East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)
The eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area referred to as the East Bay, includes cities along the eastern shores of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay. The region has grown to include inland communities in Contra Costa Counties. With a population of 2.5 million in 2010, it is the most populous subregion in the Bay Area. Oakland is the third largest in the Bay Area; the city serves as a major transportation hub for the U. S. West Coast, its port is the largest in Northern California. Increased population has led to the growth of large edge cities such as Alameda, Fremont, San Ramon and Walnut Creek. Although initial development in the larger Bay Area focused on San Francisco, the coastal East Bay came to prominence in the middle of the nineteenth century as the part of the Bay Area most accessible by land from the east; the Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869 with its western terminus at the newly constructed Oakland Long Wharf, the new city of Oakland developed into a significant seaport.
Today the Port of Oakland is the Bay Area's largest port and the fifth largest container shipping port in the United States. In 1868, the University of California was formed from the private College of California and a new campus was built in what would become Berkeley; the 1906 San Francisco earthquake saw a large number of refugees flee to the undamaged East Bay, the region continued to grow rapidly. As the East Bay grew, the push to connect it with a more permanent link than ferry service resulted in the completion of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in 1936; the Bay Area saw further growth in the decades following World War II, with the population doubling between 1940 and 1960, doubling again by 2000. The 1937 completion of the Caldecott Tunnel through the Berkeley Hills fueled growth further east, where there was undeveloped land. Cities in the Diablo Valley, including Concord and Walnut Creek, saw their populations increase tenfold or more between 1950 and 1970; the addition of the BART commuter rail system in 1972 further encouraged development in far-flung regions of the East Bay.
Today, the valleys east of the Berkeley Hills contain large affluent suburban communities such as Walnut Creek, San Ramon and Pleasanton. The East Bay is not a formally defined region, aside from its being described as a region inclusive of Alameda and Contra Costa counties; as development moves eastward, new areas are described as being part of the East Bay. In 1996, BART was extended from its terminus in Concord to a new station in Pittsburg, symbolically incorporating the newly expanded Delta communities of Pittsburg and Antioch as extended regions of the East Bay. Beyond the borders of Alameda County, the large population of Tracy is connected as a bedroom community housing commuters traveling to or through the East Bay. Except for some hills and ridges which exist as parklands or undeveloped land, some farmland in eastern Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, the East Bay is urbanized; the East Bay shoreline is an urban corridor with several cities exceeding 100,000 residents, including Oakland, Fremont and Berkeley.
In the inland valleys on the east side of the Berkeley Hills, the land is developed on the eastern fringe of Contra Costa county and the Tri-Valley area. In the inland valleys, the population density is the cities smaller; the only cities exceeding 100,000 residents in the inland valleys are Concord. East Bay cities include: The East Bay has a free weekly newspaper, the East Bay Express, which has reported on the culture and politics of the East Bay for over 30 years, has influenced the identification of the East Bay as a culturally defined region of the Bay Area; the free East Bay Monthly has been published since 1970. In the early years of the evolution of USA Today, during the early 1980s, they operated regional newspapers, with the region's paper entitled East Bay Today; the Solano Avenue Stroll, the oldest and largest street festival in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, is held every September on the Solano Avenue shopping district in Albany and Berkeley. The East Bay is the birthplace of many musical acts, including Creedence Clearwater Revival, Counting Crows and Today, Digital Underground, Green Day, Operation Ivy, Rancid, Set Your Goals, Tower of Power, The Pointer Sisters, MC Hammer, Tony!
