Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for specific purposes. Most water is purified and disinfected for human consumption, but water purification may be carried out for a variety of other purposes, including medical, pharmacological and industrial applications; the methods used include physical processes such as filtration and distillation. Water purification may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, bacteria, algae and fungi as well as reduce the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter; the standards for drinking water quality are set by governments or by international standards. These standards include minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants, depending on the intended use of the water. Visual inspection can not determine. Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all possible contaminants that may be present in water from an unknown source.
Natural spring water – considered safe for all practical purposes in the 19th century – must now be tested before determining what kind of treatment, if any, is needed. Chemical and microbiological analysis, while expensive, are the only way to obtain the information necessary for deciding on the appropriate method of purification. According to a 2007 World Health Organization report, 1.1 billion people lack access to an improved drinking water supply. The WHO estimates that 94% of these diarrheal disease cases are preventable through modifications to the environment, including access to safe water. Simple techniques for treating water at home, such as chlorination and solar disinfection, for storing it in safe containers could save a huge number of lives each year. Reducing deaths from waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries. Groundwater: The water emerging from some deep ground water may have fallen as rain many tens, hundreds, or thousands of years ago. Soil and rock layers filter the ground water to a high degree of clarity and it does not require additional treatment besides adding chlorine or chloramines as secondary disinfectants.
Such water may be extracted from boreholes or wells. Deep ground water is of high bacteriological quality, but the water may be rich in dissolved solids carbonates and sulfates of calcium and magnesium. Depending on the strata through which the water has flowed, other ions may be present including chloride, bicarbonate. There may be a requirement to reduce the iron or manganese content of this water to make it acceptable for drinking and laundry use. Primary disinfection may be required. Where groundwater recharge is practiced, the groundwater may require additional treatment depending on applicable state and federal regulations. Upland lakes and reservoirs: Typically located in the headwaters of river systems, upland reservoirs are sited above any human habitation and may be surrounded by a protective zone to restrict the opportunities for contamination. Bacteria and pathogen levels are low, but some bacteria, protozoa or algae will be present. Where uplands are forested or peaty, humic acids can colour the water.
Many upland sources have low pH. Rivers and low land reservoirs: Low land surface waters will have a significant bacterial load and may contain algae, suspended solids and a variety of dissolved constituents. Atmospheric water generation is a new technology that can provide high quality drinking water by extracting water from the air by cooling the air and thus condensing water vapor. Rainwater harvesting or fog collection which collect water from the atmosphere can be used in areas with significant dry seasons and in areas which experience fog when there is little rain. Desalination of seawater by distillation or reverse osmosis. Surface Water: Freshwater bodies that are open to the atmosphere and are not designated as groundwater are termed surface waters; the goals of the treatment are to remove unwanted constituents in the water and to make it safe to drink or fit for a specific purpose in industry or medical applications. Varied techniques are available to remove contaminants like fine solids, micro-organisms and some dissolved inorganic and organic materials, or environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants.
The choice of method will depend on the quality of the water being treated, the cost of the treatment process and the quality standards expected of the processed water. The processes below are the ones used in water purification plants; some or most may not be used depending on the scale of the quality of the raw water. Pumping and containment – The majority of water must be pumped from its source or directed into pipes or holding tanks. To avoid adding contaminants to the water, this physical infrastructure must be made from appr
High Bridge (New York City)
The High Bridge is the oldest bridge in New York City, having opened as part of the Croton Aqueduct in 1848 and reopened as a pedestrian walkway in 2015 after being closed for over 45 years. A steel arch bridge with a height of 140 ft over the Harlem River, it connects the New York City boroughs of the Bronx and Manhattan; the eastern end is located in the Highbridge section of the Bronx near the western end of West 170th Street, the western end is located in Highbridge Park in Manhattan parallel to the end of West 174th Street. High Bridge was completed in 1848 with 16 individual stone arches. In 1928 the five that spanned the Harlem River were replaced by a single 450' steel arch; the bridge was closed to all traffic from the 1970s until its restoration, which began in 2009. The bridge was reopened to pedestrians and bicycles on June 9, 2015; the bridge is maintained by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Designed as a stone arch bridge, the High Bridge had the appearance of a Roman aqueduct.
