Cross River Reservoir
The Cross River Reservoir is a reservoir in the New York City water supply system located directly east and north of the northern Westchester County, New York, village of Katonah. Part of the system's Croton Watershed, it lies within the towns of Bedford and Pound Ridge, about 1 mile east of the village of Katonah, over 25 mi north of New York City, it was constructed around the start of the 20th century by impounding the Cross River, a tributary of the Croton River, which flows into the Hudson River. The reservoir was put into service in 1908; the resulting body of water is one of 16 in the Croton Watershed, the southernmost of New York City's watersheds. The reservoir is 3.2 mi long, has a drainage basin of 30 square miles, can hold 10.3 billion US gallons of water at full capacity, making it one of the city's smaller reservoirs. To reach the city, water flows through Cross River into the Muscoot Reservoir down that one into the New Croton Reservoir, where it enters the New Croton Aqueduct in Yorktown.
Via the aqueduct, it flows into The Bronx. In Manhattan, it meets the Catskill Aqueduct, it flows through Brooklyn and Staten Island, stopping near the end of the island. List of reservoirs and dams in New York Media related to Cross River Reservoir at Wikimedia Commons
Esopus Creek is a 65.4-mile-long tributary of the Hudson River that drains the east-central Catskill Mountains of the U. S. state of New York. From its source at Winnisook Lake on the slopes of Slide Mountain, the Catskills' highest peak, it flows across Ulster County to the Hudson at Saugerties. Many tributaries extend its watershed into neighboring Greene County and a small portion of Delaware County. Midway along its length, it is impounded at Olive Bridge to create Ashokan Reservoir, the first of several built in the Catskills as part of New York City's water supply system, its own flow is supplemented 13 miles above the reservoir by the Shandaken Tunnel, which carries water from the city's Schoharie Reservoir into the creek. The creek known as the "Esopus Kill", takes its name from the Esopus tribe of the Lenape, who were the Native American residents of the lower Esopus when the Dutch first explored and settled the Hudson Valley in the early 17th century; the creek's wide valley made it an ideal trading route for the Esopus and other Lenape who harvested the beaver pelts the European traders desired.
Under the English, it became the beginning point for contentious land claims in the mountains. After independence, the Esopus corridor became the main route into the Catskills, first by road later by the Ulster and Delaware Railroad, for forest-product industries like logging and charcoal-making; those industries declined in the late 19th century, shortly before the creation of the Forest Preserve and the Catskill Park made the region more attractive for resorts and recreation trout fishing. The renewed Esopus attracted the attention of fast-growing New York City, able to acquire land and build the reservoir and tunnel after overcoming local political opposition, it divided the creek into an upper stretch a wild mountain stream, a lower stretch closer to the Hudson that becomes more estuarine. Above the reservoir, its water quality is monitored, not only for its role in the city's water supply but to preserve its local economic importance as a recreational resource; as the upper Esopus is one of the most productive trout streams in the Northeast, fly fishermen still come in great numbers to take trout from its accessible banks.
Canoeists and kayakers have been drawn to its whitewater, which has spawned a busy local tubing industry in the summer months. The lower Esopus is an aesthetic and ecological resource, although the estuary at Saugerties is a popular bass fishery; the Esopus's role in the state and regional economy has led to a concentrated effort to protect and manage it on the upper stretch. The interests of the various stakeholders have not always converged where it concerns the city's management of its water needs. Turbidity created by discharges from the Shandaken Tunnel after a 1996 flood led to a successful lawsuit against the city and a state regulation. Boaters and anglers have clashed, invasive species are beginning to enter the upper creek as well; the Esopus is discussed as an upper and lower stream divided by the reservoir. The upper portion, where most recreational use takes place, has the characteristics of a mountain stream — shallow and swift and is where most trout fishing takes place. Below the reservoir's spillway the stream begins again, becoming flatter and slower to its short estuary.
