SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Crime

In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term crime does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society, or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.

To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the state can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.

In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment, or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Several premodern societies believed that non-human animals were capable of committing crimes, prosecuted and punished them accordingly; the sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime. When Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms; the word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment". The Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word κρίμα, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.

In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to the Online Etymology Dictionary. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of crime was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.

For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normat

Zulchrizal Abdul Gamal

Zuchrizal Abdul Gamal is an Indonesian footballer that plays for Mitra Kukar in the Liga 2. Gamal started his football career for Persiter Ternate when still a student in 2005. Gamal helped bring his team to the third place Liga Indonesia First Division in 2005, once led the team promotion to the First Division. Gamal docked with Mitra Kukar, promoted to the ISL 2011/2012 On November 16, 2014, he signed with Semen Padang. At the tournament Presidents Cup 2015, Semen Padang lends him along with his partner, namely Hendra Bayauw, Saepulloh Maulana, Airlangga Sucipto and Eka Ramdani to the club Mitra Kukar is a club that once defended in 2011. After the contract expired at Semen Padang, he went back to his old club, namely Mitra Kukar. Together with Mitra Kukar, he made history by winning the Sudirman Cup in 2015, although in the final he did not play because of a red card he earned while playing in the semi-final 2nd leg against Arema Cronus dated January 17, 2016 in Kanjuruhan Stadium, Malang.

In the final which took place at GBK Stadium, Mitra Kukar beat Semen Padang F. C. 2-1 Zulchrizal Abdul Gamal at Soccerway

Optare Olympus

The Optare Olympus is a double-decker bus built by Optare. It could be built as a body available on Alexander Dennis Enviro400, Volvo B9TL or Scania N230UD/N270UD chassis with the 2-axle and 3-axle variants, it is the double-decker equivalent of the Optare Esteem. Some 3-axle Olympus buses were built. A single prototype integral Olympus, designated the Olympus O1030, was built; the Olympus was launched by East Lancashire Coachbuilders in November 2006. The first example, built on a Volvo B9TL chassis for Delaine Buses, was displayed at Euro Bus Expo 2006, it had been the intention to exhibit a higher specification model for Ham's of Flimwell, but this was not ready in time for the show, meaning the bus didn't show its full potential. The Olympus replaced the OmniDekka on Scania chassis, 10.6 or 11.9 metres in length. On Volvo chassis, it replaced the Myllennium Vyking. On Alexander Dennis chassis, it replaced the Myllennium Lolyne. At the beginning of January 2007, Reading Buses ordered six Olympus with Scania chassis for their Loddon Bridge FastTrack park and ride contract to replace Optare Excels.

They entered service in a yellow and blue livery in July 2007. In London, some bus operators purchased Olympus with Scania chassis. Transdev London and Metroline had these buses operating on routes 7 and 297 respectively. Due to problems with the new Transport for London specified air-conditioning units, some buses failed the tilt test by one degree, entered service late. East Lancs was bought by the Darwen Group; the body was therefore renamed Darwen Olympus. The first buses to be delivered under the Darwen name were those ordered by Cardiff Bus and Arriva Yorkshire. Reading Buses has numerous examples bodied by Darwen, in addition to a few built by East Lancs before they went into administration. Following the reverse takeover of Optare by Darwen Group in June 2008, the Olympus was again renamed, becoming the Optare Olympus. London General ordered the Olympus with Alexander Dennis Enviro400 chassis instead of Scania which Metroline and Transdev London had inherited. Metrobus have 30 buses on Scania N230UD chassis, which were used on London routes 54 and 75 In 2009, Optare announced that it had designed its own chassis for the Optare Olympus, with a Mercedes-Benz engine, as per previous products.

This bus was further developed and launched as the Optare MetroDecker in 2014. An open-top double-decker bus version of the Olympus, named the Visionaire, was built. Media related to Optare Olympus at Wikimedia Commons Product information Pictures of Delaine Buses' Olympus Buses portal