SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cronus

In Greek mythology, Cronos, or Kronos, was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, Gaia, the earth. He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus. According to Plato, the deities Phorcys and Rhea were the eldest children of Oceanus and Tethys. Cronus was depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father. In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honour of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of the harvest. Cronus was identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn. In an ancient myth recorded by Hesiod's Theogony, Cronus envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Uranus. Uranus drew the enmity of Cronus's mother, when he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-handed Hecatoncheires and one-eyed Cyclopes, in Tartarus, so that they would not see the light.

Gaia created a great stone sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to persuade them to castrate Uranus. Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush; when Uranus met with Gaia, Cronus attacked him with the sickle, castrating him and casting his testicles into the sea. From the blood that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes and Meliae were produced; the testicles produced a white foam from. For this, Uranus threatened vengeance and called his sons Titenes for overstepping their boundaries and daring to commit such an act. After dispatching Uranus, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatoncheires, the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them, he and his older sister Rhea took the throne of the world as queen. The period in which Cronus ruled was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules. Cronus learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own sons, just as he had overthrown his father.

As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hera and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy. When the sixth child, was born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children. Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handed Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes known as the Omphalos Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son. Rhea kept Zeus hidden in a cave on Crete. According to some versions of the story, he was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, armored male dancers and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus. Other versions of the myth have Zeus raised by the nymph Adamanthea, who hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus. Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by Gaia.

Once he had grown up, Zeus used an emetic given to him by Gaia to force Cronus to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, set down at Pytho under the glens of Mount Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, his two brothers and three sisters. In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the children. After freeing his siblings, Zeus released the Hecatoncheires, the Cyclopes who forged for him his thunderbolts, Poseidon's trident and Hades' helmet of darkness. In a vast war called the Titanomachy and his older brothers and older sisters, with the help of the Hecatoncheires and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus. However, Helios, Prometheus and Menoetius were not imprisoned following the Titanomachy. Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans. Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus.

In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus. In another version, the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, Cronus was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. In Virgil's Aeneid, it is Latium to which Saturn escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver, following his defeat by his son Jupiter. One other account referred by Robert Graves, who claims to be following the account of the Byzantine mythographer Tzetzes, it is said that Cronus was castrated by his son Zeus just like he had done with his father Uranus before; however the subject of a son castrating his own father, or castration in general, was so repudiated by the Greek mythographers of that time that they suppressed it from their accounts until the Christian era. In a Libyan account related by Diodorus Siculus and Titaea were the parents of Cronus and Rhea and the other Titans. Ammon, a king of Libya, married Rhea. However, Rhea married her younger brother Cronus.

With Rhea's incitement and the other Titans made war upon Ammon, who fled to Crete. Cronus ruled harshly and Cronus

Cecilia Colledge

Magdalena Cecilia Colledge was a British figure skater. She was the 1936 Olympic silver medalist, the 1937 World Champion, the 1937–1939 European Champion, a six-time British national champion. Colledge is credited as being the first female skater to perform a double jump, as well as being the inventor of both the camel spin and the layback spin. Cecilia Colledge grew up in London, her father, was a surgeon researching the treatment of throat cancer, her mother, the daughter of Admiral John Brackenbury. She had one sibling, a brother named Maule who served in the Royal Air Force and died during World War II. Colledge never had no children, she died on 12 April 2008 at Mount Auburn Hospital in Massachusetts. Colledge began skating after watching the 1928 World Championships, her mother, had been invited by the mother of Maribel Vinson. At the event, Cecilia was inspired by the performances of Sonja Henie and Maribel Vinson, who won gold and silver respectively. During her career, Colledge was coached by Jacques Gerschwiler.

At age eleven years and four months, she represented Great Britain at the 1932 Winter Olympics, where she became the youngest Olympic figure skater. She placed 8th in the event, she won the silver medal at the 1933 European Championships. She won her first British national title in 1935, she won the bronze medal at the 1935 European Championships and the silver medal at the 1935 World Championships. In 1936, she won her second national title and her second Europeans silver medal. At the 1936 European Championships, Colledge landed a double salchow jump, becoming the first woman to perform a double jump in competition. At age fifteen, she represented Great Britain at the 1936 Winter Olympics, where she won the silver medal behind Sonja Henie, finishing a close second to her, became one of the youngest figure skating Olympic medalists. After the school figures section and Henie were neck and neck with Colledge trailing by just a few points. According to Sandra Stevenson in The Independent on 21 April 2008, "the closeness infuriated Henie, when the result for that section was posted on a wall in the competitors' lounge, swiped the piece of paper and tore it into little pieces.

