Crossing of the Düna

The Crossing of the Düna took place during the Great Northern War on July 19 1701 near the city of Riga, present-day Latvia. The Swedish king Charles XII was in hot pursuit of king Augustus II the Strong of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Saxony; the crossing was made, the coalition troops were broken and retreated. During the first year of fighting in the Great Northern War, Charles XII of Sweden had delivered two crushing defeats on his enemies. In July 1700, he forced Frederick IV of Denmark out of the coalition against Sweden, after a brief landing on Humlebæk, he settled to aid the besieged Narva. On his arrival, late November, he managed to decisively defeat the Russians despite being outnumbered, in the battle of Narva, which led to an end of the Russian campaign for the year. Charles turned his attention against the south and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to deal with his last opponent—August the Strong—before going into Russia; the combined Saxon–Russian army of 29,000 men had entrenched themselves across the 600 meter wide river of Düna under the command of Adam Heinrich von Steinau.

Orders were sent from the Swedish king to the governor-general of Livonia, Erik Dahlbergh, in preparations for the crossing before the arrival of the Swedish main army. Dahlbergh was ordered to obtain around 200 landing boats of different sizes and was instructed to build a bridge in order to transfer the cavalry across the river; the operation was supposed to be done in strict confidentiality to ensure a surprise attack on the enemies. The Swedish army of 14,000 men arrived at Riga on July 17, by the time, preparations for the attack were completed. However, bad weather ruined the Swedish plans to attack and the assault had to be postponed. A Swedish cavalry regiment was left to threaten Kokenhusen forcing Steinau to split his forces, thus the bulk of his army stayed across Riga; the allied army was under the command of Saxon general Otto Arnold von Paykull and Ferdinand Kettler of Courland, who were both ensured of an easy victory. In their confidence, they prioritized their numbers, advantageous position and Saxon courage in superiority over the Swedes.

Prior to the battle, Kettler pronounced: "even a superior force of three hundred thousands Swedes, would still not be enough, to achieve any progress with the crossing". The Saxon army was, deployed a distance away from the beach, to ensure only a few Swedish regiments to land, before it would massively strike with its full capacity to drive the Swedes back and capture the Swedish king. During the evening of July 18, a little more than 6,000 Swedish infantry and 535 cavalry troops started to embark their landing boats in silence. Swedish guns from Riga had continually bombarded the allied entrenchments across the river the same day and would continue doing so throughout the night and landing. After all the troops were embarked, the Swedes first torched some small boats on fire and pushed them out the river to obstruct the view for the allies with the deception at four o'clock in the morning of the 19th, the attack began. During their halfway reach, when the landing boats had gone around the island of Fossenholm, they got discovered and fired at.

The four Swedish floating batteries returned fire, after half an hour the Swedes reached the beach and was thrown into fight against Saxon scouting patrols. When about 3,000 Swedish troops were ashore, the Saxons launched their first gathered assault of 3,500 men. However, the Swedish force under the personal command of the king himself, would not retreat and the attack was beaten back; the Swedes sequentially stormed and took the nearby Garras redoubt which seized them ground of at least 200 steps inshore where they managed to establish a good foothold, covering the ongoing construction of the floating bridge. After having a brief stalemate, the Swedes formed up to initiate a second attack made by the Saxon general Otto Arnold von Paykull who intended to drive them back before the arrival of further Swedish reinforcements; this attack, as the previous one, was repulsed. By this time the Saxon general Adam Heinrich von Steinau returned from Kokenhusen with large reinforcements and gained the command.

He ordered a third assault on the Swedish stand, which at this time had every man ready from the landing. Since the Swedish left flank was protected by the river, Steinau gathered his cavalry in an attempt to attack the Swedish right, rather unprotected; the attack had some success at first, but was subsequently beaten off after an ongoing attack in the rear by the Swedish cavalry. At seven o'clock in the morning, Saxon commander Heinrich von Steinau went for a council of war with his generals and decided to withdraw from the battle. Another wave was thrown at the Swedes. However, bad weather prevented final constructions of the bridge which denied the crossing of the Swedish cavalry and so August II slipped away with his army; the Swedes lost another 400 wounded. The allied forces lost about 1,300 dead and wounded and another 700 captured. 36 artillery pieces and four standards and banners had been conquered by the Swedes. After the battle Charles laid siege and took Mitau and stormed the Cobron redoubt where 400 Russians were stationed, o


