Cross country equestrian jumping is an endurance test that forms one of the three phases of the sport of eventing. The object of the endurance test is to prove the speed and jumping ability of the true cross-country horse when he is well trained and brought to the peak of condition. At the same time, it demonstrates the rider's knowledge of pace and the use of this horse across country; the cross-country course is two and three quarter to four miles long, comprising some twenty-four to thirty-six fixed and solid obstacles. Obstacles are built to look "natural", however odd materials and decorations may be added to test the horse's bravery. Obstacles can include all those that might be found if riding across the countryside, including water, logs and banks. All obstacles or compulsory passageways are flagged, with a red flag on the right and a white flag on the left. A black stripe on the red flag indicates that it is an option for the obstacle, another route may be taken if the rider so chooses, without penalty.
All obstacles are numbered, the color of the numbering can indicate which level the fence is for if multiple levels are competing at the event.. Cross-country courses for evening are held outdoors through wooded areas; the terrain is unique for each course, which incorporates the course into the natural terrain of the area, therefore events in certain parts of the world may be held on flat land, while others are over strenuous hills. Good course designers will use the terrain to either help the inexperienced horse and rider at the lower levels to prepare for an obstacle, or to make an obstacle more difficult for the experienced competitors. For example, the designer may place a fence at the opening of a wooded area, resulting in a lighting difference between the takeoff and landing side; this requires a confident horse. Designers may make an obstacle more difficult by placing it along the side of a steep hill, at the top of a mound, or use the natural trees and ditches to force riders to take more difficult lines to their fences.
A good course designer will be able to incorporate the obstacles into the landscape so that they seem natural, yet still test the horse and provide the horse an option to run-out if the rider makes a mistake. Most designers use accuracy fences, such as skinnies and corners, to make the rider's job more difficult, while still being "horse-friendly." All courses begin with a "start box," where the horse and rider wait as the time keeper begins to count-down to their start time. They are not allowed to go out the front of the box before the timer reaches zero on the count-down, nor are they allowed to have a flying start; the first few fences of most well-designed courses are straightforward and inviting, such as a large log or roll-top, which helps to build the horse and rider's confidence, get them settled in a galloping rhythm, beginning to focus on the job at hand. The technicality of the obstacles begins to increase, elements such as banks and water are introduced; the final fences of a course are slightly easier, to allow the horse and rider to finish on a good note, before they gallop across the finish.
Good footing is important to most riders, as it helps decrease the wear-and-tear the sport has on their horses and avoid injury that may occur due to deep or slippery ground. The rider should always take care to note the footing while walking the course, adjust the planned route to avoid patches that are boggy, slippery, or rough, to avoid holes that may be present. Footing is never used to make a course more difficult. Instead, most competitions go out of their way to keep the footing safe, many of the larger events may "groom" the footing to get it to the appropriate firmness. Riders walk a cross-country course between 1-3 times, before they ride it; this allows them to determine how each jump needs to be ridden. While walking the course, riders need to be sure to pay attention to: Conditioning is an essential part of preparing a horse for cross-country. Although the lowest levels may not require any more riding than the usual 5 or 6 days each week used to train the horse, all upper level horses are placed into strict conditioning programs.
Most riders plan their schedule around per-determined events, taking into consideration the length of the particular course, the climate in which they will have to run their horse, the speed that will be required, the terrain over which they will be traveling. In extreme situations, such as when riders had to condition their mounts for the intense heat at the Athens Olympics, horses will be shipped in early to certain locations to help their body adjust; the rider must consider the starting condition of the horse, the breed which they will be competing, most the individual horse. Horses which have been brought to peak fitness before will be easier to get back to top condition than a horse that has never
The SpaceX Dragon is a reusable cargo spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company. Dragon is launched into orbit by the company's Falcon 9 launch vehicle. During its maiden flight in December 2010, Dragon became the first commercially built and operated spacecraft to be recovered from orbit. On 25 May 2012, a cargo variant of Dragon became the first commercial spacecraft to rendezvous with and attach to the International Space Station. SpaceX is contracted to deliver cargo to the ISS under NASA's Commercial Resupply Services program, Dragon began regular cargo flights in October 2012. With the Dragon spacecraft and the Orbital ATK Cygnus, NASA seeks to increase its partnerships with domestic commercial aviation and aeronautics industry. On 3 June 2017, the CRS-11 capsule assembled from flown components from the CRS-4 mission in September 2014, was launched again for the first time, with the hull, structural elements, harnesses, propellant tanks and many of the avionics reused while the heat shield and components exposed to sea water upon splashdown for recovery were replaced.
