Land tenure

In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, said to "hold" the land. It determines. Tenure may be based both on official laws and policies, on informal customs. In other words, land tenure system implies a system according to which land is held by an individual or the actual tiller of the land, it determines the owners responsibilities in connection with their holding. The French verb "tenir" means "to hold" and "tenant" is the present participle of "tenir"; the sovereign monarch, known as The Crown, held land in its own right. All private owners are either its sub-tenants. Tenure signifies the relationship between tenant and lord, not the relationship between tenant and land. Over history, many different forms of land ownership, i.e. ways of owning land, have been established. A landholder/landowner is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or put, an owner of land. In the system of feudalism, the lords who received land directly from the Crown were called tenants-in-chief.

They doled out portions of their land to lesser tenants in exchange for services, who in turn divided it among lesser tenants. This process—that of granting subordinate tenancies—is known as subinfeudation. In this way, all individuals except the monarch were said to hold the land "of" someone else, it was usual for there to be reciprocal duties between lord and tenant. There were different kinds of tenure to fit various kinds of duties that a tenant might owe to a lord. For instance, a military tenure might be by knight-service, requiring the tenant to supply the lord with a number of armed horsemen; the concept of tenure has since evolved into other forms, such as estates. There is a great variety of modes of land tenure. For example, most of the indigenous nations or tribes of North America had differing notions of land ownership. Whereas European land ownership centered around control, Indigenous notions were based on stewardship; when Europeans first came to North America, they sometimes disregarded traditional land tenure and seized land, or they accommodated traditional land tenure by recognizing it as aboriginal title.

This theory formed the basis for treaties with indigenous peoples. In several developing countries such as Egypt, this method is still presently in use. In Senegal, it is mentioned as "mise en valeur des zones du terroir" and in Egypt, it is called Wadaa al-yad. Allodial title is a system in which real property is owned free and clear of any superior landlord or sovereign. True allodial title is rare, with most property ownership in the common law world being in fee simple. Allodial title is inalienable, in that it may be conveyed, gifted, or mortgaged by the owner, but it may not be distressed and restrained for collection of taxes or private debts, or condemned by the government. Feudal land tenure is a system of mutual obligations under which a royal or noble personage granted a fiefdom — some degree of interest in the use or revenues of a given parcel of land — in exchange for a claim on services such as military service or maintenance of the land in which the lord continued to have an interest.

This pattern obtained from the level of high nobility as vassals of a monarch down to lesser nobility whose only vassals were their serfs. Under common law, Fee simple is the most complete ownership interest one can have in real property, other than the rare Allodial title; the holder can freely sell or otherwise transfer that interest or use it to secure a mortgage loan. This picture of "complete ownership" is, of course, complicated by the obligation in most places to pay a property tax and by the fact that if the land is mortgaged, there will be a claim on it in the form of a lien. In modern societies, this is the most common form of land ownership. Land can be owned by more than one party and there are various concurrent estate rules. In Australia, native title is a common law concept that recognizes that some indigenous people have certain land rights that derive from their traditional laws and customs. Native title can co-exist with non-indigenous proprietary rights and in some cases different indigenous groups can exercise their native title over the same land.

There are 160 registered determinations of native title, spanning some 16% of Australia's land mass. The case of Mabo repudiated the notion of terra nullius. Subsequent Parliamentary Acts passed recognised the existence of this common law doctrine. Under common law, Life estate is an interest in real property; the holder has the use of the land for life, but no ability to transfer that interest or to use it to secure a mortgage loan. Under common law, fee tail is non-transferable ownership of real property. A similar concept, the legitime, exists in Roman law. Under both common law and civil law, land may be rented by its owner to another party. A wide range of arrangements are possible, ranging from short terms to the 99-year leases common in the United Kingdom, allowing various degrees of freedom in the use of the property. Rights to use a common may include such rights as the use of a road or the right to graze one's animals on owned land; when sharecropping, one has use of agricultural land owned by another person in exchange for a share of the resulting crop or livestock.

Easements allow one to make certain specific uses of land, own

Leading Ladies

Leading Ladies is a comedy play by Ken Ludwig. It involves two Shakespearean actors who find themselves in the Amish country of York, mounting Shakespeare plays; the play, a co-production of the Alley Theatre and The Cleveland Play House, premiered in 2004, directed by Ludwig. Set in York, Pennsylvania in 1958, this farce centers on two down-on-their-luck Shakespearean actors, Leo Clark and Jack Gable; the pair discover through a newspaper that Florence, an older ailing woman, has been unable to find Max and Steve, her sister's children who moved away to England as children in order to include them in her multimillion-dollar inheritance. They decide to pose as Steve to claim portions of it; when they discover that "Max" and "Steve" are "Maxine" and "Stephanie," they continue on, undaunted, in drag. Leo falls for Florence's actual niece Meg. Florence recovers just as the pair arrives, but they decide to keep on, both to try to outlast her health and to stay close to the objects of their interest.