The Esopus flows out of Winnisook Lake on the northwest slopes of Slide Mountain, the Catskills' highest peak, within 300 feet of the West Branch of the Neversink River on the other side of the divide between the Hudson and Delaware watersheds. It descends from there northward into Big Indian Hollow, dropping a thousand feet in its first mile, a narrow and rocky stream through this section, its curving course marks the walls of the buried meteor impact crater that created Panther Mountain to the east. Several tributaries flow down from the slopes of Fir, Big Indian and Belleayre mountains to the west. At the hamlet of Big Indian, it receives Birch Creek, which drains from the small former village of Pine Hill to the west, turns eastward paralleling state highway NY 28. Bushnellsville Creek flows in from the north, where it drains Deep Notch and the slopes of Halcott Mountain and Mount Sherrill. Through this section it widens to 15–40 feet. Five miles further west, near the small former hamlet of Shandaken, the 18-mile Shandaken Tunnel brings water from Schoharie Reservoir into the Esopus, a junction known by fishermen as the Portal, increasing its flow.
The creek continues eastward, now 40–80 feet wide, along the circular route around Panther. At Phoenicia, four miles east of the Portal, the first major settlement along its course, Woodland Creek flows in from the south along the other side of the circle from its headwaters on Wittenberg Mountain. At the NY 214 junction, the Esopus receives Stony Clove Creek from the north, where it drains southern Greene County; the creek is now 60–100 feet wide but shallow here, remaining on the north side of Route 28 as the Catskill Mountain Railroad parallels its banks. It recrosses the highway after Mount Tremper. Just west of Route 28's intersection with NY 212 at Mount Pleasant, the Esopus crosses Route 28 again in an area with flood control measures along its banks, it stays south of the road all the way to where NY 28A crosses it above the west end of Ashokan Reservoir. This is the end of the creek's 26-mile upper section; the reservoir continues for 6.5 miles to its
New Croton Dam
The New Croton Dam is a dam forming the New Croton Reservoir, both parts of the New York City water supply system. It stretches across the Croton River near Croton-on-Hudson, New York, about 22 miles north of New York City. Construction began in 1892 and was completed in 1906. Designed by Alphonse Fteley, the masonry dam is 266 feet broad at its base and 297 feet high from base to crest. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest dam in the world, it impounds up to 19 billion US gallons of water, a small fraction of the New York City water system's total storage capacity of 580 billion US gallons. The original Croton Dam was built between 1842 to improve New York City's water supply. By 1881, after extensive repairs to the dam, 50 feet high, Old Croton Reservoir was able to supply about 90 million US gallons a day to the city via the Old Croton Aqueduct. To meet escalating water needs, the Aqueduct Commission of the City of New York ordered construction of a new Croton system in 1885. Hydro engineer James B. Francis was brought in as a consultant for the construction.
The proposed dam and reservoir were to cover 20 square miles of land occupied by public and private buildings, six cemeteries, more than 400 farms. Condemnation disputes led to "protests and confusion" before payment of claims and the awarding of construction contracts; the work force on the new dam included laborers who had worked on the original dam. John B. Goldsborough, superintendent of excavations and hiring for the project recruited stonemasons from southern Italy, who re-located to New York. Construction began in 1892 and was completed in 1906. Building the dam meant diverting the river from its normal path and pumping the riverbed dry. To accomplish this, workers dug a crescent-shaped canal 1,000 feet long and 200 feet wide in the hill on the north side of the river, secured the canal with a masonry retaining wall, built temporary dams to control the water flow; the initial construction lasted eight years, extensive modifications and repairs went on for another six. Working conditions were difficult.
A silent film, The Croton Dam Strike, released in 1900, depicted labor–management problems related to the dam's construction. Designed by Alphonse Fteley, the masonry dam is 266 feet broad at its base and 297 feet high from base to crest. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest dam in the world, its foundation extends 130 feet below the bed of the river, the dam contains 850,000 cubic yards of masonry. The engineers' tablet mounted on the headhouse nearest the spillway lists the spillway length as 1,000 feet and the total length of the dam and spillway combined as 2,188 feet. New Croton Dam impounds up to 19 billion US gallons of water, a small fraction of the New York City water system's total storage capacity of 580 billion US gallons.. New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved on July 10, 2007.</ref> Work began in 1892 at a site on the property of A. B. Cornell 4 miles downstream of the original dam, submerged by the new reservoir. New Croton Reservoir was able to supply 200 to 300 million US gallons a day via a new aqueduct that carried water to Jerome Park Reservoir in the north Bronx, New York City.