Carjacking is a robbery in which the item taken over is a motor vehicle. A common crime in many places in the world, carjacking has been the subject of legislative responses, criminology studies, prevention efforts. Commercial vehicles such as trucks and armored cars may be targets of carjacking attempts; the term carjacking was coined in 1991. The word is a portmanteau of hijacking; the term was coined by EJ Mitchell with The Detroit News. The News first used the term in a 1991 report on the murder of Ruth Wahl, a 22-year-old Detroit drugstore cashier, killed when she would not surrender her Suzuki Sidekick, in an investigative report examining the rash of what Detroit Police call "robbery armed unlawful driving away an automobile" plaguing Detroit. A study published in the British Journal of Criminology in 2003 found that "for all of the media attention it has received in the United States and elsewhere, carjacking remains an under-researched and poorly understood crime." The study authors conducted semi-structured interviews with 28 active carjackers in St. Louis and based on these interviews concluded that "the decision to commit a carjacking stems most directly from a situated interaction between particular sorts of perceived opportunities and particular sorts of perceived needs and desires, this decision is activated and shaped by participation in urban street culture."A study published in the Journal of Contemporary Ethnography in 2013 noted that "carjacking requires offenders to neutralize victims who are inherently mobile and who can use their vehicles as both weapons and shields."

The study noted. A 2008 paper by the Australian Institute of Criminology conceptualized carjackings as falling into four types based on method and motive: organized and instrumental and acquisitive, opportunistic and instrumental, opportunistic and acquisitive. An example of an organized and instrumental carjacking is a planned carjacking with a weapon to use the vehicle for ram an ATM to steal cash. An example of an organized and acquisitive carjacking is a planned carjacking to sell the vehicle in a known market. An example of an opportunistic and instrumental carjacking is a carjacking without a weapon to sell "vehicle/parts with no market in mind." An example of an opportunistic and acquisitive carjacking is a carjacking without a weapon to joyride. A 2017 qualitative study published in Justice Quarterly examined auto theft and carjacking in the context of "sanction threats" that promoted fear and influenced "crime preferences" among criminals, thereby redirecting criminal activity; the study showed that "auto thieves are reluctant to embrace the violence of carjacking due to concerns over sanction threat severity they attributed to carjacking—both formal and informal.

Meanwhile, the carjackers are reticent to enact auto theft because of the more uncertain and putatively greater risk of being surprised by victims, a fear that appears to overcome the enhanced long-term formal penalty of taking a vehicle by force." Common carjacking ruses include: bumping the victim's vehicle from behind, taking the car when the victim gets out of the vehicle to assess damage and exchange information. Police departments, security agencies, auto insurers have published lists of strategies for preventing and responding to carjackings. Common recommendations include: Staying alert and being aware of one's surroundings Parking in well-lighted areas Keeping vehicle doors locked and windows up Avoiding unfamiliar or high-crime areas Alerting police as soon as safely possible following a carjacking Avoid isolated and less-well-trafficked parking lots, ATMs, pay phones, etc; when stopped in traffic, keeping some distance between the vehicle in front, so one can pull away if necessary.

If confronted, it is safer to give up the vehicle and avoid resisting Commercial vehicles such as trucks and armored cars may be targets of carjacking attempts. Such carjackings may be aimed at stealing cargo, such as liquor, cigarettes, or consumer electronics. In other cases, a carjacked truck may be used to commit another crime, such as robbery or a terrorist attack. Knowledge of the location of a truck carrying valuable cargo requires inside information, sometimes truck drivers collude with truck carjackers to facilitate the truck carjacking; this crime is perpetuated by organized crime operations or by career criminals, or by a collaboration between the two. In particular, La Cosa Nostra has been known to orchestrate stages truck carjackings. Carjacking is a significant problem in South Africa. South Africa is thought to have the highest carjacking rate in the world. There were 16,000 reported carjackings in 1998; the figures dropped to 12,434 reported carjackings in 2005, continued to drop until the 2011–12, when the number of carjackings was 9,475, a record low.