Toni! Tone!, Tupac Shakur, Too Short, Spice 1, en Vogue, Pete Escovedo and Sheila E, Keyshia Cole, Mac Dre. The region is a major center for the development of rock, funk, hip hop and women's music. Bay Area thrash metal has centered on the East Bay, including the bands Exodus and Metallica, among others. Possessed and Death, both considered the first death metal bands, have roots or connections in the East Bay: Possessed formed in El Sobrante, with Death debuting nationally while in Concord. Major music venues include home arena of the Golden State Warriors. Major museums include the Oakland Museum of California, the Lawrence Hall of Science and the Chabot Space and Science Center; the East Bay Regional Parks District operates over fifty parks, many consisting of significant acreage of wildlands, in the East Bay, many directly adjacent to urban centers. Tilden Regional Park, is one of the largest regional parks (2,000 acres (8.1
Contra Costa County, California
Contra Costa County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,049,025; the county seat is Martinez. It occupies the northern portion of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, is suburban; the county's name is Spanish for "opposite coast", referring to its position on the other side of the bay from San Francisco. Contra Costa County is included in the San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In prehistoric times the Miocene epoch, portions of the landforms now in the area were populated by a wide range of now extinct mammals, known in modern times by the fossil remains excavated in the southern part of the county. In the northern part of the county, significant coal and sand deposits were formed in earlier geologic eras. Other areas of the county have ridges exposing ancient but intact seashells, embedded in sandstone layers alternating with limestone. Layers of volcanic ash ejected from geologically recent but now extinct volcanoes and now tilted by compressive forces, may be seen at the site of some road excavations.
This county is an agglomeration of several distinct geologic terranes, as is most of the greater San Francisco Bay Area, one of the most geologically complex regions in the world. The great local mountain Mount Diablo has been formed and continues to be elevated by compressive forces resulting from the action of plate tectonics and at its upper reaches presents ancient seabed rocks scraped from distant oceanic sedimentation locations and accumulated and lifted by these great forces. Younger deposits at middle altitudes include pillow lavas, the product of undersea volcanic eruptions. There is an extensive but little recorded human history pre-European settlement in this area, with the present county containing portions of regions populated by a number of Native American tribes; the earliest definitively established occupation by modern man appears to have occurred six to ten thousand years ago. However, there may have been human presence far earlier, at least as far as non–settling populations are concerned.
The known settled populations were hunter-gatherer societies that had no knowledge of metals and that produced utilitarian crafts for everyday use of the highest quality and with graphic embellishments of great aesthetic appeal. Extensive trading from tribe to tribe transferred exotic materials such as obsidian throughout the region from far distant Californian tribes. Unlike the nomadic Native American of the Great Plains it appears that these tribes did not incorporate warfare into their culture but were instead cooperative. Within these cultures the concept of individual or collective land ownership was nonexistent. Early European settlers in the region, did not record much about the culture of the natives. Most of what is known culturally comes from preserved contemporaneous and excavated artifacts and from inter-generational knowledge passed down through northerly outlying tribes of the larger region. Early interaction of these Native Americans with Europeans came with the Spanish colonization via the establishment of missions in this area, with the missions in San Jose and San Francisco and the establishment of a Presidio in 1776.
Although there were no missions established within this county, Spanish influence here was direct and extensive, through the establishment of land grants from the King of Spain to favored settlers. In 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain. While little changed in ranchero life, the Mexican War of Independence resulted in the secularization of the missions with the re-distribution of their lands, a new system of land grants under the Mexican Federal Law of 1824. Mission lands extended including portions of Contra Costa County. Between 1836 and 1846, during the era when California was a province of independent Mexico, the following 15 land grants were made in Contra Costa County; the smallest unit was one square league, or about seven square miles, or 4,400 acres, maximum to one individual was eleven leagues, or 48,400 acres, including no more than 4,428 acres of irrigable land. Rough surveying was based on a map, or diseño, measured by streams, and/or horseman who marked it with rope and stakes.
