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Crofting

Crofting is a form of land tenure and small-scale food production particular to the Scottish Highlands, the islands of Scotland, on the Isle of Man. Within the 19th century townships, individual crofts are established on the better land, a large area of poorer-quality hill ground is shared by all the crofters of the township for grazing of their livestock. Crofting is a traditional social system in Scotland defined by small-scale food production. Crofting is characterised by its common working communities, or "townships". Individual crofts are established on 2–5 hectares of in-bye for better quality forage and vegetable production; each township manages poorer-quality hill ground as common grazing for cattle and sheep. Land use in the crofting counties is constrained by climate and topography. Since the late 20th century, the government has classified all of the agriculture land in the Highlands and Islands as Severely Disadvantaged, under the terms of Less Favoured Area Directive, yet these areas still receive the lowest LFA payments.

Most crofters cannot survive economically by crofting agriculture alone, they pursue a number of other activities to earn their livelihood. Despite its challenges, crofting is important to the Islands. In 2014-15 there were 19,422 crofts, with 15,388 crofters; some crofters have the tenancy of more than one croft, in-croft absenteeism means that tenancies are held but crofts are not farmed. About 33,000 family members lived in crofting households, or around 10% of the population of the Highlands and Islands. Crofting households represented around 30% those in the rural areas of the Highlands, up to 65% of households in Shetland, the Western Isles and Skye. There were 770,000 hectares under crofting tenure 25% of the agricultural land area in the Crofting Counties. Crofters held around 20% of all beef cattle and 45% of breeding ewes.. Crofting is regulated by the Crofting Commission. Tenants and owner-occupier crofters are required to comply with a range of duties specified in sections 5AA to 5C and 19C of the Crofters Act 1993 as amended.

There is a duty to be ordinarily resident within 32km of the croft. If the croft is the sole dwelling and the crofter's family are resident while the croft is away this would be accepted as ordinarily resident. Other circumstances involving other places of residence would require to be assessed individually. In addition to the duty of residence tenants and owner occupier crofters are required to ensure the croft is cultivated and not neglected or misused. Crofting communities were a product of the Highland Clearances, they replaced the farms or bailtean, which had common grazing and arable open fields operated on the run rig system. This change was associated with two things. Firstly the tacksmen were eliminated over the last quarter of the 18th century. A tacksman was the holder of a lease or "tack" from the landowner. Where a lease was for a baile, the tacksman sublet to the farming tenants and may have provided some management oversight. By preventing this section of society from sub-letting, the landlords obtained all of the rent paid by those who worked the land.

Secondly, landowners replaced the older farming methods with pastoral systems. In early cases, these were based on cattle. Much more common was the introduction of extensive sheep farms. In many clearances, the tenants of inland farms were moved to crofting communities in coastal areas, leaving the land they had left for sheep; this type of clearance was carried out until the 1820s. The crofts created by clearance were not intended to support all the needs of those who lived there, were restricted in size to a few acres of arable land with a surrounding shared grazing. Landlords intended their crofting tenants to work in various industries, such as kelp. A contemporary estimate was that a crofter needed to carry out 200 days work away from his croft in order to avoid destitution. In the second half of the 19th century, many crofters provided a substantial migrant workforce for lowland farms. Crofting communities were badly hit by the Highland Potato Famine; the small arable plots had meant that the potato was an essential crop, due to its high productivity.

The arrival of potato blight made some crofting communities inviable. This gave rise to the second phase of the Highland Clearances, when many tenants left the Highlands emigrating. In the 21st century, crofting is found predominantly in the rural Western and Northern isles and in the coastal fringes of the western and northern Scottish mainland; the Crofters' Holdings Act 1886 provided for security of tenure, a key issue as most crofters remain tenants. The Act encouraged tenants to improve the land under their control, as it ensured that the control could be transferred within families and passed to future generations. Croft work was back-breaking work which yielded a subsistence living. Crofters were given the right to purchase their individual crofts in 1976. In 2003, as part of the Land Reform Act 1993, crofting community bodies were provided with the right to purchase eligible croft land associated with the local crofting community. Allotment Agriculture and agronomy portal The Scottish Crofting FederationArticles Crofters, Indigenous People of the Highlands and Islands at Scottish Crofting Foundation

