under a Royal Charter. The BSI Group produces British Standards under the authority of the Charter, which lays down as one of the BSI's objectives to: Set up standards of quality for goods and services, prepare and promote the general adoption of British Standards and schedules in connection therewith and from time to time to revise and amend such standards and schedules as experience and circumstances require Formally, as per the 2002 Memorandum of Understanding between the BSI and the United Kingdom Government, British Standards are defined as: "British Standards" means formal consensus standards as set out in BS 0-1 paragraph 3.2 and based upon the principles of standardisation recognised inter alia in European standardisation policy. Products and services which BSI certifies as having met the requirements of specific standards within designated schemes are awarded the Kitemark; the BSI Group as a whole does not produce British Standards, as standards work within the BSI is decentralized.
The governing Board of BSI establishes a Standards Board. The Standards Board does little apart from setting up Sector Boards; each Sector Board in turn constitutes several Technical Committees. It is the Technical Committees that, approve a British Standard, presented to the Secretary of the supervisory Sector Board for endorsement of the fact that the Technical Committee has indeed completed a task for which it was constituted; the standards produced are titled British Standard XXXX:YYYY where XXXX is the number of the standard, P is the number of the part of the standard and YYYY is the year in which the standard came into effect. BSI Group has over 27,000 active standards. Products are specified as meeting a particular British Standard, in general this can be done without any certification or independent testing; the standard provides a shorthand way of claiming that certain specifications are met, while encouraging manufacturers to adhere to a common method for such a specification. The Kitemark can be used to indicate certification by BSI, but only where a Kitemark scheme has been set up around a particular standard.
It is applicable to safety and quality management standards. There is a common misunderstanding that Kitemarks are necessary to prove compliance with any BS standard, but in general it is neither desirable nor possible that every standard be'policed' in this way. Following the move on harmonisation of the standard in Europe, some British Standards are superseded or replaced by the relevant European Standards. Standards are continuously reviewed and developed and are periodically allocated one or more of the following status keywords. Confirmed - the standard has been reviewed and confirmed as being current. Current - the document is the current, most published one available. Draft for public comment/DPC - a national stage in the development of a standard, where wider consultation is sought within the UK. Obsolescent - indicating by amendment that the standard is not recommended for use for new equipment, but needs to be retained to provide for the servicing of equipment, expected to have a long working life, or due to legislative issues.
Replaced - the standard has been replaced by one or more other standards. Proposed for confirmation - the standard is being reviewed and it has been proposed that it is confirmed as the current standard. Proposed for obsolescence - the standard is being reviewed and it has been proposed that it is made obsolescent. Proposed for withdrawal - the standard is being reviewed and it has been proposed that it is withdrawn. Revised - the standard has been revised. Superseded - the standard has been replaced by one or more other standards. Under review - the standard is under review. Withdrawn - the document is no longer current and has been withdrawn. Work in hand - there is work being undertaken on the standard and there may be a related draft for public comment available. BSI Group began in 1901 as the Engineering Standards Committee, led by James Mansergh, to standardise the number and type of steel sections, in order to make British manufacturers more efficient and competitive. Over time the standards developed to cover many aspects of tangible engineering, engineering methodologies including quality systems and security.