Lands outside rancho grants were designated el sobrante, as in surplus or excess, considered common lands. The law required the construction of a house within a year. Fences were forbidden where they might interfere with roads or trails. Locally a large family required 2000 head of cattle and two square leagues of land to live comfortably. Foreign entrepreneurs came to the area to provide goods that Mexico couldn’t, trading ships were taxed. Rancho Canada de los Vaqueros was granted to Francisco Alviso, Antonio Higuera, Manuel Miranda. Two ranchos, both called Rancho San Ramon, were granted by the Mexican government in the San Ramon Valley. In 1833, Bartolome Pacheco and Mariano Castro shared the two square league Rancho San Ramon. Jose Maria Amador was granted a four square league Rancho San Ramon in 1834. In 1834 Rancho Monte del Diablo was confirmed with 17,921 acres to Salvio Pacheco; the Pacheco family settled at the Rancho in 1846. The boundary lines w
Martinez is a city in and the county seat of Contra Costa County, California, in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. The population was 35,824 at the 2010 census; the downtown is notable for its large number of antique shops. Martinez is located on the southern shore of the Carquinez Strait in the San Francisco Bay Area, directly facing the city center of Benicia and the southeastern end of Vallejo, California. In 1824 the Alhambra Valley was included in the Rancho El Pinole Mexican land grant to Ygnacio Martínez. In 1847, Dr. Robert Semple contracted to provide ferry service from Martinez to Benicia, which for many years was the only crossing on the Carquinez Strait. By 1849, Martínez served as a way station for the California Gold Rush; the town was named for Martinez. It became the county seat in 1850, but could not incorporate at the time because it lacked the 200 registered voters required, only became a city in 1876. Martinez was the home of naturalist John Muir from 1880 until his death in 1914.
He was buried about a mile south of the building, now the John Muir National Historic Site. Nearby is the Vicente Martinez Adobe, built in 1849 by the son of Ygnacio Martinez; the first post office opened in 1851. In 1860, Martinez played a role in the Pony Express; the first oil refinery in the Martinez area was built in 1904 at Bull's Head Point, a then-unincorporated waterfront area two miles east of the downtown district. That area soon became known as Mococo, following the 1905 arrival of a smelting works, operated by the Mountain Copper Company; that first facility, operated by the Bull's Head Oil Company, was followed in 1908 by a test refinery built by the Pacific Coast Oil Company. Shortly thereafter, Pacific Coast became part of Standard Oil, consolidated their oil refining operations in the Point Richmond, Rodeo waterfront corridor some twelve miles to the west of Martinez. In 1913, the Golden Eagle facility became the third oil refinery to be built in the area, it was located in the newly-created company town of Avon to the East of Martinez.
A fourth refinery, built by the Shell Oil Company on land adjacent to the Martinez City limits, went online in January 1916. The Golden Eagle Refinery and the Shell Oil refining facility are still operational today, maintaining the position of Martinez as a significant petroleum processing center. Folk etymology in Martinez claims the invention of the Martini cocktail and that it is named for the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.1 square miles, of which, 12.1 square miles of it is land and 1.0 square mile of it is water. Although the common perception of Martinez is that of a refinery town, given the view from Highway 680 across the Shell refinery from the Benicia–Martinez Bridge, the city is in fact surrounded by water and regional open space preserves; the Martinez–Benicia Bridge carries Highway 680 across the eastern end of the Carquinez Strait to Solano County. The city can be defined as a more densely built downtown valley threaded by Alhambra Creek and north of Highway 4.
Suburban areas stretch south of Highway 4 to join the neighboring city of Pleasant Hill. Unincorporated areas include the Franklin Canyon area; the Martinez Regional Shoreline bounds the city to the north along the Carquinez Strait. Carquinez Strait Regional Shoreline includes the Franklin Hills west of downtown, stretching west to the unincorporated community of Port Costa and the town of Crockett. Briones Regional Park borders the Alhambra Valley to the south. Waterbird Regional Preserve and the McNabney Marsh border the city and Highway 680 to the east. Martinez's location at the east end of the Carquinez Strait as it widens to Suisun Bay includes dramatic water views stretching to the Sierra range. From surrounding ridge tops views stretch to nearby Mount Diablo, Mount Saint Helena, Mount Tamalpais, others. Martinez is one of the only two places in the Bay Area, the other being Golden Gate Bridge, where the Bay Area Ridge Trail and the San Francisco Bay Trail converge; the Bay Trail is a planned recreational corridor that, when complete, will encircle San Francisco and San Pablo bays with a continuous 400-mile network of bicycling and hiking trails.
