Marion is a city in and the county seat of Crittenden County, United States. The population was 12,345 at the 2010 census, a 38.7% increase since 2000. The city is part of the Memphis metropolitan area, it is the second largest city behind West Memphis. Although Marion was incorporated in 1896, the community predates that significantly; the site of Marion was part of Louisiana from 1764 to 1803. Some of the oldest land titles in the area are from Spanish land grants from a time prior to the Louisiana Purchase. After the Louisiana Purchase the area was part of the Arkansas Territory. During the 1830s the Trail of Tears, the forced removal of Native Americans from Georgia and Mississippi, passed through the area, its location is close to where the Sultana Steamboat sunk. A memorial is placed on the city hall square to remember those lost in the accident Marion, AR was named after Marion Tolbert. In 1837 two commissioners had been appointed by the county court to select a site for a new county seat.
Tolbert and his wife Temperance gave a deed to the commissioners "for the county of Crittenden for county purposes" on June 25, 1837. A town was laid out, named Marion in honor of Marion Tolbert and was made the county seat of Crittenden County, AR. Marion has been incorporated on multiple occasions, first in 1851; the current incorporation dates from 1896. During the American Civil War the steamboat Sultana was destroyed in an explosion on April 27, 1865, as it was transporting released Union POWs near Mound City, just east of Marion, it is estimated that 1,500 soldiers and crew were killed, the largest loss of life in a maritime accident in US history. This tragedy is commemorated by a historic marker placed by the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1954, a local Black man, Isadore Banks was murdered by a mob in the town, he was covered with gasoline and burned. Nobody was charged in the killing. Marion is located in eastern Crittenden County at 35°12′22″N 90°12′6″W, it is bordered by the city of West Memphis by Sunset and Clarkedale to the north.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Marion has a total area of 20.5 square miles, of which 20.4 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.37%, is water. Marion is 11 miles west of Memphis and has a humid subtropical climate. Marion is bisected by Interstate 55 and is located just to the north of its junction with Interstate 40 prior to their crossing the Mississippi River, en route to Memphis. U. S. Highway 64 is the major east-west route through the town. Arkansas Highway 77 is a major north-south arterial road, east of Interstate 55, Highway 118 is the major north-south arterial road, west of Interstate 55. Marion is served for general aviation by the West Memphis Municipal Airport. General DeWitt Spain Airport is a civil aviation airport just north of downtown Memphis. Memphis International Airport is located south of Memphis. Union Pacific operates a 600-acre intermodal facility west of Marion. BNSF Railway operates an intermodal yard in Marion. Limited passenger rail is available on Amtrak at Central Station in nearby Memphis.
The City of New Orleans runs twice daily on a north-south route from Chicago to New Orleans. Crittenden County and West Memphis jointly operate a port on the Mississippi River; the International Port of Memphis lies just across the Mississippi River via Interstate 55. The International Port of Memphis is the fourth-largest inland port in the United States; because of its proximity to Memphis and Interstate highways, Marion offers the activities and enrichment of a large city while maintaining the character of a small community. In addition to the many community events common to any town, each May Marion hosts the Esperanza Bonanza, a festival that includes live music, a barbecue competition, a rodeo, a golf tournament, a carnival, games for adults & children. More Marion has begun "Christmas on the Square" in early December co-sponsored by the local Kiwanis Club and the Marion Chamber of Commerce. Marion is served by the Woolfolk Public Library, jointly operated by Crittenden County and the city of Marion.
It was named in honor of Margaret Woolfolk. Outdoor recreation is a big part of community life, from organized youth sports to individual and family activities. Marion is located less than 1 hour from 12 Tennessee or Mississippi state parks. Additional outdoor recreation is available at Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge about 10 miles north of town; the nearby community of Horseshoe Lake offers opportunity for water sports. Since 1951 Marion and Crittenden County have been served by Crittenden Regional Hospital a 152-bed JCAHO Accredited facility in nearby West Memphis; the hospital is in the process of attempting to reopen under new ownership. 2010 Census As of the census of 2010, there were 4,278 households in the city. The population density was 604.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.1% White, 28% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 1.4% from two or more races. 2.0 % of the population were Latino of any race. 88 % of the population had 28 % reported a bachelor's degree or higher.