BS 0 A standard for standards specifies Development and Drafting of British Standards themselves. BS 1 Lists of Rolled Sections for Structural Purposes BS 2 Specification and Sections of Tramway Rails and Fishplates BS 3 Report on Influence of Gauge Length and Section of Test Bar on the Percentage of Elongation BS 4 Specification for Structural Steel Sections BS 5 Report on Locomotives for Indian Railways BS 7 Dimensions of Copper Conductors Insulated Annealed, for Electric Power and Light BS 11 Specifications and Sections of Flat Bottom Railway Rails BS 12 Specification for Portland Cement BS 15 Specification for Structural Steel for Bridges, etc. and General Building Construction BS 16 Specification for telegraph material BS 17 Interim Report on Electrical Machinery BS 22 Report on Effect of Temperature on Insulating Materials BS 24 Specifications for Material used in the Construction of Standards for Railway Rolling Stock BS 26 Second Report on Locomotives for Indian Railways BS 27 Report on Standard Systems of Limit Gauges for Running Fits BS 28 Report on Nuts, Bolt Heads and Spann
2015 Cricket World Cup
The 2015 Cricket World Cup was the 11th Cricket World Cup, jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand from 14 February to 29 March 2015. Australia defeated New Zealand by 7 wickets to win their fifth ICC Cricket World Cup. Fourteen teams played 49 matches in 14 venues, with Australia staging 26 games at grounds in Adelaide, Canberra, Melbourne and Sydney while New Zealand hosted 23 games in Auckland, Dunedin, Napier and Wellington; the hosting rights were awarded at the same time as those of the 2011 Cricket World Cup, which Australia and New Zealand had bid to host, the 2019 Cricket World Cup, awarded to England. The 2011 tournament was awarded to the four Asian Test cricket playing countries: India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh; the International Cricket Council were sufficiently impressed with the trans-Tasman bid that it was decided to award the next World Cup to Australia and New Zealand. This was the second time the tournament was held in Australia and New Zealand, with the first being the 1992 Cricket World Cup.
India were the defending champions, having won the tournament in 2011. Tickets for the Pool B match between India and Pakistan, played on 15 February 2015 sold out within 12 minutes of going on sale; the final match of the tournament took place at the Melbourne Cricket Ground between co-hosts New Zealand and Australia in front of a record crowd of 93,013 while the average attendance throughout the tournament was 21,175 resulting from the cumulative tournament attendance of 1,016,420 and a washed out game between Australia and Bangladesh in Brisbane for which no attendance-figures were available. The 2015 Cricket World Cup is estimated to have been watched by over 1.5 billion people. The most watched match during the tournament was India vs. Pakistan, estimated to have drawn over 1 billion viewers; the ICC announced the hosts for the previous World Cup, the 2011 competition, on 30 April 2006. Australia and New Zealand had bid for the tournament and a successful Australasian bid for the 2011 World Cup would have seen a 50–50 split in games, with the final still up for negotiation.
The Trans-Tasman bid, Beyond Boundaries, was the only bid for 2011 delivered to the ICC headquarters at Dubai before 1 March deadline. Considerable merits of the bid included the superior venues and infrastructure, the total support of the Australian and New Zealand governments on tax and custom issues during the tournament, according to Cricket Australia chief executive James Sutherland; the New Zealand government had assured that the Zimbabwean team would be allowed to take part in the tournament after political discussions about whether their team would be allowed to tour Zimbabwe in 2005. ICC President Ehsan Mani said that the extra time required by the Asian bloc to hand over its bid had harmed the four-nation bid. However, when it came to the voting, the Asians won by seven votes to four, it was reported in Pakistani newspaper Dawn that the Asian countries promised to hold fundraising events for West Indian cricket during the 2007 Cricket World Cup, which may have influenced the vote.
However, I. S. Bindra, chairman of the monitoring committee of the Asian bid, denied that, saying that it was their promise of extra profits of US$400 million that swung the vote their way; the ICC was so impressed by the efficiency of the Trans-Tasman bid that they decided to award the next World Cup, to be held in 2015, to them. Australia and New Zealand last jointly hosted the Cricket World Cup in 1992; the tournament featured 14 teams, the same number as the 2011 World Cup, giving associate and affiliate member nations a chance to participate. The format was the same as the 2011 edition: 14 teams take part in the initial stages, divided into two groups of seven. On 29 January 2015, ICC reinstated the use of the Super Over for Cricket World Cup Final match if the match finished as a tie. Per ICC regulations, the 10 ICC full member nations qualify for the tournament automatically. After the 2011 World Cup, it was decided that the next tournament would be reduced to only feature the 10 full members.
