Arkansas Educational Television Network
The Arkansas Educational Television Network is a state network of PBS member television stations serving the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is operated by the Arkansas Educational Television Commission, an agency of the Arkansas state government which holds the licenses for all the PBS member stations licensed in the state, AETNs offices and network operations are based out of the R. Approximately two-thirds of AETNs funding comes from tax dollars to support the broadcast infrastructure and all services that are provided for educators. More than 10% comes from the government as a partial match of what is raised locally. Almost 20% comes from contributions from individual viewers and businesses. The Arkansas Educational Television Commission was created in 1961, following a legislative study to assess the need for educational television programming in Arkansas. KETS in Little Rock, the station of AETN, first signed on the air as the nations 124th educational television station on December 4,1966.
In the early years, KETS was associated with National Educational Television, in the stations early years, KETS broadcast its programming black-and-white only, before upgrading to color capabilities in 1972. The station maintained limited hours of operation during its early years, for many years, KETS broadcast its signal from a transmitter tower located in Redfield, this tower collapsed on January 11,2008, during work on adjusting guy wires. AETNs hours of operation gradually expanded over time to 24 hours a day, seven days a week as programming for general audiences was added during the evenings and on weekends. Much of south-central Arkansas was underserved by PBS programming from AETN until KETZ in El Dorado signed on the air on May 20,2006, the five analog transmitters eventually converted to digital by mid-2009, joining KETZ, as part of the national digital transition. AETN began creating local programming in the late 1960s and still produces more than 100 hours of full-length. AETNs network comprises six digital transmitters which cover almost all of Arkansas, as well as parts of Louisiana, Missouri and Tennessee.
Listed below are the dates each analog transmitter ceased operation as well as their post-transition channel allocations, KETS shut down its signal, over VHF channel 2. The stations digital signal was relocated from its pre-transition VHF channel 5 to VHF channel 7, through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the stations virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 2. The stations digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 20, through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the stations virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 19. The stations digital signal remained on its pre-transition VHF channel 13, through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the stations virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 6. KAFT shut down its signal, over VHF channel 13
1940 United States Census
The census date of record was April 1,1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved and this census introduced sampling techniques, one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939, the 1940 census collected the following information, In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original sheets were microfilmed. As required by Title 13 of the U. S. Code, non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Also, aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, on April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration.
The records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release, several organizations are compiling indices, why the huge interest in the 1940 Census. 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder. com
Robert Crittenden was an attorney and politician, appointed temporarily as Governor of Arkansas Territory. He was a co-founder of the Rose Law Firm, robert Crittenden was born near Versailles, Kentucky, in the Bluegrass Region, into a political family. He was the son of John Crittenden, a planter who was a Major in the Continental Army and his brother John Jordan Crittenden served as United States Senator. His great-nephew Thomas T. Crittenden, Jr. became Mayor of Kansas City, robert was educated privately and read the law as a legal apprentice to prepare for passing the bar. Crittenden was appointed as Secretary of Arkansas Territory from 1819 to 1829 and he served as Governor of Arkansas while James Miller was delayed for an extended period en route to Arkansas. Although never officially appointed as governor, Crittenden called the first territorial legislature into session, Crittenden was a primary leader in preparing the territory for statehood. He was appointed as United States Commissioner for negotiating the 1824 Treaty with the Quapaw Indians, by 1827 Crittenden and his former friend, Henry Wharton Conway, a Territorial Representative, had come into conflict on political issues and finally had a duel.
