Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are designed for the sport. Modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion, aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow, it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Russia, the United States and New Zealand. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.
The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð. Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxing ` anling, in. Early historical evidence includes Procopius's description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as "ski running samis". Birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimsson's 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Good's practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis; the Gulating law stated that "No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land." Cross-country skiing evolved from a utilitarian means of transportation to being a worldwide recreational activity and sport, which branched out into other forms of skiing starting in the mid-1800s. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis; the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.
Traditional skis, used for snow travel in Norway and elsewhere into the 1800s comprised one short ski with a natural fur traction surface, the andor, one long for gliding, the langski—one being up to 100 cm longer than the other—allowing skiers to propel themselves with a scooter motion. This combination has a long history among the Sami people. Skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century; these troops were able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry. The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, the Danish-Norwegian army included specialized skiing battalions from 1747—details of military ski exercises from 1767 are on record. Skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary: Norwegian immigrants used skis in the US midwest from around 1836.
Norwegian immigrant "Snowshoe Thompson" transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at a target while skiing at "top speed", downhill racing among trees, downhill racing on large slopes without falling, "long racing" on "flat ground". An early record of a public ski competition occurred in Tromsø, 1843. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in groomed tracks in the shortest possible time".
In Norway, ski touring competitions are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is within age intervals. A new technique, skate skiing, was experimented with early in the 20th Century, but was not adopted until the 1980s. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing; this technique was used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. It became widespread during the 1980s after the success of Bill Koch in 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the skating style. Norwegian skier Ove Aunli started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Finnish skier, Pauli Siitonen, developed a one-sided variant of the style in the 1970s, leaving one ski in the track while skating to the side with the other one during endurance events; the word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð which means "cleft wood", "stick of wood" or "ski".
Norwegian language does not use a verb-form equivalent in idiomatic speech, unlike English "to ski". In modern Norwegian, a variety of terms refer to cross-country skiing, including: gå på ski —a general term for self-propelled skiing turgå
The Molinere Underwater Sculpture Park is a collection of ecological underwater contemporary art located in the Caribbean sea off the west coast of Grenada, West Indies and was created by British sculptor Jason deCaires Taylor. In May 2006 the world's first underwater sculpture park was open for public viewing. Taylor's aim was to engage local people with the underwater environment that surrounds them using his works which are derived from life casts of the local community, he installed concrete figures onto the ocean floor consisting of a range of human forms, from solitary individuals to a ring of children holding hands, facing into the oceanic currents. The Sculpture park, which began construction in 2006 is situated on the sandy ocean floor in the barren Molinere Bay and it now acts as an aid to relieve pressure on natural reefs which have become popular among water sports enthusiasts in nearby Flamingo Bay, the most visited snorkelling destination on the island. There are over sixty-five concrete individual sculptures covering an area of over 800 square meters and in total weigh around 15 tonnes in dry cement.
There has been some debate as to the intention of the park and whether it was a dedication to the slaves that were thrown overboard during the journey through the Middle Passage from West Africa to the Americas. In response the artist says "It was never my intention to have any connection to the Middle passage. Although it was not my intention from the outset I am encouraged how it has resonated differently within various communities and feel it is working as an art piece by questioning our identity and stimulating debate."- Jason d Caires Taylor. The sculpture park is accessible via boat from the main port of St Georges or Grand Anse Bay on the West coastline; the sculptures are situated in a variety of depths of water with a maximum of 12 meters, the park is visited daily by scuba divers and glass bottom boats. A local artist on the island has added new works to the sculpture park; the coral reef around Grenada suffered damage from Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and Emily in 2005. It has been recorded that only 10–15% of the seabed has a substratum solid enough for natural reefs to grow upon and it can take between 10 and 80 years for hard coral to develop.
While it is predicted that up to 60% of natural coral reefs may be depleted by 2050. The sculptures have been designed to promote coral growth using techniques to reduce the pH of the cement and by applying a textured surface; this encourages coral polyps to attach onto the surface and the structure becomes a sanctuary for small marine life. Over time coral will change their appearance and the tides will enhance the texture applied bringing with it new inhabitants. Taylor's sculptures have been shown to be a home to an array of aquatic life: including, parrot fish, Branded coral shrimp and fire worms. Artificial reef constructions like Taylor's and those from a US company Reef Ball are designed and constructed using resilient and environmentally responsive materials, they are positioned in the ocean at the correct time of year to coincide with coral spawning, in an area that has suffered previous substantial decimation from storm damage. His works carry the aim of relieving the strain placed on the natural coral reef by human pollution, overfishing, by redirecting divers and snorkelers away from natural reefs to endorse the opportunity for repair and regeneration.
In an article in Symposium Magazine Taylor quotes "The underwater sculpture gallery is a project aiming to create a unique space which highlights environmental processes and explores the complex relationships between art and its environment. This unique project will provide an unparalleled opportunity to explore a dynamic seascape and to appreciate the island's beauty and diversity". Grace Reef was installed in 2006 at a depth of 12 feet; the first installation in the hurricane damaged bay of Molinere and consists of 16 concrete statues cast from the body of a local Grenadian woman and positioned lying down on the sea floor. After 14 months the figures had begun to distort with the inhabitation of life; the Lost Correspondent was installed in 2006 at a depth of 22 feet. Referenced to be a modern day Vesuvius disaster, he is a lone concrete figure at a desk poised over a typewriter; the surface of the desk is covered with a selection of newspaper articles dating back to the 1970s with many holding political significance from the Cuban alignment before the revolution.
The Unstill Life, installed in 2006 at a depth of 25 feet, is a classical study of an artist's still life using simple modern day objects like a table and fruit bowl. The static sculpture overtime has its appearance changed by the course of nature. Vicissitudes, installed in 2007 at a depth of 14 feet, is Taylor's most recognised work in the park: a ring of 26 standing children, holding hands and facing outwards into the current; the design took six months to make, weighed 15 tonnes in dry cement and was constructed to withstand strong currents and tidal motion. The ring symbolises the concept of life's ongoing cycle and highlights the importance of creating a sustainable and well managed environment for future generations, holding reference to the ability of children adapt to their surroundings; the Fall From Grace, installed in 2007 at a depth of 21 feet, is a life size male figure riding a bicycle. After 8 months in the ocean, aquatic life was making it a home. Tam CC Project was installed in 2007 at a depth of 6 feet.
It is a construction of 18 concrete heads fixed to a rock face in shallow water. Casts were made of students faces from T. A. Marryshow Community College, Grenada. Marine biology – The scientific study of organisms t
Robert Balchin, Baron Lingfield is a British educationalist, noted as an advocate and pioneer for school autonomy. Lord Lingfield serves as Chairman of the Trustees of ARNI, he is the Chairman of the League of Mercy and a Deputy Lieutenant of Greater London. He served as Director-General of St. John Ambulance from 1984 to 1990 and was chairman of the Grant-Maintained Schools Centre from 1989 until 1999, he has been Chairman of the Centre for Education Management since 1995. Knighted in 1993, becoming styled as Sir Robert Balchin, he was raised to the peerage as a Life Peer on 17 December 2010 as Baron Lingfield, of Lingfield in the County of Surrey, he was Knight Principal of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor from 2006 to 2012, he has served as Honorary Colonel of Humberside and South Yorkshire ACF since 2004. The cadet-commandant of Yorkshire Army Cadet Force, Colonel Alan Roberts, OBE, TD, is a long-term associate of Lord Lingfield, serving as gentleman usher of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor, receiving an honorary doctorate from Brunel University and being appointed a companion of the Order of Mercy.
A Freeman of the City of London, he is a liveryman of the Goldsmiths', Broderers', Apothecaries' companies. Lord Lingfield sits on the Conservative benches in the House of Lords, he speaks in parliament on education matters, he has written numerous articles on education and politics. His schools initiative was proclaimed by The Daily Telegraph's deputy editor, Benedict Brogan, as: " first and, as time passes the most important legislative milestone achieved by the Coalition". - Life Peer as Baron Lingfield, of Lingfield, in the County of Surrey - Knight Bachelor - Knight of Justice, Order of St John - Commander, pro Merito Melitensi - Knight Grand Cross, Royal Order of Francis I - Knight Grand Cross, Order of the Eagle Lingfield, Surrey Life peers Profile, Debrett's People of Today Profile, dodonline.co.uk Profile, Who's Who
Grand Bay is a 13,000-acre swamp located in Lanier County and Lowndes County, Georgia. It consists of Grand Bay Wildlife Management Area, an educational wildlife area, Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge, a recreational and educational lake; the Grand Bay Wetland Education Center is operated as a partnership by the Coastal Plains Regional Educational Service Agency and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. The Center features a boardwalk, education rooms and observation tower, offers environmental education programs about the wetlands, field trips and accredited teacher training; the center teaches students about the relationship of plants and animals, with a focus on wetland ecology and plant identification, air quality, plant adaptations. Grand Bay Wetland Education Center - Coastal Plains Regional Educational Service Agency Grand Bay Wildlife Management Area - Georgia Department of Natural Resources Media related to Grand Bay Wetlands Management Area at Wikimedia Commons
Thabiso Enoch Nkwe is a South African cricket coach and former first-class cricketer. He played 42 first-class and 38 List A matches for Lions and Gauteng between 2002 and 2009 before becoming a coach, he is South Africa’s interim Team Director. Nkwe was born in Johannesburg, he played soccer until the age of 11 when his junior school coach, Marcus Mogari, introduced him to cricket. This led to him being awarded a cricket scholarship to attend St Stithians College in Johannesburg. Nkwe made a century on his first-class debut for Gauteng against Easterns at the age of 19 in 2002, he was the first black South African player to do so and only the 13th Gauteng player to achieve this. His form earned him a call up to the National Academy in 2003, his career was cut short at the age of 26 due to a wrist injury. Nkwe joined Dutch club HCC Rood en Wit as player-coach and won the Hoofdklasse in 2005 and 2010. In 2010 he was named Head Coach of Gauteng under-19s before being named Assistant Coach of the South Africa under-19 team in 2011 under Head Coach, Ray Jennings Following his success with Gauteng, Nkwe became Head Coach of the Lions Cubs and led them to the CSA Cubs Week title in 2013.
In the same year, he was named Head Coach of Gauteng Strikers with whom he won all three Cricket South Africa competitions between 2013 and 2016. He was named CSA Amateur Coach of the Year in 2015. In 2016, Nkwe joined the Netherlands National Cricket Team as Assistant Coach to Anton Roux, he returned to South Africa in 2018 to take over as Head Coach of the Highveld Lions winning both the CSA T20 Challenge and the 4Day Sunfoil Series the following year. He was named Head Coach of Jozi Stars in the inaugural Mzansi Super League in 2018, winning the tournament. In the same year he joined Vancouver Knights as Assistant Coach in the Canada Global T20 where the team finished runners up. In August 2019, Nkwe was named interim Team Director of the South African National Team. Nkwe resides between the Netherlands with his wife and one child. Enoch Nkwe at ESPNcricinfo Coaching the Enoch Nkwe way Enoch Nkwe: Who is the Proteas new man in charge
José Luis Fidalgo Veloso was a Spanish footballer who played as a striker. He amassed La Liga totals of 84 games and 33 goals over the course of six seasons, representing Deportivo and Real Madrid. Born in Santiago de Compostela, Veloso played professionally with Deportivo de La Coruña, Real Madrid, CD Ourense and Rayo Vallecano. With the second club he was used exclusively as a reserve, but still managed to score nine goals in only 16 games in the 1966–67 season to win the first of his three La Liga championships with the team. Veloso returned in 1973 at the age of 36, after one year with local SD Compostela in the lower leagues. Veloso earned four caps for Spain in seven months. Two of his three goals came in the qualifying phase for the 1964 European Nations' Cup, which the country won as hosts – he was overlooked for the finals, however. Veloso died on 13 November 2019, at the age of 82. Real Madrid La Liga: 1966–67, 1967–68, 1968–69 European Cup: 1965–66 Pichichi Trophy: 1960–61 José Luis Veloso at BDFutbol José Luis Veloso at National-Football-Teams.com