This was met with heavy criticism from a number of associate nations from the Ireland cricket team, who had performed well in 2007 and 2011, including victories over Pakistan and England, both full member nations. Following support shown by the ICC Cricket Committee for a qualification process, the ICC retracted their decision in June 2011 and decided that 14 teams would participate in the 2015 World Cup, including four associate or affiliate member nations. At the ICC Chief Executives' Committee meeting in September 2011, the ICC decided on a new qualifying format; the top two teams of the 2011–13 ICC World Cricket League Championship qualify directly. The remaining six teams join the third and fourth-placed teams of 2011 ICC World Cricket League Division Two and the top two teams of 2013 ICC World Cricket League Division Three in a 10-team World Cup Qualifier to decide the remaining two places. On 9 July 2013, as a result of a tied match against the Netherlands, Ireland became the first country to qualify for the 2015 World Cup.
On 4 October 2013, Afghanistan qualified for their first Cricket World Cup after beating Kenya to finish in second place behind Ireland. Scotland defeated the United Arab Emirates in the final of the 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier and both teams qualified for the last two s
In the sport of cricket, ball tampering is an action in which a fielder illegally alters the condition of the ball. The primary motivation of ball tampering is to interfere with the aerodynamics of the ball to aid swing bowling. Under Law 41, subsection 3 of the Laws of Cricket, the ball may be polished without the use of an artificial substance, may be dried with a towel if it is wet, have mud removed from it under supervision; these are taken to include rubbing the ball on the ground, scuffing with a fingernail or other sharp object, or tampering with the seam of the ball. The purpose of altering the state of the ball is to achieve more favourable bowling conditions. Examples of ball tampering would include a fielder applying a substance, such as lip balm or sweetened saliva, to shine one side of the ball or pick the seam of the ball to encourage more swing. Conversely, roughening one side of the ball by use of an abrasive or cutting surface is ball tampering. Using spit and/or sweat is common and, for practitioners of swing bowling, integral.
The moisture gained from spit or sweat when combined with polishing, smooths out one half of the ball which in turn allows air to pass over one side of the ball more than over the other. When bowled a bowler can get the ball to move from one side to the other through the air, it is common for bowlers to rub the ball against their clothing to dry or polish it, as seen in most cricket matches. The umpires are responsible for monitoring the condition of the ball, must inspect it regularly. Where an umpire has deemed a player to be guilty of ball tampering, five penalty runs are awarded to the other side, and, if desired by the opposing captain, the ball is replaced; the replacement ball is chosen by the umpires, should match the condition of the previous ball as as possible. Depending on additional agreements laid out before the beginning of a series of matches, the team may instead be permitted to choose the ball from a selection of balls in various stages of use. If a bowler is found to be guilty of repeated ball tampering he can be prohibited from continuing to bowl in that innings.
Following the conclusion of play, additional sanctions are brought against a ball tamperer, as it is considered a serious offence. The captain may be penalised, if he is responsible for the conduct of his players on the field; the use of foreign substances to polish the ball, while illegal, is in some corners considered to be common, passes without incident or sanction. Substances which have been used for this purpose include hair gel and lip balm. In addition, picking at the threads of the main seam or'lifting' the quarter seam to aid conventional and reverse swing are considered illegal. Modifying the quarter seam can be difficult to detect or prove. However, there have been a number of high-profile instances of alleged ball tampering in international cricket due to the increase in television coverage. In the "dirt in pocket" affair England captain Michael Atherton was accused of ball tampering during a Test match with South Africa at Lord's in 1994, after television cameras caught Atherton reaching into his pocket and rubbing a substance on the ball.