2.5% of the population is foreign born and 4.4% report a language other than English being spoken at home. The home ownership rate was 71.3% at a median value of $142,200. The median household income was $60,051. 7.3% of the population are below the poverty l
Artificial consciousness known as machine consciousness or synthetic consciousness, is a field related to artificial intelligence and cognitive robotics. The aim of the theory of artificial consciousness is to "Define that which would have to be synthesized were consciousness to be found in an engineered artifact". Neuroscience hypothesizes that consciousness is generated by the interoperation of various parts of the brain, called the neural correlates of consciousness or NCC, though there are challenges to that perspective. Proponents of AC believe it is possible to construct systems that can emulate this NCC interoperation. Artificial consciousness concepts are pondered in the philosophy of artificial intelligence through questions about mind and mental states; as there are many hypothesized types of consciousness, there are many potential implementations of artificial consciousness. In the philosophical literature the most common taxonomy of consciousness is into "access" and "phenomenal" variants.
Access consciousness concerns those aspects of experience that can be apprehended, while phenomenal consciousness concerns those aspects of experience that cannot be apprehended, instead being characterized qualitatively in terms of “raw feels”, “what it is like” or qualia. Type-identity theorists and other skeptics hold the view that consciousness can only be realized in particular physical systems because consciousness has properties that depend on physical constitution. In his article "Artificial Consciousness: Utopia or Real Possibility," Giorgio Buttazzo says that a common objection to artificial consciousness is that "Working in a automated mode, they cannot exhibit creativity, emotions, or free will. A computer, like a washing machine, is a slave operated by its components."For other theorists, who define mental states in terms of causal roles, any system that can instantiate the same pattern of causal roles, regardless of physical constitution, will instantiate the same mental states, including consciousness.
One of the most explicit arguments for the plausibility of AC comes from David Chalmers. His proposal, found within his article Chalmers 2011, is that the right kinds of computations are sufficient for the possession of a conscious mind. In the outline, he defends his claim thus: Computers perform computations. Computations can capture other systems' abstract causal organization; the most controversial part of Chalmers' proposal is that mental properties are "organizationally invariant". Mental properties are of two kinds and phenomenological. Psychological properties, such as belief and perception, are those that are "characterized by their causal role", he adverts to the work of Armstrong 1968 and Lewis 1972 in claiming that "ystems with the same causal topology…will share their psychological properties". Phenomenological properties are not prima facie definable in terms of their causal roles. Establishing that phenomenological properties are amenable to individuation by causal role therefore requires argument.
Chalmers provides his Dancing Qualia Argument for this purpose. Chalmers begins by assuming that agents with identical causal organizations could have different experiences, he asks us to conceive of changing one agent into the other by the replacement of parts while preserving its causal organization. Ex hypothesi, the experience of the agent under transformation would change, but there would be no change in causal topology and therefore no means whereby the agent could "notice" the shift in experience. Critics of AC object that Chalmers begs the question in assuming that all mental properties and external connections are sufficiently captured by abstract causal organization. If it were suspected that a particular machine was conscious, its rights would be an ethical issue that would need to be assessed. For example, a conscious computer, owned and used as a tool or central computer of a building of larger machine is a particular ambiguity. Should laws be made for such a case? Consciousness would require a legal definition in this particular case.
Because artificial consciousness is still a theoretical subject, such ethics have not been discussed or developed to a great extent, though it has been a theme in fiction. The rules for the 2003 Loebner Prize competition explicitly addressed the question of robot rights: 61. If, in any given year, a publicly available open source Entry entered by the University of Surrey or the Cambridge Center wins the Silver Medal or the Gold Medal the Medal and the Cash Award will be awarded to the body responsible for the development of that Entry. If no such body can be identified, or if there is disagreement among two or more claimants, the Medal and the Cash Award will be held in trust until such time as the Entry may possess, either in the United States of America or in the venue of the contest, the Cash Award and Gold Medal in its own right. There are various aspects of consciousness deemed necessary for a machine to be artificially conscious. A variety of functions in which consciousness plays a role were suggested by Bernard Baars and others.
The functions of consciousness suggested by Bernard Baars are Definition and Context Setting and Learning, Editing and Debugging, Recruiting and Control and Access-Control, Decision-making or Executive Function, Analogy-forming Function and Self-monitoring Function, Autoprogramming and Self-ma
The greenside darter is a species of fish in the family Percidae. It inhabits swift riffles in southern Ontario. Greenside darters live for three to five years, grow to a maximum of 132 mm standard length and sexually mature at one to two years of age. Greenside darters are reproductively active from February to April in the Midwest and Southeastern United States. Spawning occurs over algae- or moss-covered rocks in deep, swift riffles that are guarded by males that vigorously defended against intruders. Females move into a male's territory when ready to spawn. Eggs are viscous and stick together in small clumps on green algae and riverweed. E. blennioides is insectivorous, with analyzed gut contents containing Nematocera larvae, more black fly and midge larvae. Significant numbers of mayfly and caddisfly nymphs were found; the greenside darters have an elongated body with a rounded snout. The dorsum is greenish-brown, with six or seven dark quadrate saddles and the sides with five to eight dark green U- or W-shaped blotches.