Construction on the bridge was started in 1837, was completed in 1848 as part of the Croton Aqueduct, which carried water from the Croton River to supply the burgeoning city of New York some 10 miles to the south. The bridge has a height of 140 ft above the 620-foot-wide Harlem River, with a total length of 1,450 ft; the design of the bridge was awarded to Major David Bates Douglass, fired from the project. The design fell to the aqueduct's engineering team, led by John B. Jervis. James Renwick, Jr. who went on to design the landmark Saint Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, participated in the design. The Croton Aqueduct had to cross the Harlem River at some point, the method was a major design decision. A tunnel under the river was considered, but tunneling technology was in its infancy at the time, the uncertainty of pursuing this option led to its rejection; this left a bridge, with the Water Commission and the public split between a low bridge and a high bridge. A low bridge would have been simpler and cheaper to construct.
When concerns were raised to the New York Legislature that a low bridge would obstruct passage along the Harlem River to the Hudson River, a high bridge was chosen. The contractors for the project were Samuel Roberts and Arnold Mason. Mason had prior engineering experience working on the Morris Canal. In 1864, a walkway was built across the High Bridge; the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, the bridge's current maintainer, described the walkway as the bridge's contemporary High Line. However, the bridge was not used for vehicles. In 1928, to improve navigation in the Harlem River, the five masonry arches that spanned the river were demolished and replaced with a single steel arch of about 450 feet. Of the masonry arches of the original 1848 bridge, only one survives on the Manhattan side, while some ten survive on the Bronx side. Use of the structure to deliver water to the island ceased on December 15, 1949. By 1954, The New York Times reported that the commissioner of the Department of Water Supply and Electricity said that "the bridge entailed serious problems of maintenance and vandalism."
Robert Moses agreed to take responsibility for the bridge, transferred to the Parks Department in 1955. There were incidents, in 1957 and 1958, of pedestrians throwing sticks and bricks from the bridge injuring passengers on Circle Line tour boats which passed under the bridge. Concerns due to these incidents contributed to the bridge being closed as early as 1960, although NYC Parks said that it was not closed until 1970, when high crime and fiscal crisis led to the contraction of many city services and public spaces. However, a reporter for the New York Times wrote that when he had tried to walk across the bridge in 1968, it was closed; the High Bridge was part of the first plentiful water supply system in New York City. As the City was devastated by cholera in 1832 and the Great Fire in 1835, the inadequacy of the water system of wells-and-cisterns became apparent. Numerous corrective measures were examined. In the final analysis, only the Croton River in northern Westchester County was found to carry water sufficient in quantity and quality to serve the City.
The delivery system was begun in 1837, was completed in 1848. The Old Croton Aqueduct was the first of its kind constructed in the United States; the innovative system used a classic gravity feed, dropping 13 inches per mile, or about 1/4" per 100' and running 41 miles into New York City through an enclosed masonry structure crossing ridges and rivers. University Avenue was built over the southernmost mainland portion of the aqueduct, leading to the bridge. Though the carrying capacity was enlarged in 1861–1862 with a larger tube, the bridge ceased to carry water in 1917. In the 1920s the bridge's masonry arches were declared a hazard to ship navigation by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the City considered demolishing the entire structure. Local organizations called to preserve the historic bridge, in 1927 five of the original arches across the river were replaced by a single steel span, the remaining arches were retained. In November 2006 the Department of Parks and Recreation announced that the bridge would reopen to pedestrians in 2009.
This date was put off. A $20 million renovation project would include strengthening the arch, improving staircases, cameras on both ends of the bridge, boat beacon lights among other fe
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Croton Aqueduct or Old Croton Aqueduct was a large and complex water distribution system constructed for New York City between 1837 and 1842. The great aqueducts, which were among the first in the United States, carried water by gravity 41 miles from the Croton River in Westchester County to reservoirs in Manhattan, it was built because local water resources had become polluted and inadequate for the growing population of the city. Although the aqueduct was superseded by the New Croton Aqueduct, built in 1890, the Old Croton Aqueduct remained in service until 1955; the island of Manhattan, surrounded by brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water available, which dwindled as the city grew after the American Revolutionary War, fresh water sources became polluted by effluent. Before the aqueduct was constructed, residents of New York obtained water from cisterns, natural springs, other bodies of water, but rapid population growth in the 19th century, encroachment on these areas as Manhattan moved further north of Wall Street, led to the pollution of many local fresh water sources.