It will connect the shoreline of all nine Bay Area counties, link 47 cities, cross the major toll bridges in the region, including the Benicia–Martinez Bridge. To date 240 miles of the alignment—over half the Bay Trail's ultimate length—have been completed; the Bay Area Ridge Trail will be a 500+ mile trail encircling the San Francisco Bay along the ridge tops, open to hikers, mountain bicyclists, outdoor enthusiasts of all types. So far, over 300 miles of trail have been dedicated for use. East Bay Regional Park District's Iron Horse Regional Trail will join the Bay Trail along the waterfront, the Contra Costa Canal Trail threads through the city from Pleasant Hill to the south. Martinez has a mild mediterranean climate. Summers are dry, with some morning fog during sea breezes; the maritime influence is much less significant than in other parts of the Bay Area that are closer to the Pacific, which causes high daytime averages compared to San Francisco and Oakland in summer. However, nights cool off which results in daytime highs of around 87 °F and night time lows of 55 °F during July and August.
Winters are wet and cool with occasio
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Bill Dodd (California politician)
William Harold "Bill" Dodd is an American politician, serving in the California State Senate. He is a Democrat representing the 3rd Senate District, which encompasses the northern San Francisco Bay Area and Delta region. Prior to his election to the State Senate, Dodd served in the California State Assembly representing the 4th Assembly District, which includes all or portions of Yolo, Sonoma, Lake and Colusa Counties. Before serving in the Assembly, he served on the Napa County Board of Supervisors. Prior to his time in elected office, Dodd was CEO of Diversified Water Systems, Inc.. In 1978, Dodd earned a degree in Business Management from Chico. During his time in the water industry, Dodd was active in the water quality industry's state and national trade associations. In 1985 he was elected President of the Pacific Water Quality Association and in 1994, elected to National Water Quality Association. During his tenure, the industry embraced third-party certification of water treatment products and lobbied in Sacramento on important legislation to protect consumers.
He was awarded the PWQA and WQA Hall of Fame Award, Award of Merit for work in PR and Governmental affairs. Prior to serving in the Assembly, Bill served on the Napa County Board of Supervisors for 14 years, he represented the cities and county of Napa on the Metropolitan Transportation Commission including a two-year term as chairman. In addition, Dodd served as an Honorary Commander for the 60th Air Mobility Wing at Travis Air Force Base. Other boards and commission service included the Chair of the Local Agency Formation Commission of Napa County, Chair of the Napa County League of Governments, Chair of the Napa County Transportation Planning Agency, Chair of the Napa County Flood Control and Water Conservation District. During his tenure as supervisor, Dodd worked with officials and the community to improve Napa's infrastructure, foster economic development while supporting workers, protect community services for the county's most vulnerable. Dodd helped secure nearly $100 million in funding for the Jamison Canyon Road project and transportation projects in the Napa and Sonoma County corridor.
In 2013, having been a registered Republican, Dodd changed his affiliation to the Democratic Party. In explaining the change, Dodd described himself as "a fiscal conservative but I agree with the Democratic viewpoint on most social issues", he described himself as a pragmatist who parted company with the Republicans on the Board of Supervisors due to the outright opposition of the party to any tax increases, while Dodd supported a property tax increase to raise additional revenue. In 2014 Dodd ran for the District 4 Assembly seat. After gaining the most votes in the primary, Dodd defeated Republican Charlie Schaupp in a run-off election. Dodd won the seat by a 62-38 margin. Dodd was named to the Transportation, Water and Wildlife, Business and Professions and Rules Committee. Dodd declared his candidacy for the State Senate, District 3 in July 2015 and was endorsed by Governor Jerry Brown, Lt. Governor Gavin Newsom, Attorney General Kamala Harris and Secretary of State Alex Padilla, along with the majority of members in the Senate and local elected officials.