Subsequently, carjackings increased as part of an overall increase in violent organized crime, which the Institute for Security Studies attributed to poor police leadership. There were 11,221 reported carjackings in 2014. More than half of all carja

Tathagata Mukherjee

Tathagata Mukherjee is an Indian film and television actor and an independent filmmaker based in Kolkata. He played the main lead in many Bengali soap operas. Tathagata Mukherjee studied at the Baranagore Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama High School, thereafter studied drama at Rabindra Bharati University, he has done professional theater during his childhood. He did three years yatra with Chapal Bhaduri, he started his career as a film actor in Laal Ronger Duniya in. In 2008, he started his television career. After that he did many soaps. Bou Kotha Kao, became a turning point of his career. After that, he played lead characters in Payer Tolar Mati. Harano Sur, Kon Kanoner Phool and Care Kori Na, he did cameo roles in Tumi Asbe Bole. Tathagata played the lead role in Choukath. In 2014 Tathagata did two films back to back, superhit Force, his first Hindi film was The Best Seller. Tathagata essayed the role of reporter Debabrata Bose, Dev in Raashi, he played the protagonist in Mon Niye Kachakachi as Ranbir Kapoor, in 2015/16.

In 2016 Mukherjee and his wife Debleena Dutta formed their production house. His first independent short film as director was Shuyopoka, his next short film, selected for jio filmfare 2017. The film was the only entry from west bengal in the finals; as an actor, he next worked on Parokiya. For the first time and Debleena are playing a married couple; the film is based on a short story written by the director in 2008. He is shooting three TV series: Swapno Uran and Shree Krishna. In 2018 he made. Alongside he made three music videos with national award winner music director mayookh bhoumik. Two of them "Jingle bell qawali" and "Holi bol" got viral on the internet. Mr. Amitabh Bachchan tweeted his video twice on the 31st 2017. Right now he is shooting a musical with national award winner singer Anupam Roy, his next Film "Unicorn"; the film is about human teleportation. "Unicorn" has been shot for a period of over 8 months, at Singapore and Andaman islands apart from Kolkata. The film has under water portions, shot in Indian ocean.

Tathagata mukherjee himself was the underwater cinematographer and major portion of the film was shot by himself. In 2020 january he made a short film on animal cruelty and human nature called "How to become a rapist",which is streaming in youtube. After that He made a web series called "waterbottle" for zee5. Rumor has there are huge creative issues regarding the project between production house and the director,writer october tathagata has started his most ambitious project called "BHOTBHOTI",produced by pramod films and pss entertainments. Story is about a boy, trying to find his mermaid.according to an interview tathagata said he wrote the story in 2011,it took 8 years to make his dream project. Film has 40 days schadule in kolkata, purulia,bolpur and jharkhand,and 6 days underwater shoot in mumbai. Sada Patay Kalo Daag as Ayan Rajpoth Bou Kotha Kao as Rudro Payer Tolar Mati Kon Kanoner Phool as Manav Labonyer Sangsar Choukath Agnipariksha Care Kori Na as Ronit Sokhi as Akash Majumder Harano Sur as Sudipto Raashi as Debobrato Bose,alias, Dev.

Mon Niye Kachakachi as Ranbir Kapoor Tumi Asbe Bole Sadhok bamakhyapa as Tarapodo Swapno Uran as Arnob Bhakter Bhogobaan Shri Krishna as Duryodhon Raadha as Rana Kusum Dola as Kanaiha aka Krishnomoy Andarmahal as Tirthonkar Mayurpankhi Mohor Badshahi Angti as Mahabir Seth Force as Shibaji Bastav as Rik Laal ronger Duniya as Himan The Best Seller Paan Supari as Sunny aka Sandip Parokiya as Bivas Sin Sister as Durjoy Mitra Shuyopoka Geodesy Buno Jingle bells qwali Vandemataram and Kothbiro (Music video Holi bol Waterbottle How to become a rapist Unicorn Kalboishakhi Make a Noise Bhotbhoti Shuyopoka Geodesy Unicorn Buno " Warer bottle" " How to become a rapist" " Bhotbhoti Jingle bells quwalli Make a noise Unicorn Tathagata Mukherjee on IMDb Tathagata Mukherjee on Facebook Tathagata Mukherjee on Twitter