The nape, cheeks and belly are scaled, with the breast naked. The anal fin has six to 10 rays and 13-16 pectoral fin rays, both are bright green in breeding males. E. blennioides is secure throughout its range, except in Mississippi, where its habitat was altered by the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. The E. blennioides subspecies are believed to have diverged in separate drainage systems and glacial refugia during the Pleistocene ice ages, which destroyed older connections and shaped new river systems. E. b. blennioides ranges throughout the Ohio River basin and northeast into the Potomac and upper Genesee Rivers. E. b. newmanii occurs in the Cumberland and Tennessee River drainages of Alabama and Tennessee. E. b. pholidotum occurs in north-flowing rivers of the northern Ozarks, the Wabash basin, the Maumee River drainage, along the shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Etheostoma: etheo meaning filter or strain and stoma meaning mouth E. b. blennioides: referring to its resemblance to the Mediterranean blennies Constantine S. Rafinesque knew in his early years E. b. newmanii: patronymic for Francis H. Newman, aquatic biologist, who collected the type specimen E. b. pholidotum: meaning scaled, referring to its scaled belly.
Greenside darters inhabit gravel riffles of large creeks to medium rivers and are found in swift waters over large boulders and large rubble. As stated, Miller concluded the E. blennioides complex consists of the four subspecies above. Unpublished studies by Richard L. Mayden and colleagues indicate E. b. newmanii from the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers may be a valid species and distinct from other members of the complex. The former subspecies, E. b. gustelli has been re-elevated to species status, Etheostoma gustelii based on lack of hybridization. Etheostoma blennioides belongs to the subgenus Etheostoma that contains these species: E. blennius E. gutselli E. histrio E. inscriptum E. lynceum E. rupestre E. sellare E. swannanoa E. thalassinum E. zonale Etheostoma blennioides is further nested within the greenside darter group that contains E. blennius, E. gutselli, E. inscriptum, E. swannanoa, E. thalassinum
Dvora Waysman is an Australian-Israeli author. Dorothy Opas was born in Victoria, she made aliyah to Israel in 1971 with four children. The family settled. Waysman is a contributor to The Jewish Press, her topics include family life experiences and Jewish holidays. Examples from her knowledge of Jewish History are part of what she writes. Waysman has taught creative journalism for three decades. Waysman's novel The Pomegranate Pendant was made into a movie in 2009, it premiered at the Jerusalem Film Festival in 2012. Waysman was the 1981 recipient of the "For Jerusalem" citation for her fiction and features about the city of Jerusalem, has won the Seeff Award for Best Foreign Correspondent in 1988. In 2014, the movie based on her book, The Golden Pomegranate, won the Shabazi Prize for Literature and Art. In A Good Pasture, ISBN 965-7344-58-1, Mazo Publishers, Nov. 2008 Seeds Of The Pomegranate, ISBN 965-7344-20-4, Mazo Publishers The Pomegranate Pendant, ISBN 965-7344-21-2, Mazo Publishers, Jan. 2007 Esther, A Jerusalem Love Story, ISBN 1-55874-822-9, Health Communications Jewish Detective Stories For Kids My Jewish Days of the Week, Hachai Publishing.
Artwork by Melanie Schmidt. "Dorothy's Diary"
Nickelus F is a rapper and producer from Richmond, Virginia. He is best known for being the Black Entertainment Television 106 & Park "Freestyle Friday" champion seven weeks in a row and being inducted into its Hall of Fame in 2007. Nickelus F is known for his collaborations with rapper Drake. On the Cut the Check mixtape and Nickelus F released the song "AM 2 PM" by FTP Productions, included on Drake's first mixtape Room for Improvement, a project which features Nickelus F on several tracks including "Money," "A Scorpio's Mind," and "S. T. R. E. S. S.". Nickelus F first began rapping in the 4th grade while at summer camp but he did not begin to take rap until he was in the 6th grade, his first official song was recorded over LL Cool Jay's song "Hey Lover."In 2000, Nickelus F got his first break into the hip hop industry when he competed against 300 contenders in the regional "Source Unsigned Hype Emcee Battle" where he placed second despite having no formal recording experience. He was named "Unsigned Hype" in The Source in 2000 at the age of 17.