Atherton denied ball tampering, claiming that he had dirt in his pocket which he used to dry his hands. He was accused of lying to the match referee. Atherton was summoned to the match referee and was fined £2,000 for failing to disclose the dirt to the match referee. Waqar Younis of Pakistan became the first player to receive a suspension for ball tampering after a match in July 2000, was fined 50% of his match fee. In the second Test match of India's 2001 tour of South Africa, at St George's Park, Port Elizabeth, match referee Mike Denness suspended Sachin Tendulkar for one game in light of alleged ball tampering. Television cameras picked up images that suggested Tendulkar was scuffing the seam of the cricket ball, though Tendulkar claimed he was just removing apiece of grass stuck in the seam of the ball; the incident escalated to include allegations of racism, led to Denness being barred from entering the venue of the third Test match. Subsequently, the International Cricket Council revoked the status of the match as a Test, as the teams rejected the appointed referee.
The charges against Tendulkar and Virender Sehwag's ban for excessive appealing triggered a massive backlash from the Indian public. The ICC cleared Tendulkar of ball tampering charges, though said he had cleaned the ball without the umpire's permission. Rahul Dravid of India rubbed a cough lozenge on the shiny side of the ball at The Gabba during an Australian Tri-Series match against Zimbabwe. India won the match, but footage emerged of Dravid tampering with the ball, he was fined 50% of his match fee. Marcus Trescothick admitted in his autobiography, Coming Back to Me, that he used mints to shine the ball to produce more swing: "It was my job to keep the shine on the new ball for as long as possible with a bit of spit and a lot of polish, and through trial and error I settled on the type of spit for the task at hand. It had been common knowledge in county cricket for some time that certain sweets produced saliva which, when applied to the ball for cleaning purposes, enabled it to keep its shine for longer and therefore its swing."
He found. The admission came 3 years after the conclusion of the 2005 Ashes series, in which England beat Australia 2–1. In 2006, an alleged ball-tampering issue oversha
The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, ended on December 31, 2009. The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world; the economic growth of the 2000s had considerable social and mass extinction consequences, raised demand for diminishing energy resources. Economic growth was still vulnerable, however, as demonstrated by the financial crisis of 2007–08. In the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted in the same manner as for decades such as the'80s, the'90s, etc. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the "2000s" or the "'00s". Common suggestions for referring to this decade: "2000s", "Two-thousands", "Twenty Hundreds", "Twenty-ohs", "00s", "the Noughties", "the Noughts", "the Aughts", "the Aughties", "the Oughties". Other suggestions from 45 countries suggest the "double nothings", "zilches", "oh-zone", "oh-something".
When the "20–" is dropped, the individual years within the decade are referred to as starting with an "oh", such as "oh-seven" to refer to the year 2007. During the decade of the 2000s, it was more common to hear years referred to starting with "two-thousand" rather than "twenty-oh". Starting around the middle of the 2010s, it became more common to refer to the individual years of the previous decade as "twenty-oh-seven" or "twenty-oh-eight" than it had been during the 2000s, although the "two thousand" pattern is still far more common; the War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001. The International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Hussein's rule as Iraqi President and the Ba'ath Party in Iraq. Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade; these acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, the Mumbai attacks related to al-Qaeda in 2008.
The European Union expanded its sanctions amid Iran's failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions. The War on Terror generated extreme controversy around the world, with questions regarding the justification for certain U. S. actions leading to a loss of support for the American government, both in and outside the United States. Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah with Israel and Hamas; the greatest loss of life due to natural disaster came from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which caused a tsunami that killed around one quarter-million people and displaced well over a million others. Cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property value came in 2005, when Hurricane Katrina flooded nearly the entire city of New Orleans.
The resulting political fallout was damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its perceived failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States and became the first African-American U. S. president when he succeeded Bush in 2009. The most prominent terrorist attacks committed against civilian population during the decade include: September 11 attacks in New York City. C.. S. and its allies as terrorist from posing a threat to the U. S. and its allies, by putting an end to state sponsorship of terrorism. The campaigns were launched by the United States, with support from NATO and other allies, following the September 11 attacks that were carried out by al-Qaeda. Today the term has become associated with Bush administration-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. War in Afghanistan – In 2001, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain and Australia invaded Afghanistan seeking to oust the Taliban and find al-Qaeda mastermind Osama bin Laden.