He mortally wounded Conway near Napoleon, Arkansas on October 29,1827, Crittenden lived at the end of his life in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Crittenden County, Arkansas is named for him
Tunica County, Mississippi
Tunica County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,778, the county is named for the Tunica Native Americans. Most migrated to central Louisiana during the colonial period, Tunica County is part of the Memphis, TN–MS–AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located in the Mississippi Delta region, since the late 20th century, it is known for Tunica Resorts, an unincorporated community that is the site of nine casino resorts. It is one of the top six destinations in the country in terms of gambling revenues, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 481 square miles, of which 455 square miles is land and 26 square miles is water. Interstate 69 U. S. Route 61 Mississippi Highway 3 Mississippi Highway 4 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,778 people residing in the county. 73. 5% were Black or African American,23. 7% White,0. 6% Asian,0. 1% Native American,0. 1% Pacific Islander,1. 2% of some other race and 0. 9% of two or more races.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,227 people,3,258 households, the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 3,705 housing units at a density of 8 per square mile. 2. 53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,26. 90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the family size was 3.44. In the county, the population was out with 31. 50% under the age of 18,10. 90% from 18 to 24,27. 40% from 25 to 44,20. 20% from 45 to 64. The median age was 31 years, for every 100 females there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.90 males, the median income for a household in the county was $23,270, and the median income for a family was $25,443. Males had an income of $25,244 versus $18,104 for females. The per capita income for the county was $11,978, about 28. 10% of families and 33. 10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43. 40% of those under age 18 and 32. 50% of those age 65 or over
Tipton County, Tennessee
Tipton County is a county located on the western end of the U. S. state of Tennessee, in the Mississippi Delta region. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,081, Tipton County is part of the Memphis, TN–MS–AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. From about 10,000 BCE, Paleo-Indians and Archaic-Indians lived as communities of hunter-gatherers in the area covers the modern day southern United States. While there were chiefdoms and centers along the Mississippi and its tributaries, their center was at Cahokia, in present-day Illinois east of St. Louis. The Tipton Phase people were an expression of the Mississippian culture. They still inhabited the region of modern-day Tipton County during the time of first contact with Europeans, by the end of the Mississippian period, the land was claimed and populated by the Chickasaw tribe. The exact origins of the Chickasaw are uncertain, around 1800, Europeans began settling the Chickasaw-inhabited lands east of the Mississippi River. Chickasaw land in what known as West Tennessee and southwestern Kentucky was ceded in the Jackson Purchase.
Both states grew considerably as a result of this purchase, in 1818, both sides agreed to the transfer by signing the Treaty of Tuscaloosa. The Chickasaw were to be paid annuities for 15 years, but the United States was often late with payment and these were often delayed or were of poor quality. The earthquake changed the course of the river near the settlement of Reverie, the old riverbed is west of Reverie. The river now runs east of Reverie, putting Reverie on the Arkansas side, while most of the area of Tipton County is located east of the river, on the Tennessee side. This area was part of the culture associated with the Mississippi Delta. With the increase in population, the county was established on October 29,1823 from parts of Shelby County, the land was former Chickasaw Indian territory. The county was named for Jacob Tipton, father of Armistead Blevins, Tipton was killed by Native Americans in 1791 in a conflict over the Northwest Territory. Jacob Tipton was the son of John Tipton, a rival of John Sevier during Tennessees State of Franklin period, early Mississippi River steamboat commerce flourished in Tipton County.
In 1830, the community of Randolph, one of the earliest settlements in Tipton County, was the most important shipping point in Tennessee, but its fortunes declined in years. Riverboat traffic gradually yielded to freight being shipped by railroad, the first rail service in Tipton County was established in December 1855, when the Memphis and Ohio Railroad completed the route from Memphis to Nashville, running through what is now Mason
Shelby County, Tennessee
Shelby County is a county in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 927,644 and it is the states largest county both in terms of population and geographic area. Its county seat is Memphis, the most populous city in Tennessee, the county was named for Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky. Shelby County is part of the Memphis, TN-MS-AR Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River. Within the Mississippi Delta, the county developed as a center of cotton plantations in the antebellum era, the economy has become more diversified. From 1877-1950, the county had 20 lynchings, the highest number in the state and Lake counties, at the northwest border of the state, had 18 and 13 lynchings in this period, but with much smaller populations. The violence was part of terrorism to suppress blacks. Shelby County was established by European-American migrants in 1819, the county was part of the lands acquired by the United States government from the Chickasaw as part of the Jackson Purchase of 1818.
The county was named for Isaac Shelby, the governor of Kentucky who had helped negotiate the land acquisition. From 1826 to 1868, the county seat was located at Raleigh, Tennessee on the Wolf River, after the American Civil War, in recognition of the growth of Memphis, well before the American Civil War, the population of the county was majority black and mostly slaves. Memphis developed as a cotton market, with many brokers. After the war, many stayed on the land by working as sharecroppers. From 1877-1950, there were 20 lynchings of blacks by whites in Shelby County, most blacks were disenfranchised around the turn of the century when the state passed laws raising barriers to voter registration, and imposed Jim Crow. Blacks were mostly closed out of the system for more than six decades. In the 20th century, mechanization of agriculture reduced the need for workers at a time when industries. The Great Migration resulted in many African Americans moving from rural areas into Memphis or out of state to northern cities for work, after World War II, highways were constructed that led to development of much new housing on the outskirts of Memphis where land was cheap.