The bridge over the spillway was replaced in 1975 and again in 2005. In that same year, because of the September 11 attacks on New York City, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection proposed permanent closure of the road across the top of the dam. Pedestrians and emergency vehicles were allowed to use New Croton Dam Road, but all other traffic was re-routed; the department made plans to replace temporary vehicle barriers with permanent barriers after completion of a New Croton Dam Rehabilitation Project in 2011. Croton Gorge Park offers views of the dam from directly downstream; the Old Croton Trail, a popular hiking and biking path that follows the route of the Old Croton Aqueduct, has an endpoint near the base of the dam. Teatown Lake Reservation, a nature preserve, lies nearby as does Croton Point Park in Croton-on-Hudson. Historic American Engineering Record No. NY-132, "New Croton Dam & Reservoir, Croton River, Croton-on-Hudson vicinity, Westchester County, NY"
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Water supply network
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply. A water supply system includes: A drainage basin. A raw water collection point where the water accumulates, such as a lake, a river, or groundwater from an underground aquifer. Raw water may be transferred using uncovered ground-level aqueducts, covered tunnels or underground water pipes to water purification facilities. Water purification facilities. Treated water is transferred using water pipes. Water storage facilities such as reservoirs, water tanks, or water towers. Smaller water systems may store the water in cisterns or pressure vessels. Tall buildings may need to store water locally in pressure vessels in order for the water to reach the upper floors. Additional water pressurizing components such as pumping stations may need to be situated at the outlet of underground or above ground reservoirs or cisterns. A pipe network for distribution of water to the consumers and other usage points.
Connections to the sewers are found downstream of the water consumers, but the sewer system is considered to be a separate system, rather than part of the water supply system. Water supply networks are run by public utilities of the water industry. Raw water is collected from a surface water source or from a groundwater source within the watershed that provides the water resource; the raw water is transferred to the water purification facilities using uncovered aqueducts, covered tunnels or underground water pipes. All large systems must treat the water. Water treatment must occur. Water purification occurs close to the final delivery points to reduce pumping costs and the chances of the water becoming contaminated after treatment. Traditional surface water treatment plants consists of three steps: clarification and disinfection. Clarification refers to the separation of particles from the water stream. Chemical addition destabilizes the particle charges and prepares them for clarification either by settling or floating out of the water stream.
Sand, anthracite or activated carbon filters refine the water stream, removing smaller particulate matter. While other methods of disinfection exist, the preferred method is via chlorine addition. Chlorine kills bacteria and most viruses and maintains a residual to protect the water supply through the supply network; the product, delivered to the point of consumption, is called potable water if it meets the water quality standards required for human consumption. The water in the supply network is maintained at positive pressure to ensure that water reaches all parts of the network, that a sufficient flow is available at every take-off point and to ensure that untreated water in the ground cannot enter the network; the water is pressurised by pumps that pump water into storage tanks constructed at the highest local point in the network. One network may have several such service reservoirs. In small domestic systems, the water may be pressurised by a pressure vessel or by an underground cistern.
This eliminates the need of a water-tower or any other heightened water reserve to supply the water pressure. These systems are owned and maintained by local governments, such as cities, or other public entities, but are operated by a commercial enterprise. Water supply networks are part of the master planning of communities and municipalities, their planning and design requires the expertise of city planners and civil engineers, who must consider many factors, such as location, current demand, future growth, pressure, pipe size, pressure loss, fire fighting flows, etc. — using pipe network analysis and other tools. As water passes through the distribution system, the water quality can degrade by chemical reactions and biological processes. Corrosion of metal pipe materials in the distribution system can cause the release of metals into the water with undesirable aesthetic and health effects. Release of iron from unlined iron pipes can result in customer reports of "red water" at the tap. Release of copper from copper pipes can result in customer reports of "blue water" and/or a metallic taste.