In 2011, the US government claimed Navy Seals had buried his body at sea. Fatalities of coalition troops: 1,553. Iraq War – In 2003, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain and Poland invaded and occupied Iraq. Claims that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction at its disposal were found to be unproven; the war, which ended the rule of Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party led to violence against the coalition forces and between many Sunni and Shia Iraqi groups, to al-Qaeda operations in Iraq. Casualties of the Iraq War: Approximately 110,600 between March 2003 to April 2009. Hussein was sentenced to death and hanged on December 30, 2006. Arab -- Israeli conflict 2006 Lebanon War -- took place in northern Israel; the principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli milita
Swing bowling is a technique used for bowling in the sport of cricket. Practitioners are known as swing bowlers. Swing bowling is classed as a subtype of fast bowling; the essence of swing bowling is to get the cricket ball to deviate sideways as it moves through the air towards or away from the batsman. To do this, the bowler makes use of six factors: The raised seam of the cricket ball The angle of the seam to the direction of travel The wear and tear on the ball The polishing liquid used on the ball The speed of the delivery The bowler's actionThe asymmetry of the ball is encouraged by the constant polishing of one side of the ball by members of the fielding team, while allowing the opposite side to deteriorate through wear and tear. With time, this produces a marked difference in the aerodynamic properties of the two sides. Both turbulent and laminar airflow contribute to swing. Air in laminar flow separates from the surface of the ball earlier than air in turbulent flow, so that the separation point moves toward the front of the ball on the laminar side.
On the turbulent flow side it remains towards the back, inducing a greater lift force on the turbulent airflow side of the ball. The calculated net lift force is not enough to account. Additional force is provided by the pressure-gradient force. To induce the pressure-gradient force the bowler must create regions of high and low static pressure on opposing sides of the ball; the ball is "sucked" from the region of high static pressure towards the region of low static pressure. The Magnus effect uses the same force but by manipulating spin across the direction of motion. A layer of fluid, in this case air, will have a greater velocity when moving over another layer of fluid than it would have had if it had been moving over a solid, in this case the surface of the ball; the greater the velocity of the fluid, the lower its static pressure. When the ball is new the seam is used to create a layer of turbulent air on one side of the ball, by angling it to one side and spinning the ball along the seam.
This changes the separation points of the air with the ball. The next layer of air will have a greater velocity over the side with the turbulent air due to the greater air coverage and as there is a difference in air velocity, the static pressure of both sides of the ball are different and the ball is both'lifted' and'sucked' towards the turbulent airflow side of the ball; when the ball is older and there is an asymmetry in roughness the seam no longer causes the pressure difference, can reduce the swing of the ball. Air turbulence is no longer used to create separation point differences and therefore the lift and pressure differences. On the rough side of the ball there are pits in the ball's surface; these irregularities act in the same manner as the dimples of a golf ball: they trap the air, creating a layer of trapped air next to the rough side of the ball, which moves with the surface of the ball. The smooth side does not trap a layer of air; the next layer of air outward from the ball will have a greater velocity over the rough side, due to its contact with a layer of trapped air, rather than solid ball.
This lowers the static pressure relative to the shiny side. If the scratches and tears cover the rough side of the ball, the separation point on the rough side will move to the back of the ball, further than that of the turbulent air, thereby creating more lift and faster air flow; this is. If the seam is used to create the turbulent air on the rough side, the tears will not fill as as they would with laminar flow, dampening the lift and pressure differences. Reverse swing occurs in the same manner as conventional swing, despite popular misconception. Over time the rough side becomes too rough and the tears become too deep – this is why golf ball dimples are never below a certain depth, so "conventional" swing weakens over time; when polishing the shiny side of the ball, numerous liquids are used, such as sweat, sunscreen, hair gel and other illegal substances like Vaseline. These liquids penetrate the porous surface of the leather ball. Over time the liquid expands and stretches the surface of the ball and creates raised bumps on the polished side, due to the non-uniform nature of the expansion.