Bob Katter

Robert Carl Katter is an Australian politician, a member of the House of Representatives since 1993. He was active in state politics from 1974 to 1992. Katter was a member of the National Party until 2001, he formed his own party, Katter's Australian Party, in 2011. Katter was born in Queensland, his father, Bob Katter Sr. was a politician. Katter was elected to the Queensland Legislative Assembly at the 1974 state election, representing the seat of Flinders, he was elevated to cabinet in 1983, under Joh Bjelke-Petersen, served as a government minister until the National Party's defeat at the 1989 state election. Katter left state politics in 1992, the following year was elected to federal parliament standing in the Division of Kennedy, he resigned from the National Party in the lead-up to the 2001 federal election, has since been re-elected four more times as an independent and twice for his own party. Katter is known for his social conservatism, is described as a "maverick" by the media, his son, Robbie Katter, is a state MP in Queensland, the third generation of the family to serve in parliament.

Katter was born in Cloncurry, the son of Robert Cummin Katter, the member for Kennedy from 1966 to 1990, his wife, Mabel. His paternal grandparents went to Cloncurry in a stage coach around 1900, his great grandfather, a Lebanese migrant, owned clothing stores throughout north Queensland. His father, Bob Katter Sr. was an Australian politician who served in the House of Representatives from 1966 to 1990, representing the National Party. Katter attended the University of Queensland, where he studied law, but dropped out without graduating. While at university, Katter served as Vice President of the University Law Society, was President of his University College; as a sergeant, finishing after seven years as Lieutenant, he served in the Citizens Military Forces. During their 1964 Australian tour, The Beatles were pelted by eggs from some unknown assailants. Katter a university student, came forward more than 40 years and claimed his involvement, saying that it was "an intellectual reaction against Beatlemania."His son Robert III won the seat of Mount Isa in the 2012 Queensland state election.

Katter's father was a member of the Australian Labor Party until 1957, when he left during the Labor split of that year. He joined the Country Party, now the Liberal National Party; the younger Katter was a Country Party member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1974 to 1992, representing Flinders in north Queensland. He was Minister for Northern Development and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs from 1983 to 1987, Minister for Northern Development, Community Services and Ethnic Affairs from 1987 to 1989, Minister for Community Services and Ethnic Affairs in 1989, Minister for Mines and Energy in 1989, Minister for Northern and Regional Development for a brief time in 1989 until the Nationals were defeated in that year's election. While in the Queensland Parliament, Katter junior was a strong supporter of Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen, though he remained in cabinet under Mike Ahern, but ulitimaly resigning from Cabinet along with Russell Cooper, he served on the backbench. Appointed again to Cabinet in the traditional number two position of Mines & Energy.

This was under the Bjelke-Petersen's factions restoration to power. Katter did not run for re-election to state Parliament in 1992, he transferred to federal politics, he ran as the National candidate in his father's former seat of Kennedy, facing his father's successor, Labor's Rob Hulls. Despite name recognition, Katter trailed Hulls for most of the night. On the eighth count, a Liberal candidate's preferences flowed overwhelmingly to Katter, allowing him to defeat Hulls by 4,000 votes, he would not face another contest nearly that close for two decades. Katter was re-elected with a large swing in 1996, was re-elected as in 1998. However, when he transferred to federal politics, he found himself out of sympathy with the federal Liberal and National parties on economic and social issues. In 2001, he resigned from the National Party and retained his seat as an independent at the general elections of 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010, each time ending up with a percentage vote in the high sixties after preferences were distributed.