SpaceX has developed a second version called Dragon 2, which includes the capability to transport people. Flight testing was scheduled to complete in the first half of 2019 with the first flight of astronauts, on a mission contracted to NASA, scheduled to occur the same year. SpaceX's CEO, Elon Musk, named the spacecraft after the 1963 song "Puff, the Magic Dragon" by Peter and Mary as a response to critics who considered his spaceflight projects impossible. SpaceX began developing the Dragon spacecraft in late 2004, making a public announcement in 2006 with a plan of entering service in 2009. In 2006, SpaceX won a contract to use the Dragon spacecraft for commercial resupply services to the International Space Station for the American federal space agency, NASA. In 2005, NASA solicited proposals for a commercial ISS resupply cargo vehicle to replace the then-soon-to-be-retired Space Shuttle, through its Commercial Orbital Transportation Services development program; the Dragon spacecraft was a part of SpaceX's proposal, submitted to NASA in March 2006.
SpaceX's COTS proposal was issued as part of a team, which included MD Robotics, the Canadian company that had built the ISS's Canadarm2. On 18 August 2006, NASA announced that SpaceX had been chosen, along with Kistler Aerospace, to develop cargo launch services for the ISS; the initial plan called for three demonstration flights of SpaceX's Dragon spacecraft to be conducted between 2008 and 2010. SpaceX and Kistler were to receive up to $278 million and $207 million if they met all NASA milestones, but Kistler failed to meet its obligations, its contract was terminated in 2007. NASA re-awarded Kistler's contract to Orbital Sciences. On 23 December 2008, NASA awarded a $1.6 billion Commercial Resupply Services contract to SpaceX, with contract options that could increase the maximum contract value to $3.1 billion. The contract called for 12 flights, with an overall minimum of 20,000 kg of cargo to be carried to the ISS. On 23 February 2009, SpaceX announced that its chosen phenolic-impregnated carbon ablator heat shield material, PICA-X, had passed heat stress tests in preparation for Dragon's maiden launch.
The primary proximity-operations sensor for the Dragon spacecraft, the DragonEye, was tested in early 2009 during the STS-127 mission, when it was mounted near the docking port of the Space Shuttle Endeavour and used while the Shuttle approached the International Space Station. The DragonEye's lidar and thermography abilities were both tested successfully; the COTS UHF Communication Unit and Crew Command Panel were delivered to the ISS during the late 2009 STS-129 mission. The CUCU allows the ISS to communicate with Dragon and the CCP allows ISS crew members to issue basic commands to Dragon. In summer 2009, SpaceX hired former NASA astronaut Ken Bowersox as vice president of their new Astronaut Safety and Mission Assurance Department, in preparation for crews using the spacecraft; as a condition of the NASA CRS contract, SpaceX analyzed the orbital radiation environment on all Dragon systems, how the spacecraft would respond to spurious radiation events. That analysis and the Dragon design – which uses an overall fault-tolerant triple-redundant computer architecture, rather than individual radiation hardening of each computer processor – was reviewed by independent experts before being approved by NASA for the cargo flights.
During March 2015, it was announced that SpaceX had been awarded an additional three missions under Commercial Resupply Services Phase 1. These additional missions are SpaceX CRS-13, SpaceX CRS-14 and SpaceX CRS-15 and would cover the cargo needs of 2017. On 24 February 2016, SpaceNews disclosed that SpaceX had been awarded a further five missions under Commercial Resupply Services Phase 1; this additional tranche of missions had SpaceX CRS-16 and SpaceX CRS-17 manifested for FY2017 while SpaceX CRS-18, SpaceX CRS-19 and SpaceX CRS-20 and were notionally manifested for FY2018. The Commercial Resupply Services 2 contract definition/solicitation period commenced in 2014 and a result announced on 14 January 2016; the CRS-2 launches are expected to commence in 2019, extend to at least 2024. On 14 January 2016, NASA announced that three companies had been awarded contracts for a minimum of six launches each. SpaceX, Orbital ATK and Sierra Nevada Corporation won contracts; the maximum potential value of all the contracts was indicated to be $14Bn but the minimum requir
Radio Wien is the regional radio for Vienna, is part of the Österreich 2 group. It is broadcast by the ORF, the programs from Radio Wien are made in the ORF Wien Studio. Radio Wien plays pop and rock music old songs but newer ones. Most songs are sung in English but you can hear German, French and Portuguese. Here are some examples of artists whose songs are played: from Austria: Wolfgang Ambros, Rainhard Fendrich, Kurt Ostbahn, S. T. S. from the rest of the world: ABBA, The Beach Boys, The Beatles, Bee Gees, Billy Joel, Bruce Springsteen, Chris Rea, Creedence Clearwater Revival, David Bowie, Electric Light Orchestra, Elton John, Elvis Presley, Hot Chocolate, KC and the Sunshine Band, Michael Jackson and the Mechanics, Phil Collins, Queen, Robbie Williams, Rod Stewart, The Rolling Stones, Stevie Wonder, Tina Turner, Toto, U2 Sascha BOCTOR Carola GAUSTERER Alexander GOEBEL Pamela GRÜN Alex JOKEL Gerd KRÄMER Angelika LANG Martin LANG Christian LUDWIG Leila MAHDAVIAN Peter POLEVKOVITS Robert STEINER & Ratte ROLF-RÜDIGER Peter TICHATSCHEK Bernhard VOSICKY Karoline BOCTOR Heidi MISOF Bruni EIGNER Hadschi BANKHOFER Rainer KEPLINGER Julia KORPONAY-PFEIFER Robert JAHN Bernhard WEIHSINGER Ewald WURZINGER Ingrid REHUSCH Gerald HOLZINGER Official website