Below Grand Street, a small number of well-off customers of the Manhattan Company had fresh water delivered to them, but that company was more focused on banking — it became Chase Manhattan — and only paid as much attention to its water activities as it needed to avoid losing the state charter that allowed it to bank. The poor and the rest of the city were forced to rely on well water made palatable by adding alcoholic spirits, prompting temperance campaigners to call for the municipal provision of water; the unsanitary conditions caused an increase in disease. Epidemics of yellow fever ravaged the city. A polluted aquifer, overcrowded housing, the lack of sewers, public ignorance of basic sanitary conditions, the existence of polluting industries near wells and residential areas contributed to an unprecedented mortality rate of 2.6% in 1830. In 1832 cholera first reached New York in the deadliest epidemic to that date; the need for a new supply of fresh water was crucial. In March 1833, Major David Bates Douglass, engineering professor at West Point Military Academy, was appointed to survey and estimate the proposed route.
In 1837, construction began on a massive engineering project, to divert water from sources upstate, following a route surveyed by Douglass and supervised by Douglass' successor, Chief Engineer John B. Jervis; the Croton River was dammed, aqueducts were built, tunnels dug, piping laid, reservoirs created. The gravity-fed aqueduct dropped 13 inches per mile, 1/4" per 100'. An elliptical tube, 8.5 feet high by 7.5 feet wide, of iron piping encased in brick masonry was laid, sometimes in cuts, with conical ventilating towers every mile or so, to relieve pressure and keep the water fresh. Hydraulic cement was added, it extended from the Old Croton Dam in northern Westchester County to the Harlem River, where it continued over the High Bridge at 173rd Street and down the West Side of Manhattan and into a Receiving Reservoir located between 79th and 86th streets and Sixth and Seventh Avenues. The Receiving Reservoir was a rectangular tank within fortress-like rusticated retaining walls, 1,826 feet long and 836 feet wide.
35,000,000 US gallons flowed into it daily from northern Westchester. The Full Flow, Design capacity, of the elliptical tube: 8201 CFM, or 88 MGD. From the Receiving Reservoir, water flowed down to the Croton Distributing Reservoir, better known as the Croton Reservoir, a similar fortified tank located on Fifth Avenue between 40th Street and 42nd Street, where the main branch of the New York Public Library and Bryant Park are located today; this reservoir was built to resemble ancient Egyptian architecture. New Yorkers came uptown for the fine view of the city obtained from atop its walls; the aqueduct opened to public use with great fanfare on October 14, 1842. The day-long celebration culminated in a fountain of water that spouted to a height of 50 feet from the beautifully decorated cast iron Croton Fountain in City Hall Park. Among those present was James Renwick, Jr. who went on to design Grace Church, New York, the Smithsonian Institution Building in Washington, D. C. and St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, was involved in the architectural and engineering work on the aqueduct as an up-and-coming 18-year-old.
Water started flowing through the aqueduct on June 22, 1842, taking 22 hours for gravity to take the water the 41 miles to reach Manhattan. Though only 6,175 houses had been connected to the system by 1844, the Croton water had dramatically improved both domestic hygiene and interior design. Baths and running water were being built in the private homes of wealthy New Yorkers, public bathing facilities were constructed for the masses; the water system had another inadvertent consequence. The decline in the number of residents drawing water from the city's wells resulted in a rise in the water table, which flooded many cellars. To address this problem, the city built sewers in many residential streets. By 1852, 148 miles of sewers had been constructed. About this time the German cockroach attracted attention and was called the "Croton bug" on the mistaken belief that the aqueduct brought the insects into the homes being connected to the new water supply system. Despite its size, the capacity of the Old Croton Aqueduct could not keep up with the growth of New York City, construction on a New Croton Aqued
Putnam County, New York
Putnam County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 99,710; the county seat is Carmel. Putnam County formed in 1812 from Dutchess County and is named for Israel Putnam, a hero in the French and Indian War and a general in the American Revolutionary War. Putnam County is included in the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the lower Hudson River Valley. Midtown Manhattan is around a one-hour drive, Grand Central Terminal is 1 hour, 20 minute train ride from the county, it is one of the most affluent counties in America, ranked 7th by median household income, 43rd by per-capita income, according to the 2012 American Community Survey and 2009-2013 American Community Survey, respectively. In 1609, a Native American people called the Wappinger inhabited the east bank of the Hudson River, they farmed and fished throughout their range encountering Dutch fur traders. They obtained metal goods such as alcohol and firearms in exchange for furs.