Suburbanization, with retail businesses following new residents, took place in the county, with continued residential and suburban development, the population became majority white. Six towns in the county have become incorporated, other communities are unincorporated, residents enjoy many parks in the area as well as attractions in the city of Memphis
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans, are Americans who are descendants of the peoples of Spain, Portugal, or the Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries of Latin America. More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, other U. S. government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term, including Brazilians and other Portuguese-speaking groups. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably, origin can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the persons parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race, as the only specifically designated category of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan, the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies widely in different locations across the country.
Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States after Asian Americans, hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565, after Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, the terms Hispanic and Latino refer to an ethnicity, people of this group may be of any race. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, history, according to the Smithsonian Institution, the term Latino includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin. In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both European and Native American ancestry, others are wholly or predominately of European ancestry, or wholly or predominantly of Amerindian ancestry.
Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread. The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some, the U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. The term Latino has developed a number of definitions, one definition of Latino is a Latin male in the United States. This is the oldest and the definition used in the United States. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas, under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino. This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, a definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term Latino-Americano, the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino, a Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America.
An immigrant from Spain, would be classified as Hispanic, while the U. S. Census Bureaus definition of Hispanic is limited to Spain and Spanish-speaking Latin America, other government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term
Arkansas is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the states diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River. Arkansas is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States, the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, the largest city in the eastern part of the state is Jonesboro. The largest city in the part of the state is Pine Bluff. The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15,1836, in 1861 Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.
Upon returning to the Union in 1868, the state would continue to suffer due to its reliance on slavery. White rural interests continued to dominate the politics until the Civil Rights Movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice. The culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows, restaurants and physicist William L. McMillan, who was a pioneer in superconductor research, have all lived in Arkansas. The name Arkansas derives from the root as the name for the state of Kansas. The Kansa tribe of Native Americans are closely associated with the Sioux tribes of the Great Plains, the word Arkansas itself is a French pronunciation of a Quapaw word, meaning land of downriver people or the Sioux word akakaze meaning people of the south wind. In 2007, the legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring the possessive form of the states name to be Arkansass which has been followed increasingly by the state government.
Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, as well as Tennessee, the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The state line along the Mississippi River is indeterminate along much of the border with Mississippi due to these changes. Arkansas can generally be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half, the highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains. The southern lowlands include the Gulf Coastal Plain and the Arkansas Delta and this dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas
West Memphis, Arkansas
West Memphis is the largest city in Crittenden County, United States. The population was 26,245 at the 2010 census, ranking it as the states 18th largest city and it is part of the Memphis metropolitan area, and is located directly across the Mississippi River from Memphis. Native Americans lived in the Mississippi River Valley for at least 10,000 years, the Indians of the Mississippian Period were the last native inhabitants of the West Memphis area. Mound City Road, located within the portion of the West Memphis city limits, has a marker indicating that the villages of Aquixo or Pacaha were in the area. Explorers from both Spain and France visited the area near West Memphis, among those explorers were Hernando de Soto and his men from Spain and Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet from France. By the time French hunters and explorers entered the region, the Mississippian towns, the original site of West Memphis came from Spanish land grants issued during the 1790s. Grants were given to Benjamin Fooy, John Henry Fooy, and Isaac Fooy in the Hopefield area, the Spanish found the land to be the most densely populated that they had seen since starting their journey on the Florida coast, two years earlier.
The Spanish expedition departed Arkansas two years later, leaving behind numerous Old World diseases and it was 130 years before Europeans visited this region again. The original inhabitants, like the settlers, were drawn to this region because of its fertile river bottom soil, abundant game. He chose a location across the river from present-day Memphis, in 1797, the Spanish established Campo de la Esperanza which was a small fort along the Mississippi River. Crittenden County is bounded on the east by the Mississippi River and was established in 1825, named after Robert Crittenden, the first secretary of the Arkansas Territory, the county had a population of 1,272 in 1830. Hopefield became the terminal for the Memphis and Little Rock Railroad in 1857. However, the Civil War forced a halt to track construction just east of the St. Francis River in 1861, during the summer of 1862 Memphis fell into the hands of the Union forces. Most Confederate soldiers were ferried across the river to Hopefield, many of these soldiers were moved on to other battle fronts, but some remained to harass the Union forces and disrupt river traffic.