On 5 June 2011, Katter launched a new political party, Katter's Australian Party, which he said would "unashamedly represent agriculture". He made headlines after singing to his party's candidates during a meeting on 17 October 2011, saying it was his "election jingle". In the 2013 election, Katter faced his first serious contest since his initial run for Kennedy in 1993, he had gone into the election holding the seat with a majority of 18 percent, making it the second-safest seat in Australia. However due to anger at his decision to back Kevin Rudd for Prime Minister following Julia Gillard's live cattle, Katter still suffered a primary-vote swing of over 17 points, his name associated with Rudd. In the end, Katter was re-elected on Labor preferences, suffering a two-party swing of 16 points to the Liberal National party. In the 2016 election, Katter retained his seat of Kennedy, with an increased swing of 8.93% towards him. On 15 August 2017 Katter announced that the Turnbull Government could not take his support for granted in the wake of the 2017 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, which ensued over concerns that several MPs held dual citizenship and thus may be constitutionally ineligible to serve in Parliame

Danzen! Futari wa Pretty Cure

"Danzen! Futari wa Pretty Cure" is the opening theme song of Futari wa Pretty Cure, the inaugural installment of the Pretty Cure magical girl franchise. Sung by Mayumi Gojo, two remixes of the song were released; the original version of "Danzen! Futari wa Pretty Cure", performed by Gojo, was the opening theme of Futari wa Pretty Cure. Marvelous AQL re-released "Danzen! Futari wa Pretty Cure" on 11 May 2011, as a CD single that included the show's ending "Get You! Love Love?!" as well as karaoke versions of both songs. That same day, the label released another version of the single that featured a DVD that contains creditless versions of the opening and both endings of the series; the re-release charted at #160 in the Oricon Singles Chart on 23 May 2011. A remix of the original song, again sung by Mayumi Gojo, was made for the series' sequel Futari wa Pretty Cure Max Heart; the single was re-released on 11 May 2011 by Marvelous AQL. The single featured both of Max Heart's ending themes, "Muri Muri!?

Ari Ari!! In jaa Na~i?!" and "Wonder Winter Yatta", karaoke versions of all three songs. Another version released on the same day, came with a DVD featuring creditless versions of the Max Heart opening sequence and both ending sequences; the single charted at #157 in the Oricon Singles Chart on 23 May. "Danzen! Futari wa Pretty Cure~The One and Only Twin Lights~" is a remixed version of the song, the insert song for the Hugtto! PreCure Futari wa Pretty Cure: All Stars Memories fifteenth anniversary crossover film, again sung by Mayumi Gojo; the song was released as a single on 24 October 2018 by Marvelous, paired with Rewind Memory and karaoke versions of both songs, charted at #35 in the Oricon Singles Chart on 5 November of that year. A version containing a DVD featuring a TV-sized music video of the song was released; the original version of "Danzen! Futari wa Pretty Cure" won the Theme Song Award at the 9th Animation Kobe on 14 November 2004

Diaphorina

Diaphorina is an Old World genus of sap-sucking hemipteran bugs in the family, Liviidae. It includes an important pest of citrus: D. citri. The genus contains some 68 to 74 species; the Catalogue of Life lists: Diaphorina acokantherae Diaphorina aegyptiaca Diaphorina albomaculata Diaphorina amoena Diaphorina bicolor Diaphorina bikanerensis Diaphorina brevicornis Diaphorina brevigena Diaphorina carissae Diaphorina chobauti Diaphorina citri Diaphorina clutiae Diaphorina communis Diaphorina continua Diaphorina dakariensis Diaphorina dunensis Diaphorina elegans Diaphorina enderleini Diaphorina enormis Diaphorina ericae Diaphorina euryopsi Diaphorina fabulosa Diaphorina florea Diaphorina fusca Diaphorina guttulata Diaphorina gymnosporiae Diaphorina harteni Diaphorina helichrysi Diaphorina lamproptera Diaphorina leptadeniae Diaphorina linnavuorii Diaphorina loranthi Diaphorina luteola Diaphorina lycii Diaphorina minor Diaphorina multimaculata Diaphorina natalensis Diaphorina petteyi Diaphorina porrigogena Diaphorina punctipennis Diaphorina punctulata Diaphorina pusilla Diaphorina putonii Diaphorina quadramaculata Diaphorina rubra Diaphorina similis Diaphorina solani Diaphorina tenebrosa Diaphorina truncata Diaphorina tryoni Diaphorina typica Diaphorina valens Diaphorina venata Diaphorina virgata Diaphorina zebrana Burckhardt, Daniel.

