Crossover music

Crossover is a term applied to musical works or performers who appeal to different types of audience, for example by appearing on two or more of the record charts which track differing musical styles or genres. If the second chart combines genres, such as a "Hot 100" list, the work is not a crossover. In some contexts the term "crossover" can have negative connotations associated with cultural appropriation, implying the dilution of a music's distinctive qualities to appeal to mass tastes. For example, in the early years of rock and roll, many songs recorded by African-American musicians were re-recorded by white artists such as Pat Boone in a more toned-down style with changed lyrics, that lacked the hard edge of the original versions; these covers were popular with a much broader audience. In practice crossover results from the appearance of the music in question in a film soundtrack. For instance, Sacred Harp music experienced a spurt of crossover popularity as a result of its appearance in the 2003 film Cold Mountain, bluegrass music experienced a revival due to the reception of 2000's O Brother, Where Art Thou?.

Classical crossover broadly encompasses both classical music that has become popularized and a wide variety of popular music forms performed in a classical manner or by classical artists. It can refer to collaborations between classical and popular performers, as well as music that blends elements of classical music with popular music. Pop vocalists and musicians, opera singers, classical instrumentalists, rock groups perform classical crossover. Although the phenomenon was long common in the music world, the name "classical crossover" was coined by record companies in the 1980s, it has acquired its own Billboard chart. Particular works of classical music have become popular among individuals who listen to popular music, sometimes appearing on non-classical charts; some classical works that achieved crossover status in the twentieth century include the Canon in D by Johann Pachelbel, the Symphony No. 3 by Henryk Górecki, the second movement of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 21, K. 467. Such popularity has been assisted by the use of classical music in advertising campaigns.

For example, the long-running British Airways advertisements familiarised a large viewing public with the song Aria by New Age artist Yanni a piece itself based on a duet from the opera Lakmé, by Léo Delibes. Another means of generating vast popularity for the classics has been through their use as inspirational anthems in sports settings; the aria "Nessun Dorma" from Puccini's Turandot Luciano Pavarotti's version, has become indissolubly linked with soccer. Within the classical recording industry, the term "crossover" is applied to classical artists' recordings of popular repertoire such as Broadway show tunes. Two examples of this are Lesley Garrett's excursions into musical comedy and José Carreras's recording West Side Story, as well as Teresa Stratas' recording Showboat. Soprano Eileen Farrell is considered to be one of the first classical singers to have a successful crossover recording with her 1960 album I've Got a Right to Sing the Blues. A popular pioneering figure in classical crossover was classically trained tenor and film star Mario Lanza, although the term "crossover" did not yet exist at the time of his greatest popularity in the 1950s.

Signed to RCA Victor as an artist on its premium Red Seal label, Lanza's albums appealed to more than just classical music audiences. His recording of "Be My Love" from his second film, The Toast of New Orleans, hit Number One on the Billboard pop singles chart in February 1951 and sold more than two million copies, a feat no classical artist before or since has achieved. Lanza recorded two other million-selling singles that made Billboard's top ten, "The Loveliest Night of the Year" and "Because You're Mine". Five of Lanza's albums hit Number One on Billboard's pop album chart between 1951 and 1955; the Great Caruso was the first and to date is the only recording composed of operatic arias to reach Number One on the U. S. pop album charts. The Student Prince, released in 1954, was Number One for 42 weeks. Arguably another early pioneer of crossover was the twentieth century composer Kurt Weill. A writer of avant garde serious music, his collaborations with playwright Bertolt Brecht on projects such as The Threepenny Opera gave an early indication of his interest in writing in an accessible, popular musical style.

This trend in his work came to full fruition in life in the United States, where he switched to writing the scores for Broadway musicals such as Knickerbocker Holiday and One Touch of Venus. Some of the hits from those shows, such as September Song and Speak Low, are better remembered than the musicals from which they came; the first Three Tenors concert in 1990 was a landmark in which Luciano Pavarotti, José Carreras and Plácido Domingo brought a combination of opera, Neapolitan folksong, musical theatre and pop to a vast television audience. This laid the foundations for the modern flourishing of classical crossover; the aspiration of classical singers to appeal to a wide pop audience is exemplified by the career of Rhydian. Classically trained, Rhydian appeared in the UK version of the pop talent show X Factor, his four albums and subsequent appearances have straddled pop, musical theatre and religious television fields. This applies to classically trained instrumentalists, such as Vanessa Mae, Escal

Bob Meacock

William Robert Meacock was an English professional footballer who made 180 appearances in the Football League playing for Torquay United, Tranmere Rovers, Lincoln City and Birmingham. He played most at centre half, but appeared as a right half or inside right. Meacock was born in Cheshire, he played for local club Hoole & Newton, was on the books of Chester and Blackpool, before joining Torquay United in 1931, where he made his debut in the Football League. He went on to play regular first-team football in the Third Division North for Tranmere Rovers, where he was part of the Tranmere side which reached the Welsh Cup final in 1934, Lincoln City, for whom he made 116 appearances in all competitions. Meacock moved to First Division club Birmingham as one of a number of players signed in 1938 to "boost the club's flagging fortunes", he played 14 games in all competitions, but left at the end of the 1938–39 season with the club relegated. He joined Bristol City, but the outbreak of the Second World War put an end to his professional career.

Meacock's profile and photograph at the Lincoln City FC Archive

Luxembourg–United States relations

LuxembourgUnited States relations are bilateral relations between Luxembourg and the United States. The United States, fighting on the Allied side, contributed to Luxembourg's liberation in World War I and World War II. More than 5,000 American soldiers, including U. S. Army General George S. Patton, are buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial near the capital of Luxembourg City, there are monuments in many towns to American liberators; the strong U. S.–Luxembourg relationship is expressed both bilaterally and through common membership in NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 42% of Luxembourgers approve of U. S. leadership, with 33% disapproving and 25% uncertain. United States Ambassador to Luxembourg: Robert A. Mandell Ambassador of Luxembourg to the United States: Jean-Louis Wolzfeld Embassy of Luxembourg in Washington, D. C. Consulate General of Luxembourg in New York Consulate General of Luxembourg in San Francisco Embassy of the United States in Luxembourg City American Chamber of Commerce in Luxembourg Luxembourg American Cultural SocietyThe LACS was founded in 2004 by individuals of Luxembourg descent in America as well as citizens of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

GENELUXImmigration from Luxembourg to the United States. The Luxembourgers in America Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Luxembourg This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website History of Luxembourg – U. S. relations Media related to Relations of Luxembourg and the United States at Wikimedia Commons