Release of lead can occur from the solder used to join copper pipe together or from brass fixtures. Copper and lead levels at the consumer's tap are regulated to protect consumer health. Utilities will adjust the chemistry of the water before distribution to minimize its corrosiveness; the simplest adjustment involves control of pH and alkalinity to produce a water that tends to passivate corrosion by depositing a layer of calcium carbonate. Corrosion inhibitors are added to reduce release of metals into the water. Common corrosion inhibitors added to the water are silicates. Maintenance of a biologically safe drinking water is another goal in water distribution. A chlorine based disinfectant, such as sodium hypochlorite or monochloramine is added to the wat
Croton Point Park
Croton Point Park is a Westchester County park in the village of Croton-on-Hudson. The park has several public attractions including: a miniature aircraft airport, boat launch, tent and RV camping, cabin rental, cross-country skiing, group picnicking and walking trails, a museum, nature study, pavilions, a playground, a beach. In the 1800's the Underhill family owned the land, now Croton Point Park. Grapes and apples were grown. A brickyard was on the property. A few buildings built with these bricks are still standing at Croton Point; the park is home to several historic sites such as a set of wine cellars from an old manor. A substantial portion of the land on which the park is situated today was the site of a landfill, operated by the Westchester County government from 1927 to 1986; the landfill has since been restored to green space. A 1931 map shows the landfill area as marsh; the park hosts a number of events each year, including the annual Hudson River Sloop Clearwater festival, the Croton Point Shindig, Hudson River Eagle Fest.
Official county website
Rondout Reservoir is part of New York City's water supply network. It is located 75 miles northwest of the city in the Catskill Mountains, near the southern end of Catskill Park, split between the towns of Wawarsing in Ulster County and Neversink in Sullivan County, it is the central collection point for the city's Delaware System, which provides half its daily consumption. The reservoir was made possible by the construction of Merriman Dam along Rondout Creek. Construction began in 1937 and ended in 1954, three years after the reservoir began delivering water, it would be the first of four built by the city to satisfy its growing demand in the years after World War II. Three villages – Lackawack and Eureka – were condemned and flooded in the process; the small settlement of Grahamsville remains in existence just west of the reservoir. In 1998, the city's Department of Environmental Protection issued an advisory warning against eating more than one reservoir-caught smallmouth bass per month after mercury levels of 1.3 part per million above the federal standard of 1.0 ppm, were confirmed in three caught in the reservoir.
Since there is no industry in the reservoir's vast watershed, this contamination is believed to be the result of acid rain from coal-fired power plants in the Midwest. In 2006, after residents raised concerns regarding the soundness of both Merriman and Neversink dams following emergency repairs to Schoharie Dam, a local newspaper, the Times Herald-Record, obtained copies of weekly visual inspection reports for both and found that the handwriting and information relating to the appearance of the dams on weekly reports compiled by inspector Ronald Hewlett and initialed by section engineer Russell Betters over a three-year period were identical, suggesting they had been photocopied; the two were suspended. Rondout Reservoir is a single basin 6.5 miles long, 2,052 acres in area and reaches a maximum depth of 175 feet near the dam. Mean depth is 73.8 feet. Elevation is 840 feet above sea level, it holds 49.6 billion US gallons, which comes not only from the reservoir's own 95 square-mile watershed but from Cannonsville and Pepacton reservoirs via the Delaware and Neversink tunnels as well.
Since those three are in the Delaware River watershed, Rondout is considered by the city's Department of Environmental Protection to be part of the Delaware system despite being within the Hudson River watershed itself. Combined, the four reservoirs account for 1,012 square miles of watershed and 320.4 billion US gallons of capacity, 890 million US gallons of which goes to the city daily — 50% of the entire system's capacity. All this water is fed from the Rondout to West Branch Reservoir in Putnam County via the Delaware Aqueduct, the world's longest continuous underground tunnel at 85 miles. Rondout is easy to reach via road as routes 55A form a loop around it. However, access to the actual reservoir is restricted and has been more so since the September 11, 2001 attacks forced an increase in security. Fishing is permitted in season with a DEP-issued permit in addition to the appropriate New York state license, the reservoir is known, as are most Catskill fishing areas, for its trout; however boats are not allowed to leave the reservoir for environmental reasons and must be stored near it year round.
Hunters with valid city and state permits may use the lands around the reservoir where hunting is permitted during the season. Beyond those, however, no recreational use of the reservoir is permitted. While the land is not fenced off, the area is patrolled by uniformed DEP police. List of crossings of Rondout Creek List of reservoirs and dams in New York Official nyc.gov page