Nickelus F went on to participate in BET's 106 & Park Freestyle Fridays where he was crowned champion after winning seven weeks in a row in 2007. In November 2009, Nickelus F was featured in Complex's "Ten Most Underrated New Rappers". In 2015, Nickelus F collaborated with rapper/producer Lil Ugly Mane, under his production name Shawn Kemp, released the album Trick Dice; this album was released on cassette and according to Nickelus F, sold out in one hour. In 2016, Nickelus F made his return to battle rap in a league, "Southpaw Battle Coalition" against Danja Zone, in 2017 against Bigjinya. Nickelus F is part of a collective in Richmond, known as the Association of Great Minds or AGM, it features fellow artists Radio B and Michael Millions, producer Namebrand, photographer/videographer Monsee. Drake has described Nickelus F as "one of the most gifted people I know at finding flows"; as of 2018, the last released collaboration between Drake and Nickelus F was in 2013, titled "Number 15,", released as a bonus track fifteen on Nickelus F's "Vices" album.
In a 2010 interview with Complex Magazine, when asked if he had ghostwritten for Drake, Nickelus F responded "Yeah, I've done that. I know the rumor going around. I don't want anything. I helped out, you know." However, in 2015 when interviewed by Mass Appeal, Nickelus F denied being a former ghostwriter for Drake. Nickelus F considers himself to be a "true student" of hip-hop culture, he cites Project Pat, Tha Dogg Pound, C-Bo, Spice 1, Lord Finesse, high school friend J. R; the Great as a few of his hip-hop inspirations. However, he cites Kanye West, Jay Z, MF DOOM, Future as his top 5 rappers. Born in Portland, Oregon, to a father who served in the military, Nickelus F moved as a child, he spent time in his childhood living in Berlin and lived in various places across Virginia, United States including Hampton, West Virginia, Richmond. While battle rapping on BET's 106 & Park Freestyle Fridays, Nickelus F was working as an exterminator for Terminex, a pest control service, he would head to New York from Richmond, Virginia after work on Thursdays to compete in Black Entertainment Television 106 & Park "Freestyle Friday" every week.
After the birth of his two twin daughters, Nickelus F began his undergraduate degree at the Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia. He credits school for making him more efficient with his time and music as it provided him with structure in his life. In 2015, Virginia street artist Nils Westergaard painted a mural of Nickelus F on the side of a building in Oregon Hill, Virginia. Nils Westergaard created the mural because he believed that Nickelus F deserved recognition from his hometown of Richmond, Virginia and he was in a unique position to provide it via street art. Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better Pistols and Teks B stands for Burglars Cut The Check How To Build a Buzz for Dummies The Relapse For the F of It Rayni Day Entertainment Presents... Umbrella Up Volume 1 ft. Radio B Thank You Thank You: Version: Pi Heathen Go Time R. A. R. E. Featuring Portishead Season Premiere Commercials Season Premiere HD Yellow Gold Faces Vices PTPT Yellow Gold 2 "Triflin" "Trick Dice" "Stretch Marks" "Acapellas" "Stuck" "The Gold Mine Volume 1" "The Gold Mine Vol 2" "Nurp!/Toast & Jelly" "The Motions" "Everything That I Should" "Heathen" "The Beast" "You Too" featuring The Silverust "Aggressive Content" "What Am I Suppose To Do" "Take You With Me" "Reese Witherspoon" "Crushin' Your Toes" "Handsome" "GotDamnMURDAH!"
Social care in Scotland encompasses social work. As of 2016 there are 203,200 people employed within social services in the country. A community building project, Older People for Older People, resulted in a film being made in 2010 about how older people's skills were used in Ardersier to assist other older people. There is no probation service in Scotland; the equivalent function is carried out by criminal justice social workers, who are part of local authorities’ social work departments. Criminal justice social workers follow the same entry procedure as other social workers; the University of Stirling, Housing Options Scotland and Horizon Housing Association conducted a study of allocations and lettings practice for accessible and adapted social housing in 2018. They found that most of the 28 disabled home-seekers in their study received inappropriate housing offers, or no offers at all. Care Inspectorate Children's hearing system Cornerstone Community Care Criminal Justice Social Work Services Education in Scotland Health and Social Care Directorates Healthcare in Scotland Local government in Scotland NHS Scotland Quarriers Scotland's Commissioner for Children and Young People Scots law Scottish Children's Reporter Administration Scottish Social Services Council Davis, Roger.
Social the law in Scotland. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780230276314. Guthrie, Tom. Social work law in Scotland. Haywards Heath: Tottel. ISBN 9781847661654. Mooney, Gerry. Exploring social policy in the'new' Scotland. Bristol: Policy Press. ISBN 9781861345943. Mooney, Gerry. Social justice and social policy in Scotland. Bristol: Policy. P. 281. ISBN 9781847427021. Staff of Scottish Local Authority Social Work Services, 2010, Scottish Government