He defeated liberal Assemblywoman Mariko Yamada with 58% of the vote to win election to the Senate. In March 2017 Dodd coauthored California Senate Bill 649, which would remove a city's ability to control where cell towers are placed and transfer the power to the state. Dodd was born and raised in Napa County, growing up on a small farm where his family had 10 acres of walnuts. Dodd graduated from Chico in 1978, majoring in business administration. Dodd was involved in student government, serving on the Policy Advisory Board and as president of the Inter-Fraternity Council. Dodd serves on the boards of the Queen of the Valley Hospital Foundation, Justin-Siena High School, Health Care for the Poor Committee, Wolfe Center Youth Drug and Alcohol Center, Children's Health Initiative and is an honorary member of Hospice, Adult Day Services and Clinic Ole. Dodd and wife Mary reside in Napa, they have eight grandchildren. Official website Campaign website Bill Dodd at Ballotpedia
San Pablo Bay
San Pablo Bay is a tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in the East Bay and North Bay regions of the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California. Most of the Bay is shallow. San Pablo Bay was named after Rancho San Pablo, a Spanish land grant given to colonial Alta California settlers in 1815, on the bay at the site of the present-day city of San Pablo; the bay is 10 mi across and has an area of 90 sq mi. The bay receives the waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, via Suisun Bay and the Carquinez Strait on its northeast end, it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the San Francisco Bay on its southern end; the bay is silted from the contributions of the two rivers, which themselves drain most of the Central Valley of California. San Pablo Bay receives the waters of Sonoma Creek through the Napa Sonoma Marsh, San Rafael Creek, the Petaluma River directly, the Napa River which flows into the Carquinez Strait via the Mare Island Strait near its entrance into the bay.
All tributaries except for Sonoma Creek are commercially navigable and maintained by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Two peninsulas separate San Pablo Bay from San Francisco Bay; the eastern, Point San Pablo, is in the city of Richmond and the western, Point San Pedro, borders the city of San Rafael. The bay is shared between Contra Costa county on the southern and eastern shore, Solano and Marin counties on the northern and western shores; the county boundaries meet near the center of the bay. Communities on the shores of San Pablo Bay include: Richmond, San Pablo, Hercules, Rodeo in Contra Costa County, Vallejo in Solano County, along with Novato and San Rafael in Marin County; because the Bay is close to several major and local airports, but outside of the main air traffic corridors, it is a popular pilot training area. Because of its great size but shallow waters, San Pablo Bay has difficult boating conditions; the prevailing western wind meets strong currents both at Carquinez Straits and, at the opposite end of the bay, near the Richmond Bridge, to produce large waves, with few areas of retreats for most boats.
There are many undeveloped shore lands with salt mudflats. The Bay is a primary wintering stop for the canvasback duck population on the Pacific Flyway, as well as a migratory staging ground for numerous species of waterfowl. Much of the northern shore of the bay is protected as part of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Endangered species that are found in the bay include the California brown pelican, California clapper rail, salt marsh harvest mouse; this is a popular destination for recreation fishing, with Saltwater species including: striped bass, sturgeon, starry flounder, leopard shark and anchovy. In the 1880s there was a shrimp-fishing village; the location is now part of China Camp State Park. San Pablo Bay is the setting of alternative rock band Primus's four-part song series "Fisherman's Chronicles," and is referenced in "The Toys Go Winding Down" and "Harold of the Rocks." It is mentioned in The Minus 5 song "John Barleycorn Must Live." In Susan Choi's book, American Woman, which mirrors the Patty Hearst scandal of the 1970s, the Bay's waters are said to welcome main characters Jenny and Pauline home after they've traversed from the East coast.
Tributaries of San Pablo Bay USGS: Sediment Changes in San Pablo Bay Gorp: San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge Highway to the Flyway:The Road to Restoration on San Pablo Bay from Bay Nature magazine, July–September 2007 issue. Provides a brief history of the marshes of San Pablo Bay
Richmond is a city in western Contra Costa County, United States. The city was incorporated on August 7, 1905. Located in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, Richmond borders the cities of San Pablo, Albany, El Cerrito and Pinole in addition to the unincorporated communities of North Richmond, Hasford Heights, Kensington, El Sobrante, Bayview-Montalvin Manor, Tara Hills, East Richmond Heights, for a short distance San Francisco on Red Rock Island in the San Francisco Bay. Richmond is one of two cities, the other being San Rafael, that sits on the shores of San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay simultaneously. Under the McLaughlin Administration, Richmond was the largest city in the United States served by a Green Party mayor; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the city's population is at 103,710, making it the second largest city in the United States named Richmond; the largest, Virginia, is the namesake of the California city. The Ohlone were the first inhabitants of the Richmond area, settling an estimated 5,000 years ago.