The valleys between the bumps hold the air in the same manner as the tears on the rough side. This creates a layer of air over the shiny side, moving the separation point towards the back of the ball on the shiny side; the greater air coverage is now on the shiny side, giving rise to more lift and faster secondary airflow on that side. There is therefore lower static pressure on the shiny side, causing the ball to swing towards it, not away from it as in conventional swing; the rough side tears hold the air more than the shiny side valleys, so to maintain the air within the valleys the initial air layer must have a high velocity, why reverse swing is but not achieved by fast bowlers. Due to the less static nature of the initial air layer it takes longer for the swing to occur, why it occurs in the delivery; this is why reverse swing can occur in the same delivery. Cold and humid weather are said to enhance swing. Colder air is denser and so may affect the differential forces the ball experiences in flight.
When looking at humidity, changes between 0% and 40% humidity appear to ha
In cricket, an umpire is a person who has the authority to make decisions about events on the cricket field, according to the Laws of Cricket. Besides making decisions about legality of delivery, appeals for wickets and general conduct of the game in a legal manner, the umpire keeps a record of the deliveries and announces the completion of an over. A cricket umpire is not to be confused with the referee who presides only over international matches and makes no decisions affecting the outcome of the game. Traditionally, cricket matches have two umpires on the field, one standing at the end where the bowler delivers the ball, one directly opposite the facing batsman. However, in the modern game, there may be more than two umpires. Most Test matches are controlled by neutral members of the Elite Panel, with local members of the International Panel providing support in the third or fourth umpire roles. Members of the International Panel will officiate as neutral on-field umpires in Tests. Members of the three panels officiate in One Day Twenty20 International matches.
Professional matches have a match referee, who complements the role of the umpires. The match referee makes no decisions relevant to the outcome of the game, but instead enforces the ICC Cricket Code of Conduct, ensuring the game is played in a reputable manner; the ICC appoints a match referee from its Elite Panel of Referees to adjudicate Test matches and ODIs. Minor cricket matches will have trained umpires; the independent Association of Cricket Umpires and Scorers, formed in 1955, used to conduct umpire training within the UK. It however merged to form the ECB Association of Cricket Officials on 1 January 2008. A new structure of cricket umpiring and scoring qualifications has now been put into place and the ACO provides training and examinations for these. Cricket Australia has introduced a two-tier accreditation scheme and all umpires will be required to achieve the appropriate level of accreditation; the ages of umpires can vary enormously as some are former players, while others enter the cricketing world as umpires.
In accordance with the tradition of cricket, most ordinary, local games will have two umpires, one supplied by each side, who will enforce the accepted rules. When a ball is being bowled, one umpire stands behind the stumps at the non-striker's end, which gives him a view straight down the pitch; the second takes. Through long tradition, this is square leg – in line with the popping crease and a few yards to the batsman's leg side – hence he is sometimes known as the square leg umpire. However, if a fielder takes up position at square leg or somewhere so as to block his view, or if there is an injured batsman with a runner the umpire must move somewhere else – either a short distance or to point on the opposite side of the batsman. If the square-leg umpire elects to stand at point, he is required to inform both the batsmen, the captain of the fielding team, his colleague, he may move to the point position in the afternoon if the setting sun prevents a clear view of the popping crease at his end.
It is up to the umpires to keep out of the way of the players. In particular, if the ball is hit and the players attempt a run the umpire behind the stumps will retreat to the side, in case the fielding side attempts a run out at that end. At the end of each over, the two umpires will exchange roles; because the bowlers end alternates between overs, this means. For certain decisions during a match, the on-field umpire may refer to the Third Umpire if there is one appointed, who has access to television replays; the Third Umpire is most used in the case of run-outs, where the action is too fast for the naked eye but can be used to decide the cases of disputed boundaries and catches, when the umpires cannot decide if the ball has struck the ground before being caught. Third Umpire referrals for LBW dismissals was trialled in the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy in Sri Lanka, in the 2007 English Domestic Pro40 competition, is now in widespread use in international matches. During play, the umpire at the bowler's end makes the decisions, which he indicates using arm signals.