The colonial Province of New York and the Connecticut Colony negotiated an agreement on November 28, 1683, establishing their border as 20 miles east of the Hudson River, north to Massachusetts. Dutchess county was organized as one of New York's twelve counties, it included two towns in the present Columbia county. Until 1713, Dutchess was administered by Ulster county. In 1691, a group of Dutch traders purchased a tract of land from the Wappingers that spanned from the Hudson River to the Connecticut border. Six years they sold it to wealthy Dutch-American merchant Adolphus Philipse, who obtained a Royal sanction for a "Highland Patent" that encompassed most of today's Putnam County. Unknown at that time was a veer in the river's path to the northwest at the Hudson Highlands; this generated a dispute over a 2-mile-wide section of border between northern Westchester County and then-Dutchess counties and the Connecticut Colony. In 1737, the New York Colonial Assembly designated the Philipse Patent as the South Precinct of Dutchess County.
The Philipses began leasing farms to migrants from Massachusetts, Long Island, lower Westchester. After Adolph Philipse's death, the Patent was divided in 1754 into nine lots granted to three heirs: Mary Philipse, Philip Philipse, Susannah Philipse Robinson. During the French and Indian War, many of the Wappinger went to Massachusetts. Compared to other parts of the Hudson Valley, Putnam County had slow settlement, it was owned and settlement was limited to tenant farmers willing to pay the Philipse family for leases. Secondly, it was hilly and rocky, making it unappealing to men looking for tillable cropland, its use was limited to dairy farming and wood cutting. The first non-tenant settlers in the county were along its eastern edge; the ambiguous border with Connecticut attracted farmers from New England. They assumed. Among early settlers were the Hayt family, which built a farm called The Elm in 1720. Jacob Haviland settled in the Oblong in 1731 in; the first village in the county was Fredericksburg, now the hamlet of Patterson.
During the Revolution, the Philipses stayed loyal to the Crown. As a consequence, their lands were confiscated by the New York government, it sold the Philipse Patent along with the rest of their holdings. The dispute over The Oblong was resolved in the aftermath of the war, with the settled tract being incorporated as the first of two versions of the Town of Southeast. Resolved were two "Gores", the Beekman Gore and the Rombout Gore, which being geographically similar to the Livingston and Beekman patents they abutted, were ceded by the Philipses to Dutchess County in 1758 and 1771 respectively. Due to the increasing population of the Southern Precinct of Dutchess County and the great distance of these communities from the county seat, Putnam was split from Dutchess in 1812, it was organized as an independent county. It encompassed all of the Philipse Patent and the Oblong abutting it, less a triangular area in the farthest northwest reach of the Patent. There, a lowland near Fishkill Creek isolated from the rest of Putnam County and its adjacent upland drainage leading into the Hudson Highlands to the south, were ceded to Dutchess.
Putnam travelers used boats and ships along the Hudson River. Boats transporting goods traveled up the Hudson to ports at Peekskill, New York, they were transported by road into Putnam County, or goods were unloaded in Putnam County at Cold Spring, New York. Such transport suffered in winter. At that time, little food or goods could be shipped to the county; the Philipstown Turnpike was created in 1815 as a toll road from Cold Spring to Connecticut. The wagons that traveled the road would transport produce from eastern Putnam County and iron ore from the mines; the route of the turnpike can be traced today: Rt 301 from Cold Spring to Farmers Mills Road, to White Pond Road to Pecksville Holmes Rd to Patterson Quaker Hill Rd to Connecticut. Transportation improved with the advent of the railroad, namely the Harlem Line, built in the 1840s, connecting Putnam by rail to New York City. There were four stations on the Harlem line in Putnam County: Brewster, Dykemans and Patterson. Today only the Patterson stops remain.
Putnam County played an important role in the Civil War. One third of the county's men between the ages of 15 and 55 served in the military during the wa