Rachel Bendayan is a Canadian politician, elected to the House of Commons of Canada in a by-election on February 25, 2019. She represents the electoral district of Outremont as a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. In December 2019, she was asked by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to serve as the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Small Business, Export Promotion and International Trade, Mary Ng, she ran as the Liberal candidate for Outremont in the 2015 Canadian federal election, coming in second and increasing the Liberal Party's vote share by a significant margin. Following the 2015 federal election, Bendayan worked served as Chief of Staff to Minister of Small Business and Tourism, Bardish Chagger
A solid-body musical instrument is a string instrument such as a guitar, bass or violin built without its normal sound box and relying on an electromagnetic pickup system to directly receive the vibrations of the strings. Solid-body instruments are preferred in situations where acoustic feedback may otherwise be a problem and are inherently both less expensive to build and more rugged than acoustic electric instruments; the most well-known solid body instruments are electric bass. These were instrumental in creating new genres of music such as heavy metal. Common woods used in the construction of solid body instruments are ash, maple, korina, spruce and ebony; the first two make up the majority of solid body electric guitars. Solid body instruments have some of the same features as acoustic string instruments. Like a typical string instrument they have a neck with tuners for the strings, a bridge and a fingerboard; the fretboard is a piece of wood placed on the top surface of the neck, extending from the head to the body.
The strings run above the fingerboard. Some fingerboards have bars which the strings are pressed against; this allows musicians to stop the string in the same place. Ebony and maple are used to make the fingerboard; some electric guitar necks do not have a separate piece of wood for the fingerboard surface. All the solid bodies have variations in scale length or, the length of the strings from the nut to the bridge; the action, or the height of the strings from the fingerboard, is adjustable on solid body instruments. Most solid bodies have controls for tone; some have an electronic preamplifier with equalization for low and high frequencies. These are used to shape the sound along with the aid of the main amplifier. Amplifiers allow solid body instruments to be heard at high volumes. Solid-body instruments: Some electric guitars Most bass guitars Electric upright bass Some Electric ukuleles Few electric mandolins Most electric violins Most electric sitars Most electric violas Electric celloSolid-body instruments do not include: Semi-acoustic instruments Electric pianos those with strings such as the electric grand piano Pedal steel guitarElectric lap steel guitars without sounding boards are considered to be solid-body instruments by some authorities, not by others.
This has a major effect on some claims of historical priority, as they predate the first models of solid-body electric guitar, which may otherwise be claimed to be the first commercially successful solid-body instruments. While noting this, it will be assumed that electric lap steels without sounding boards are solid-body instruments for the purposes of this article; the first commercially successful solid-body instrument was the Rickenbacker frying pan lap steel guitar, produced from 1931 to 1939. The first commercially available non lap steel guitar was produced by the Rickenbacker/Electro company, starting in 1931 The model was referred to as the "electric Spanish Guitar" to distinguish it from the "Hawaiian" lap steel; the first commercially successful solid-body electric guitar was the Fender Broadcaster in 1950. A trademark dispute with the Gretsch Corporation who marketed a line of Broadcaster drums led to a name change to the current designation, Fender Telecaster in 1951. Fender produced a one pickup version called the Fender Esquire starting in 1950.
These were followed by the Gibson Les Paul in 1952. Solid Body Electric GuitarsThe solid-body electric guitar is one of the most well-known solid body instruments. Instrumental in rock, metal and country music, the electric guitar has been responsible for creating various sounds; the first commercially available solid-body electric Spanish guitar was produced by the Rickenbacker company in 1931. It is reported that around the same time a solid body was created by Jamaican musician and inventor Hedley Jones. Les Paul, a guitarist, is erroneously credited with inventing the first solid body, but Fender is incorrectly credited as the first to commercially market a solid-body electric guitar, which itself was based on a design by Merle Travis. In the 1940s, Les Paul created a guitar he called the “Log,” which came “from the 4” by 4” solid block of pine which the guitarist had inserted between the sawed halves of the body that he’d just dismembered, he carefully re-joined the neck to the pine log, using some metal brackets.”