Some decisions must be instantaneous, whereas for others he may pause to think or discuss it with the square leg umpire if the latter may have had a better view. These decisions are signalled straight away. An umpire will not give a batsman out unless an appeal is made by the fielding side, though a batsman may walk if he knows himself to be out; this is nowadays rare in Tests and first-class matches for contentious decisions. If the fielding side believes a batsman is out, the fielding side must appeal, by asking the umpire to provide a ruling; the umpire'
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler. Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a specified biomechanical definition, which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a delivery. Bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled an over, a teammate will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch; the Laws of Cricket govern. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no-ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a proper cricket shot, the bowler's end umpire will rule it a wide. There are different types of bowlers, from fast bowlers, whose primary weapon is pace, through swing and seam bowlers who try to make the ball deviate in its course through the air or when it bounces, to slow bowlers, who will attempt to deceive the batsmen with a variety of flight and spin.
A spin bowler delivers the ball quite and puts spin on the ball, causing it to turn at an angle while bouncing off the pitch. In the early days of cricket, underarm bowling was the only method employed. Many theories exist about the origins of cricket. One suggests that the game began among shepherds hitting a stone or a ball of wool with their crooks and, at the same time, defending the wicket gate into the sheep-fold. A second theory suggests the name came from a low stool known as a'cricket' in England, which from the side looked like the long, low wicket used in the early days of the game. There is a reference to'criquet' in North-East France in 1478 and evidence that the game evolved in South-East England in the Middle Ages. In 1706 William Goldwyn published the first description of the game, he wrote that two teams were first seen carrying their curving bats to the venue, choosing a pitch and arguing over the rules to be played. They pitched two sets of wickets, each with a "milk-white" bail perched on two stumps.
They had four-ball overs, the umpires leant on their staves, the scorers sat on a mound making notches. The first written "Laws of Cricket" were drawn up in 1744, they stated, "the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches; the ball must be between 5 & 6 ounces, the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart". There were no limits on the size of the bat, it appears that 40 notches was viewed as a big score due to the bowlers bowling at shins unprotected by pads. The world's first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club was founded in 1787. During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground; this innovation gave bowlers the weapons of length, deception through the air, plus increased pace. It opened new possibilities for spin and swerve. In response, batters had to master shot selection.
One immediate consequence was the replacement of the curving bat with the straight one. All of this lessened the influence of rough ground and brute force, it was in the 1770s. The weight of the ball was limited to between five and a half and five and three-quarter ounces, the width of the bat to four inches; the latter ruling followed an innings by a batter called Thomas "Daddy" White, who appeared with a bat the width of the wicket. In 1774, the first leg before law was published. Around this time, a third stump became commonplace. By 1780, the duration of a first-class cricket match was three days, this year saw the creation of the first six-seam cricket ball. In 1788, the MCC published its first revision of the laws, which prohibited charging down an opponent and provided for mowing and covering the wicket in order to standardise conditions; the desire for standardisation reflected the massive increase in the popularity of cricket during the 18th century. Between 1730 and 1740, 150 cricket matches were recorded in the papers of the time.
Between 1750 and 1760, this figure rose to 230, between 1770 and 1790 over 500. The 19th century saw a series of significant changes. Wide deliveries were outlawed in 1811; the circumference of the ball was specified for the first time in 1838. Pads, made of cork, became available for the first time in 1841, these were further developed following the invention of vulcanised rubber, used to introduce protective gloves in 1848. In the 1870s, boundaries were introduced – all hits had to be run; the biggest change, was in how the ball was delivered by the bowler. At the start of the century, all bowlers were still delivering the ball under-arm. However, so the story goes, John Willes became the first bowler to use a "round-arm" technique after practising with his sister Christina, who had used the technique, as she was unable to bowl underarm due to her wide dress impeding her delivery of the ball; the round-arm action came to be employed in matches but was determined to be illegal and banned by the MCC