This became such a problem that on February 19,1863, the town of Hopefield was rebuilt after the war but never regained the prominence it once held in Crittenden County. An early settlement that was established for operations between Memphis and Arkansas in the early 1880s was given the name West Memphis. In addition to its lost ferry operations, this area, in the fashion as its northern neighbor Hopefield. The entire area usually flooded in the spring until the St. Francis Levee District was established in 1893, private landowners along the Mississippi River built levees that were only three or four feet high
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2,1890. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time, the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, the total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing. The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the right answer was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in America, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850. The 1890 census announced that the region of the United States no longer existed. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement, by 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line. This prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis, the original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available.
Almost all the schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington. Some 25% of the materials were presumed destroyed and another 50% damaged by smoke, the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21,1933, and the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935. The other censuses for which information has been lost are the 1800 and 1810 enumerations. Mayo-Smith, The Eleventh Census of the United States
Arkansas's 1st congressional district
Arkansass 1st congressional district is a U. S. congressional district in northeastern and part of southeastern Arkansas that elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives. It is currently represented by Republican Rick Crawford, the district took in additional counties in the southeastern portion that were part of the 4th district which in turn took the entire eastern Arkansas border. The district encompasses parts of Jefferson county, the Mississippi Delta has long been home to American industrial agriculture, with cotton and soybeans by far the biggest export from the region. The 1st District covers most of the Arkansas Delta area and stretches as far west to the Ozarks, the farming areas, despite their fertility, are generally poor by national standards, with unemployment and undereducation as some of the greatest problems. Some manufacturing has been sited in the region recently, with auto parts factories being built in Marion. Jonesboro is the largest town, home to a food processing industry with companies such as Nestle.
Jonesboro is home to Arkansas State University -Jonesboro, while Jonesboro itself sports a Republican trend, along with some of the hill counties, it is balanced by the strong Democratic presence in the African American-dominated Mississippi River Delta. The result is a closely divided vote in national politics. While Al Gore narrowly carried the district in 2000 with 50% of the vote, the district swung even more Republican in 2008, giving John McCain 58. 69% of the vote while Barack Obama received 38. 41% here. The district was created in 1853 after the 1850 United States Census added a seat to the state. The at-large seat was split between this district and the second district, as of April 2015, there are three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Arkansass 1st congressional district that are currently living. United States House of Representatives elections in Arkansas,2010 Martis, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Poinsett County, Arkansas
Poinsett County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,583, Poinsett County is included in the Jonesboro, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. Poinsett County was formed on February 28,1838, and named for Joel Roberts Poinsett, County business was initially conducted in the county judges home until first court was held in Bolivar, upon completion of a courthouse in 1839. County government was moved in 1859 to Harrisburg, a central locale designated as the new county seat. Poinsett County acquired its current boundaries in the years following this change, the northern portion became Craighead County, and the south portion became Cross County. Sunken lands were added to eastern Poinsett County during this time, including Lepanto, the Civil War devastated the county financially. It did not recover until the railroads were constructed into the area, giving farmers a new avenue to market their crops, and the timber industry developed. The Texas and St.
Louis Railway Company completed track through Weiner, the Kansas City, Ft. Scott, and Gulf Railroad opened service in east Poinsett County the following year. Shipping timber had become feasible and was undertaken throughout northeast Arkansas following the completion of railroads, Farmers used the railroads to ship their cotton and farm animals to new markets. Many small railroad towns boomed during this period, despite this uplift, the countys population mostly consisted of poor sharecroppers and tenant farmers, with an elite class of white landowners. Poinsett County was the hardest hit county by the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, the Southern Tenant Farmers Union was founded in 1935 in Tyronza during the Great Depression. The organization was a union to improve the pay and working conditions of poor sharecroppers. It met violent resistance from white planters, with leaders and members attacked and some killed throughout its areas of organizing in Arkansas. The Southern Tenant Farmers Union Museum in Tyronza is now operated by Arkansas State University.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 764 square miles. Located in Arkansass northeast corner, the county is bisected by Crowleys Ridge, the soils in the eastern part of the county have been deposited by the Mississippi River and are mostly used for cotton farming. Western Poinsett County is generally dedicated to rice fields, lake Poinsett State Park is centrally located within the county. The population density was 34 people per square mile, there were 11,051 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile