The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
TCBY is an American chain of frozen yogurt stores. It is one of the largest U. S. retailers of soft-serve frozen yogurt. In 1981, Frank D. Hickingbotham opened the first TCBY in Arkansas. TCBY began franchising the following year, by 1984 there were over 100 stores. Prior to 1984, the company's name was "This Can't Be Yogurt," but a lawsuit from a competitor, I Can't Believe It's Yogurt!, forced TCBY to create a new name from its initials using "The Country's Best Yogurt". TCBY began co-branding with Taco Bell, McDonald's, Burger King in 1995. In 1991 TCBY moved into the tallest building in Arkansas, Simmons Tower located in downtown Little Rock, the building was renamed The TCBY Tower until 2000 when TCBY vacated. Mrs. Fields became Mrs. Fields Famous Brands. In the summer of 2010, the company opened a prototype store in Salt Lake City, operating under a different business model. Instead of customers ordering and being served in a traditional fashion, they serve themselves using any combination of available yogurt flavors, add their own mix of fruit or candy toppings, pay by the ounce.
In 2001, there were 1,777 TCBY locations across the country. By 2011, there were just 405. Pct. of stores closed: 77.2% Total stores: 405 Stores closed: 1,372 2011 sales: $98 million Pct. decline in sales: -60.4% TCBY offers frozen yogurt in a variety of flavors. The chain serves hard scooped and soft serve yogurt, while newer concept stores only offer soft serve; the new concept stores follow a self-service model, with customers being charged by weight. Soft serve yogurt comes in Golden Vanilla and White Chocolate Mousse flavors which are available daily, in addition to various rotating flavors. TCBY serves drinks such as Berriyo yogurt smoothies and Frappe Chillers. In September 2010, TCBY announced the test launch of breakfast and lunch meal replacement bowls and smoothies made from non-frozen "fresh" yogurt called Yovana-Simply Yogurt in two self-service company stores in its headquarters of Salt Lake City. In May 2011, TCBY launched Super Fro-Yo, a reformulated version of its yogurt with a more nutrient-rich profile.
The company brought down the fat content of its yogurt to below 2 percent, so it can be labeled low fat. On January 10, 2012, TCBY launched a Greek frozen yogurt product. TCBY is the first frozen yogurt chain; every year, TCBY offers mothers across the nation a free frozen yogurt on Mother's Day, fathers a free frozen yogurt on Father's Day. In October 2009, TCBY launched the "This Could Be Yours: The Great TCBY Store Giveaway," a contest that rewarded one person with his or her own TCBY store. To enter, contestants submitted a video, no longer than two minutes, explaining why they should be the recipient of their own TCBY, why their town is the perfect location, what they have to offer the brand. Submissions were judged on a sense of business acumen and originality. Videos were accepted until November 30, 2009, but the deadline was extended until March 31, 2010. On May 26, 2010, it was announced that the winners of the contest were Jared and Sarah Greer of Fayetteville, Ark; the Greers opened their store in April 2011 in Rogers, Ark. with TCBY's new self-serve prototype and store design.
List of frozen yogurt companies List of frozen dessert brands Official website TCBY Franchises
GNC Holdings Inc. is a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based American company selling health and nutrition related products, including vitamins, minerals, sports nutrition and energy products. In 1935, David Shakarian opened Lackzoom, in downtown Pittsburgh, he was able to open a second store within six months. A year Shakarian suffered from what appeared to be a fatal blow when the Ohio River flooded into downtown on St. Patrick's Day. Both of his stores were wiped out. However, he rebuilt both stores, opened five more by 1941; the company registered as a corporation on September 1, 1936 Shakarian moved into the mail order business during WWII. He said that customers sent him a check and asked him to mail their product as they could not drive to his store due to the gas rationing which happened during WWII. During the health food craze of the 1960s, Shakarian expanded his chain outside Pittsburgh for the first time, in the process changed its name to General Nutrition Center, he continued to run the chain until his death in 1984.
Shakarian took GNC public in the 1980s. Overexpansion and his death in 1984 resulted in a leveraged GNC; the Shakarian family decided to sell GNC shortly after his death. The family brought in a "turn around" executive, Jerry Horn, with instructions to "stop the bleeding" and position GNC to be sold. In 1990 the company considered relocating but a public/private effort retained GNC headquarters in Downtown Pittsburgh. GNC was taken private and sold to The Thomas Lee Company, a PE investment/management fund in the late 1980s. Thomas Lee ran GNC and took it public prior to selling the company to Royal Dutch Numico and Numico acquired GNC in 1999. Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan and Ares Management bought GNC in 2007. GNC went public in 2011. In 2018, Harbin Pharmaceutical Group Holding Co. a company controlled by the Chinese government, agreed to acquire an 40% stake in GNC. GNC stores stock a wide range of weight loss, nutritional supplements, natural remedies, health and beauty products, in both its owned brands as well as third-party brands.