"A revised classification of the jumping plant-lice". Zootaxa. 3509: 1–34. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. García-Pérez, Florinda. "Morphometry of Diaphorina citri on Six Rutaceae from Veracruz, Mexico". Florida Entomologist. 96: 529–537. Doi:10.1653/024.096.0218. Lashkari, Mohammadreza. "Global genetic variation in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri and the endosymbiont Wolbachia: links between Iran and the USA detected". Pest Management Science. 70: 1033–1040. Doi:10.1002/ps.3643. PMID 24002991. Media related to Diaphorina at Wikimedia Commons

United States congressional delegations from Montana

Since Montana became a U. S. state in 1889, it has sent congressional delegations to the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. Each state elects two senators to serve for six years. Before the Seventeenth Amendment took effect in 1913, senators were elected by the Montana State Legislature. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, one from Montana's at-large congressional district. Before becoming a state, the Territory of Montana elected a non-voting delegate at-large to Congress from 1864 to 1889. A total of 54 people have served either the Territory or State of Montana: 17 in the Senate, 32 in the House, five in both houses; the longest-serving senator is Max Baucus, in office from 1978 to 2014. The longest-serving representative is Pat Williams, in office for 18 years from 1979 to 1997. One woman has been a member of Montana's congressional delegation, Jeannette Rankin, as a representative, she was the first woman in the United States Congress.

Each state elects two senators by statewide popular vote every six years. The terms of the two senators are staggered so. Montana's senators are elected in the years from classes I and II. Senators were chosen by the Montana House of Representatives until the Seventeenth Amendment came into force in 1913. There have been twenty-two senators elected from Montana, of whom fourteen have been Democrats and eight have been Republicans. Montana's current senators are Democratic Jon Tester, in office since 2007, Steve Daines, in office since 2015. Tester was re-elected in 2012 with 48.58% of the vote, Daines was elected in 2014 with 57.9% of the vote. The Territory of Montana was an organized incorporated territory of the United States formed on May 26, 1864; the territory consisted of present-day Montana. The boundaries of the territory did not change during its existence; the territorial delegates were elected to two-year terms. Delegates were allowed to serve on committees and submit legislation, but were not permitted to vote on bills.

Delegates only served in the House of Representatives as there was no representation in the Senate until Montana became a state. Members of the House of Representatives are elected every two years by popular vote within a congressional district. Montana has an at-large congressional district that represent the entire state; every ten years, the number of congressional districts is reapportioned based on the state's population as determined by the United States Census. There have been 34 people, including just one woman, who have served as representatives from Montana: 15 Democrats, 18 Republicans and 1 Populist. Greg Gianforte is the current officeholder; as of April 2018, there are seven former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from the U. S. State of Montana who are living at this time; as of April 2018, there are two former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Montana who are living at this time, both from Class 2

Ivanhoe, the Norman Swordsman

Ivanhoe, the Norman Swordsman is a 1971 peplum film directed by Roberto Mauri. After the death of King Henry I in 12th-century England, the throne is taken by Stephen Cunningham who claims to possess the mythical "Sword of Normandy." A man named Ivanhoe returns from years in the Holy Land knowing that Henry I's son, the rightful heir to the throne, died in the Crusades, that Cunningham's sword is a fake. After forging alliances with a group of highwaymen and a band of traveling thespians, Ivanhoe reclaims the real sword that will topple Cunningham. Mark Damon as Ivanhoe Luis Dávila as Stephen of Cunningham Krista Nell as Brenda Aveline Frederica as Kitty Vassili Karis as Trigui Alan Collins as Mortimer, the Principa Linda Sini as Wife of Mortimer Aldo Berti as Art Spartaco Conversi as Kitts Nello Pazzafini as Ghippo Ivanhoe, the Norman Swordsman was shot in Barcelona Spain at Cardona's Castle and Cardona's Collegiate Church Ivanhoe, the Norman Swordsman was released on April 29, 1971. List of Italian films of 1971 Ivanhoe, the Norman Swordsman on IMDb