Leo convinces Meg, enamored of Shakespeare and a fan of Jack and Leo, to put on a production at Florence's estate, to give himself more of an opportunity to be with her, both as Leo and Maxine. Meanwhile, Meg's fiancé Duncan grows suspicious of the "Leading Ladies." On the night of the production, a telegram arrives at the house stating that the real Maxine and Stephanie will arrive that night. Leo's plan to use Jack-as-Stephanie to seduce Duncan in front of Meg and stop their marriage fails when Audrey accidentally gives the family doctor a "love note" meant for Duncan; the telegram ends up in the hands of Duncan, who gloats at the opportunity to get rid of the two impostors. Meg confesses to "Maxine" that she loves her, prompting he and Jack to consult each other while in costume as women, which Meg and Audrey accidentally eavesdrop on and discover the true identities of their "cousins". An angry Audrey confronts Jack, but when he breaks down and apologizes, she accepts his marriage proposal.

The same occurs with Meg and Leo, but Meg tells Leo he needs to run, as the real cousins are due to arrive. However, the police arrest the "real cousins", identifying them as two notorious con artists. To Duncan's horror and Meg announce that they're getting married. After Florence scares everyone by seeming to have died for a minute, everyone remembers that they're supposed to be putting on a play and prepare to begin the show; the play premiered at The Alley Theatre in Houston, Texas in October 2004. Directed by Ludwig, the costumes sets by Neil Patel; the play played an engagement at the Cleveland Playhouse in September 2004. The cast: Erin Dilly — Meg Brent Barrett — Leo/"Maxine" Christopher Duva — Jack/"Stephanie" Lacey Kohl — Audrey Mark Jacoby — Duncan Jane Connell — Florence Dan Lauria — Doc Tim McGeever — Butch Divadlo Na Fidlovačce, PragueCzech name: V korzetu pro tetu. Directed by Petr Rychlý; the play had premiere 10 September 2009. Megan McCormick.... Meg Marek Holý.... Leo Denny Ratajský....

Jack Zuzana Vejvodová.... Audrey Daniel Rous.... Duncan Lilian Malkina.... Florence Václav Svoboda.... DoctorKanata Theatre, Ottawa, ONMark Linder.... Leo Andrew Williams.... JackThe Gateway Theatre, Richmond, BCLuisa Jojic.... Meg Peter Jorgensen.... Leo Allan Zynik.... Jack Tara Davis.... Audrey Jenifer Darbellay.... Stephanie William Samples.... Doctor Chris Robson.... Reverend WooleyMariebergsskogen Karlstad, SwedenJoakim Nätterqvist.... Leo Göran Gillinger.... Jack Sara Sommerfeld.... Meg Ken Ludwig Website of Fidlovačka Theatre, Prague


Papaipema is a genus of moths of the family Noctuidae. The genus was erected by John B. Smith in 1899. Listed alphabetically: Papaipema aerata Papaipema angelica – angelica borer Papaipema apicata Dyar, 1912 Papaipema appassionatapitcher plant borer Papaipema araliae Bird & Jones, 1921 – aralia shoot borer Papaipema arctivorens Hampson, 1910 – northern burdock borer Papaipema astuta Bird, 1907 – yellow stoneroot borer Papaipema aweme – aweme borer Papaipema baptisiae – indigo stem borer Papaipema beeriana Bird, 1923 – blazing star borer Papaipema birdi – umbellifer borer Papaipema cataphracta – burdock borer Papaipema cerina – golden borer Papaipema cerussata – ironweed borer Papaipema circumlucens – hops stalk borer Papaipema dribi Barnes & Benjamin, 1926 – rare borer Papaipema duovata – seaside goldenrod borer Papaipema duplicatus Bird, 1908 – dark stoneroot borer Papaipema eryngii Bird, 1917 – rattlesnake-master borer Papaipema eupatorii – Joe-Pye-weed borer or eupatorium Papaipema furcata – ash tip borer Papaipema harrisii – heracleum stem borer Papaipema impecuniosa – aster borer Papaipema inquaesita – sensitive fern borer Papaipema insulidensragwort stem borer Papaipema leucostigma – columbine borer Papaipema limata Bird, 1908 Papaipema limpida – vernonia borer Papaipema lysimachiae Bird, 1914 – loosestrife borer Papaipema marginidens – brick-red borer Papaipema maritima Bird, 1909 – giant sunflower borer or maritime borer Papaipema nebris – stalk borer Papaipema necopina – sunflower borer Papaipema nelita – coneflower borer Papaipema nepheleptena – turtle head borer Papaipema pertincta Dyar, 1920 – groundsel borer Papaipema polymniae Bird, 1917 – cup plant borer Papaipema pterisii Bird, 1907 – bracken borer Papaipema rigida – rigid sunflower borer Papaipema rutila – mayapple borer Papaipema sauzalitae – figwort stem borer Papaipema sciata Bird, 1908 – Culver's-root borer Papaipema silphii Bird, 1915 – silphius borer Papaipema speciosissima – osmunda borer or regal fern borer Papaipema stenocelis – chain fern borer Papaipema sulphurata Bird, 1926 – water-willow stem borer Papaipema unimoda – meadow-rue borer Papaipema verona – verona borer Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul.

"Search results Family: Noctuidae". Butterflies and Moths of the World. Natural History Museum, London. Savela, Markku. "Papaipema Smith, 1899". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved January 10, 2018