The stores sell health and fitness books and magazines. GNC has more than 6,000 stores in the U. S. including 1,100 store-within-a-store locations within Rite Aid, as well as locations in 49 other countries. In addition, GNC LiveWell has 41 Stores located in Brisbane and Melbourne in Australia. GNC retail stores are a combination of franchised stores. In addition to the GNC.com website, GNC's products are sold on drugstore.com. In 1998, GNC was accused of purposely running its franchisees out of business in order to "retake" the stores into corporate control. An April 30, 2003 article states that the GNC corporate company was sued by numerous franchise owners; the complaint is that the parent company was allowing their corporate owned stores to sell products for less than the franchise stores are allowed to sell them for. The suit claimed that GNC charged high "reset fees" to franchisees when there is new signage that needs to be changed in the store or an image facelift that must be done by GNC corporate.
A similar lawsuit was filed again in an article written on October 20, 2004. In February 2015, New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman sent cease and desist letters to GNC and other major retailers due to concerning laboratory tests regarding the accuracy of the claimed contents of supplements. GNC shortly afterwards removed some stock from sales. In September 2016, GNC, the New York Office of the Attorney General, other supplement retailers came to an agreement and retailers are now accomplishing more robust testing of supplements to ensure accurate labeling. In October 2015, the Attorney General of Oregon filed a lawsuit against GNC alleging that the company knowingly sold products containing the ingredients picamilon and BMPEA, which are banned by the FDA. On February 2, 2017, GNC threatened to sue the Fox Broadcasting Company for "significant economic and reputational damages, lost opportunities, consequential damages", after an advertisement for the chain was blocked from airing during Super Bowl LI.
Despite repeated approvals by Fox, the network stated that the ad had been vetoed by the National Football League because of GNC's placement on an NFLPA blacklist for selling products that contain substances banned by the NFL. The letter of intent claimed that Fox had not informed them of any such rules when they purchased the ad time, cited that the purchase induced them to "spend millions of dollars in production costs and in the development of a national, coordinated marketing and rebranding campaign" around the commercial; the NFL itself does not prohibit ads for health stores unless they contain references to specific prohibited products. GNC | Official Website
Century 21 (department store)
Century 21 Department Stores LLC is a chain of department stores in the northeastern United States, headquartered in New York City. The company was founded in 1961, by Sonny Gindi, Ralph Gindi, Al Gindi; the original store is located at 472 86th Street in Brooklyn. Founder Al Gindi's son, Raymond Gindi serves as Century 21's chief operating officer; the Century 21 flagship location is at 22 Cortland St. in Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States of America. It occupies the base a 34 story office tower; the store became an emotional flashpoint after the September 11, 2001 attacks. The store was evacuated after the first plane hit the World Trade Center, the interior was damaged from the collapse of the Twin Towers, it was not certain that the store would be rebuilt, but the owners opted to remain at the same site and the store was renovated and reopened in the summer of 2002. Thousands of people waited hours on the morning of the reopening so they could have a sales receipt from that day.
On October 28, 2014, the firm opened its first location outside of the greater New York area, housed on 2 floors of the former Strawbridge's flagship on Market Street in Center City Philadelphia. They opened a location at the Sawgrass Mills in Sunrise, FL. Official website
LensCrafters is an American retailer of prescription eyewear and prescription sunglasses, the largest optical chain in the United States, with about 90 stores in California alone. It was founded in 1983 in the U. S. and has subsequently expanded to over 850 stores in the United States and Hong Kong. The stores feature independent optometrists on-site or in an adjacent store; the company has its corporate headquarters in a suburb of Cincinnati. LensCrafters is a wholly owned subsidiaries of Italy-based Luxottica, the largest eyewear company in the world; the company was founded in 1983 by a manager with Procter & Gamble. Butler sold the company to the United States Shoe Corporation in 1985 and remained as President until 1987, when Bannus Hudson replaced him. In 1990 Hudson became CEO of US Shoe and Dave Browne became CEO of LensCrafters. LensCrafters had just three locations when U. S. Shoe purchased it. S. Shoe's operating income. In 1995, Luxottica launched a hostile takeover attempt of U. S. Shoe, with the goal of acquiring LensCrafters.