The draw for the free skating came under suspicion after Henie landed the plum position of skating last, while Colledge had to perform second of the 26 competitors. The early start was seen as a disadvantage, with the audience not yet whipped into a clapping frenzy and the judges known to become freer with their higher marks as the event proceeded. Years a fairer, staggered draw was adopted to counteract this situation". There were two British Championships held in 1937 and Colledge won both of them, she won her first European title at the 1937 European Championships and her first World title at the 1937 World Championships. The following year, Colledge won a fifth national title, a second European title, won the silver medal at the 1938 World Championships. Writing in 1938, T. D. Richardson said "Her Free Skating Programme is by far the most difficult attempted by anyone, man or woman, in the Skating World, but she brings off these staggeringly difficult combinations of jumps and spins with such ease and sureness and at such speed that experts are sometimes deceived as to the real worth of her programme."

In 1939, she won a third European title, but was unable to compete at the 1939 World Championships because of a strained achilles tendon. During World War II, there were no skating competitions. Colledge drove an ambulance in the Motor Transport Corps during the London Blitz. Following the war, she returned to competitive skating and won the British national title for the sixth and final time. After she turned professional, she won the 1948 Open Professional Championship, she became a coach in Boston. She coached at the Skating Club of Boston between 1952 and 1977. Among her students were Albertina Noyes, Paul McGrath, Ron Ludington, she was inducted into the World Figure Skating Hall of Fame in 1980. At the 1936 European Championships, Colledge became the first female skater to land a two rotation jump in competition when she landed a double salchow, she is credited as being the inventor of the camel spin along with its catchfoot variation and the layback spin. Although not named after her, she was one of the first skaters who transitioned from a layback spin to a one hand Biellmann spin in her free programs.

She invented the one-foot axel jump, known as the Colledge. E. R. Hall & T. D. Richardson – Champions all: camera studies by E. R. Hall Richardson T. D – Modern Figure Skating

Essays in London and Elsewhere

Essays in London and Elsewhere is a book of literary criticism by Henry James published in 1893. The book collected essays that James had written over the preceding several years on a wide range of writers including James Russell Lowell, Gustave Flaubert, Robert Browning and Henrik Ibsen; the book included an interesting general essay on the role of the critic in literature and a piece of travel writing about London. James wrote many of these essays while he was busy with his disastrous effort to become a successful playwright. So it's not surprising. One of them is a graceful eulogy for his friend, the great actress Frances Anne Kemble, with "her fine, anxious humanity, the generosity of her sympathies, the grand line and mass of her personality." The other is a emphatic defense of Henrik Ibsen, whose work caused London audiences to "sweep the whole keyboard of emotion, from frantic enjoyment to ineffable disgust." James shows his usual interest in French writers with three essays including a perceptive appreciation of Pierre Loti, who "speaks better than anything else of the ocean, the thing in the world that, after the human race, has most intensity and variety of life."

James writes generously of his old friend James Russell Lowell: "He had his trammels and his sorrows, but he drank deep of the tonic draught, he will long count as an erect fighting figure on the side of optimism and beauty." The book closes with an amusing dialogue called An Animated Conversation. The characters talk wittily of the literary relationship between Britain and America; the wisest speaker concludes: "A body of English people crossed the Atlantic and sat down in a new climate on a new soil, amid new circumstances. It was a new earth, they invented new institutions, they encountered different needs. They developed a particular physique, as people do in a particular medium, they began to speak in a new voice, they went in for democracy, that alone would affect--it has affected--the tone immensely. C'est bien le moins that that tone should have had its range and that the language they brought over with them should have become different to express different things. A language is a sensitive organism.

It must be convenient--it must be handy. It serves, it obeys, it accommodates itself." James' ability to understand and appreciate writers different from himself shines through this book's essays on Ibsen and Loti. He brings to each a deep appreciation of their outlook on life and their harsh but effective techniques for presenting it. James is never afraid to point out what he considers faults or omissions in the writers he discusses, but his criticism is never captious, never a wish. The essay on Ibsen has biographical relevance and poignance for James, who would experience a public failure in the theater just a few years after this book was published; the respect James pays to the renowned playwright betrays how much he wanted to succeed in the theater himself, how bitter his eventual defeat would be. Henry James Literary Criticism - Essays on Literature, American Writers, English Writers edited by Leon Edel and Mark Wilson ISBN 0-940450-22-4 Henry James Literary Criticism - French Writers, Other European Writers, The Prefaces to the New York Edition edited by Leon Edel and Mark Wilson ISBN 0-940450-23-2 Original magazine publication of the essay London Original magazine publication of the essay James Russell Lowell Original magazine publication of the essay An Animated Conversation Note on the text of Essays in London and Elsewhere at the Library of America web site