They spoke the Chochenyo language, subsisted as hunter-gatherers and harvesters. The name "Richmond" appears to predate actual incorporation by more than fifty years. Edmund Randolph from Richmond, represented the city of San Francisco when California's first legislature met in San Jose in December 1849, he became state assemblyman from San Francisco, his loyalty to the town of his birth caused him to persuade a federal surveying party mapping the San Francisco Bay to place the names "Point Richmond" and "Richmond" on an 1854 geodetic coast map, the geodetic map at the terminal selected by the San Francisco and San Joaquin Valley Railroad. The Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad had its terminus at Richmond; the first post office opened in 1900. Richmond was founded and incorporated in 1905, carved out of Rancho San Pablo, from which the nearby town of San Pablo inherited its name; until the enactment of prohibition in 1919, the city had the largest winery in the world. Starting in 1917, continuing through the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan was active in the city.
In 1930 the Ford Motor Company opened an assembly plant called Richmond Assembly Plant which moved to Milpitas in 1956. The old Ford plant has been a National Historic Place since 1988, in 2004 was purchased by developer Eddie Orton and has been converted into an events center; the city was a small town at that time, until the onset of World War II brought a rush of migrants and a boom in the industrial sector. Standard Oil set up operations here in 1901, including what is now the Chevron Richmond Refinery and tank farm, which are still operated by Chevron. There is a pier into San Francisco Bay south of Point Molate for oil tankers; the western terminus of the Santa Fe Railroad was established in Richmond with ferry connections at Ferry Point in the Brickyard Cove area of Point Richmond to San Francisco. At the outset of World War II, the four Richmond Shipyards were built along the Richmond waterfront, employing thousands of workers, many recruited from all over the United States, including many African-Americans and women entering the workforce for the first time.
Many of these workers lived in specially constructed houses scattered throughout the San Francisco Bay Area, including Richmond and Albany. A specially built rail line, the Shipyard Railway, transported workers to the shipyards. Kaiser's Richmond shipyards built 747 Victory and Liberty ships for the war effort, more than any other site in the U. S; the city broke many records and built one Liberty ship in a record five days. On average the yards could build a ship in thirty days; the medical system established for the shipyard workers at the Richmond Field Hospital became today's Kaiser Permanente HMO. It remained in operation until 1993 when it was replaced by the modern Richmond Medical Center hospital, that has subsequently expanded to a large multiple building campus. Point Richmond was the commercial hub of the city, but a new downtown arose in the center of the city, it was populated by many department stores such as Kress, J. C. Penney, Macy's, Woolworth's. During the war the population increased and peaked at around 120,000 by the end of the war.
Once the war ended the shipyard workers were no longer needed, beginning a decades-long population decline. The Census listed 99,545 residents in 1950. By 1960 much of the temporary housing built for the shipyard workers was torn down, the population dropped to about 71,000. Many of the people who moved to Richmond came from the Midwest and South. Most of the white men were overseas at war, this opened up new opportunities for ethnic minorities and women; this era brought with it the innovation of daycare for children, as a few women could care for several dozen women's children, while most of the mothers went off to work in the factories and shipyards. In the 1970s the Hilltop area, including a large shopping mall, was developed in the northern suburbs of the city. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the Richmond Parkway was built along the western industrial and northwestern parkland of the city connecting Interstates 80 and 580. In the early 1900s, the Santa Fe railroad established a major rail yard adjacent to Point Richmond.
The railroad constructed a tunnel through the Potrero San Pablo ridge to run a track from their yard