Luxottica announced in April 1995 that it had reached an agreement to purchase U. S. Shoe for $1.4 billion. LensCrafters India, has opened its first store at Mall of Noida. LensCrafters presents one of the most advanced and comprehensive eye-health examinations available in the country. Media related to LensCrafters at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Westchester County, New York
Westchester County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. It is the second-most populous county on the mainland of New York, after the Bronx, the most populous county in the state north of New York City. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to have increased by 3.3% to 980,244 by 2017. Situated in the Hudson Valley, Westchester covers an area of 450 square miles, consisting of six cities, 19 towns, 23 villages. Established in 1683, Westchester was named after the city of England; the county seat is the city of White Plains, while the most populous municipality in the county is the city of Yonkers, with an estimated 200,807 residents in 2016. The annual per capita income for Westchester was $67,813 in 2011; the 2011 median household income of $77,006 was the fifth highest in New York and the 47th highest in the United States. By 2014, the county's median household income had risen to $83,422. Westchester County ranks second in the state after New York County for median income per person, with a higher concentration of incomes in smaller households.
Westchester County had the highest property taxes of any county in the United States in 2013. Westchester County is one of the centrally located counties within the New York metropolitan area; the county is positioned with Nassau and Suffolk counties, to its south. Westchester was the first suburban area of its scale in the world to develop, due to the upper-middle-class development of entire communities in the late 19th century and the subsequent rapid population growth; because of Westchester's numerous road and mass transit connections to New York City, as well as its shared border with the Bronx, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen much of the county the southern portion, become nearly as densely developed as New York City itself. At the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Native American inhabitants of present-day Westchester County were part of the Algonquian peoples, whose name for themselves was Lenape, meaning the people, they called the region Lenapehoking, which consisted of the area around and between the Delaware and Hudson Rivers.
Several different tribes occupied the area, including The Manhattans, the Weckquaesgeek and Siwanoy bands of the Wappinger in the south, Tankiteke and Kitchawank Wappinger in the north. The first European explorers to visit the Westchester area were Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Dutch settlers began arriving in the 1620s, followed by settlers from England in the 1640s. Westchester County was one of the original twelve counties of the Province of New York, created by an act of the New York General Assembly in 1683. At the time it included present-day Bronx County, abutted then-Dutchess County to the north. By 1775, Westchester was the richest and most populous county in the colony of New York. Although the Revolutionary War devastated the county, recovery after the war was rapid. In 1788, five years after the end of the war, the county was divided into 20 towns. In 1798, the first federal census recorded a population of 24,000 for the county. Two developments in the first half of the 19th century – the construction of the first Croton Dam and Aqueduct, the coming of the railroad – had enormous impacts on the growth of Westchester.
The Croton Dam and Aqueduct was begun in 1837 and completed in 1842. In the 1840s, the first railroads were built in Westchester, included the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Hudson River Railroad, the New York and New Haven Railroad; the railroads determined the growth of a town, the population shifted from Northern to Southern Westchester. By 1860, the total county population was 99,000, with the largest city being Yonkers; the period following the American Civil War enabled entrepreneurs in the New York area to create fortunes, many built large estates, such as Lyndhurst, in Westchester. During the latter half of the 19th century, Westchester's transportation system and labor force attracted a manufacturing base along the Hudson River and Nepperhan Creek. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County, in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County; these would split from Manhattan to form a county. During the 20th century, the rural character of Westchester would transform into the suburban county known today.
The Bronx River Parkway, completed in 1925, was the first modern, multi-lane limited-access roadway in North America. The development of Westchester's parks and parkway systems supported existing communities and encouraged the establishment of new ones, transforming the development pattern for Westchester. With the need for homes expanding after World War II, multistory apartment houses appeared in the urbanized areas of the county, while the market for single-family houses continued to expand. By 1950, the total County population was 625,816. Major interstate highways were constructed in Westchester during the 1960s; the establishment of these roadways, along with the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge, led to further growth in the county. Westchester County is located in southern New York known as Downstate, it shares its southern boundary with its northern border with Putnam County. It is bordered on the west
Sports Authority, Inc. was a sports retailer in the United States, headquartered in Englewood, Colorado. At its peak, Sports Authority operated more than 460 stores in 45 U. S. states and Puerto Rico. The company's website was on the GSI Commerce platform and supported the retail stores as well as other multi-channel programs. A joint venture with ÆON Co. Ltd. operates "Sports Authority" stores in Japan over a licensing agreement. On March 2, 2016, Sports Authority filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, but the case was converted to Chapter 7 a few months later. On May 18, 2016, the company's stores were sold to a group of liquidators and on May 25, CEO Michael Foss announced that all of the stores would close by the end of August 2016. On June 30, 2016, Dick's Sporting Goods won the auction for Sports Authority's brand name and intellectual property. On July 15, 2016, the online store closed operations, redirecting users to the Dick's Sporting Goods website. On July 21, 2016, the purchase of Sports Authority's intellectual property by rival Dick's Sporting Goods was approved.