He put some pickups that he designed on it. He soon went to companies asking, they turned him down. However, after the Fender Telecaster electric guitar became popular, the Gibson company contacted him and had him endorse a model named after him, the "Les Paul" model, it came out in 1952. While Les Paul was looking for a manufacturer for his log, Leo Fender was working on the Fender Telecaster, it was released in 1950. The Telecaster had a “basic, single-cutaway solid slab of ash for a body and separate screwed-on maple neck was geared to mass production, it had a slanted pickup mounted into a steel bridge-plate carrying three adjustable bridge-saddles.” Its color was blond. It is considered “the world’s first commercially marketed solid body electric guitar.”. The Telecaster continues to be manufactured today; the follow-up to the Telecaster, the Stratocaster, appeared in 1954. It had three pickups instead of two, it had a vibrato bar on the bridge. This allowed players to bend notes. “The contoured body with its beveled corners reduced the chafing on the player’s body.”
It had cutaway above and below the fretboard to allow players easy access to the top f
The Peculiar People were a Christian movement, an offshoot of the Wesleyan denomination, founded in 1838 in Rochford, Essex, by James Banyard, a farm-worker's son born in 1800. They derive their name from a phrase found in both the Old Testament and the New Testament of the King James Bible, in Deuteronomy and 1 Peter. In the King James Version of the Bible, first published in 1611, Deuteronomy 14:2 reads as follows: "For thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God, the Lord hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth." In the King James Version, 1 Peter 2:9 reads thus: "But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people. It will be seen that the phrase'Peculiar People' was not in any way a criticism, but a proud Biblical phrase that could be viewed as a badge of honour; the Peculiar People is a phrase used to describe the Quakers, which they adopted with some pride. Banyard was drunk until his wife asked him to attend a service in the local Wesleyan Methodist chapel.
The preacher's message had a profound effect on Banyard, to the extent that he became teetotal and attended the church. Before long he became a reputable preacher on the Wesleyan circuit. In 1837 he and William Bridges took a lease on an old workhouse at Rochford which became the first chapel of new group, which Banyard and Bridges called the Peculiar People, a name taken from Deuteronomy 14:2 and 1 Peter 2:9; the grave of James Banyard can still be seen in the churchyard of St Andrew's Rochford. In the mid-1850s the Peculiar People spread deeper into Essex, much of, agricultural land occupied by a conservative population; the Peculiar People preached a puritanical form of Christianity which proved popular, numerous chapels sprang up throughout rural Essex. They practised faith healing. There is an account of the Peculiars in 19th-century Plumstead in Unorthodox London by Charles Maurice Davies. In Blunt's Dictionary of Sects and Heresies, the Peculiars were described as'a sect of ignorant people'.
The Peculiar People practised a lively form of worship and considered themselves bound by the literal interpretation of the King James Bible. They did not seek immediate medical care in cases of sickness, instead relying on prayer as an act of faith; this led to judicial criticism. In response to the concern about refusing medical care, which led to some parents being imprisoned after a 1910 diphtheria outbreak in Essex, the sect split between the'Old Peculiars', who still rebuffed medicine, the'New Peculiars', who somewhat reluctantly condoned it; the split healed in the 1930s. During the two world wars, some Peculiar People were conscientious objectors, believing as they still do that war is contrary to the teachings of Jesus Christ. Church membership had peaked in the 1850s with 43 chapels, but it declined until 1956, when the Peculiar People changed their name to the less conspicuous Union of Evangelical Churches; the movement continues with regular worship at 16 remaining chapels in London.
Some of the traditional distinctive features mentioned have been abandoned, so that UEC churches today are similar to other Evangelical churches. The UEC maintains its structure as a connection of churches, but is associated with the Fellowship of Independent Evangelical Churches and Affinity, it has its central office at Eastwood Road Evangelical Church, 36 Eastwood Road, Essex SS6 7JQ. The 16 UEC churches are in Camberwell and Canning Town in London, Chelmsford, Cressing, Daws Heath, Great Wakering, Little Totham, Shoeburyness, Stanford-le-Hope, Stanway and Witham in Essex. Although services had been discontinued at Rayleigh and Stanford-le-Hope and the churches temporarily closed, all three are now home to regular worshipping congregations once again. Union of Evangelical Churches website History of the Peculiar Peoples Churches in Eastern Essex