Gart Sports began in 1928, when Denver Post newspaper carrier Nathan Gart started the company with $50 in fishing rod samples. In 1971, Gart Sports Company opened the "Sportscastle" superstore in Denver, Colorado at the corner of 10th Avenue and Broadway; the 1980s marked a period of substantial growth for the company through a series of acquisitions. These mergers included Hagan's Sports Stevens Brown of Salt Lake City. In the fall of 1992, Leonard Green & Partners acquired Thrifty and became the company's largest shareholder. At the same time that Gart Sports Company opened the Sportscastle, the Hochberg family and the Cantor family opened their first Sportmart in Niles, Illinois; the company grew to 60 stores in nine states. Gart Sports and Sportmart merged in 1998. Sportmart operated in Canada in the 1990s before closing down their operations after two years. Oshman's Sporting Goods was founded in Texas in 1919 by Jake Oshman. By 1965, Oshman's had become the largest sporting goods chain in Texas, operating 43 Oshman's SuperSports USA stores and 15 traditional stores.
The Sports Authority, Inc. was founded in Lakes Mall in Lauderdale Lakes, Florida by a syndicate of venture capital groups and several key founding executives. Jack A. Smith COO of Herman's World of Sports, CEO; the venture capital syndicate was led by William Blair Venture Partners and included First Chicago Venture Partners, Bain Capital, Phillips-Smith Venture Partners, Marquette Venture Partners, Bessemer Securities. The Sports Authority, Inc. opened its first store in November 1987 in Florida. In 1990, Kmart acquired the company. Five years The Sports Authority had expanded to 136 stores in 26 states, was spun off from parent Kmart, its headquarters were near Fort Lauderdale. Gart Sports, which operated Oshman's and Sportmart, completed a "merger of equals" with Sports Authority on August 4, 2003. At the time of its merger with Gart Sports Company, The Sports Authority was the largest full-line sporting goods retailer in the United States, had 205 stores in 33 states; the combined company took the Sports Authority name.
With the merger, each share of Sports Authority was exchanged with 0.37 shares of Gart Sports which gave investors in each about 50% of the new merchant. The new company was based in Englewood, the home of Gart Sports; as of May 2006, the remaining stores that were not operating under the Sports Authority name were re-branded to the Sports Authority name. In January 2006, Sports Authority agreed to be purchased in a leveraged buyout by affiliates of Leonard Green & Partners, a private equity investment firm, in a transaction valued at $1.4 billion. Shareholders approved the deal in May 2006. Upon completion of the merger, Sports Authority ceased to be a publicly listed stock. There were no public bonds outstanding, Sports Authority no longer filed financial statements with the SEC. In August 2006, Copeland's Sports, headquartered in San Luis Obispo, California filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and on November 17, 2006, Sports Authority, through a wholly owned subsidiary, assumed the leasehold interests in seven former Copeland's Sports retail store locations.
Sports Authority launched new store brand "S. A. Elite" in mid-2010, based on consumer testing; these stores are smaller than typical Sports Authority outlets and carry high-end sports apparel and accessories. On February 4, 2016, it was reported that Sports Authority was set to declare Chapter 11 bankruptcy, due to debt problems; that month, The Dallas Morning News reported that the company planned to close all 25 of its stores in Texas. The report did not specify a date for the closures. On March 2, 2016, Sports Authority filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. After considering restructuring, Sports Authority announced that on April 26, they would sell all of their assets, including all of the remaining store locations. Earlier in April, Reuters reported that Academy Sports + Outdoors and Dick's Sporting Goods had expressed interest in purchasing Sports Authority's assets. On May 3, 2016, the company notified the US Bankruptcy Court that it would not reorganize its debt but would auction its assets.
Contrary to media reports, the company announced it would not be liquidating its assets, but would be auctioning off its stores and operations, with the intended goal of keeping all of its stores open. On May 18, however, it was annou