click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Donald Cunnell

Donald Charles Cunnell was a British First World War flying ace, killed in action over Belgium. He is known for having wounded the Red Baron, Manfred von Richthofen. Cunnell was born on 19 October 1893 at Norwich, England, the son of Charles Donald Cunnell and educated at Gresham's School, Holt. Cunnell was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Hampshire Regiment on 2 November 1915, saw active service on the Western Front. On 24 November 1916 he was seconded for duty with the Royal Flying Corps, appointed a temporary flying officer. On 1 March 1917 he was promoted to lieutenant. On 14 May 1917 Cunnell was appointed a flight commander with the temporary rank of captain. Between 2 May and 11 July, Cunnell claimed nine victories flying a FE2d with No 20 Squadron. On 6 July 1917, flying with Second Lieutenant Albert Edward Woodbridge was part of a patrol of six aircraft attacked by a flight of German Albatros D. Vs including one flown by Manfred von Richthofen. During the clash Richthofen was forced to land near Wervicq.

The victory was credited to the crew of Cunnell's A6412. It is falsely stated that this was the only time Richthofen was shot down in air-to-air combat, overlooking Edwin Benbow's victory over the Red Baron on 6 March 1917. However, this was the only time. Woodbridge described the action: Richthofen's subsequent medical treatment disclosed that the bullet that hit him may have come from behind. Despite Cunnell and Woodbridge's confirmed claim for this aerial victory, Richthofen may have fallen from fire from one of the other FE.2s of 20 Squadron, from being shot down by Raymond Collishaw, or from one of Collishaw's wingmen from'B' Flight, 10 Naval Squadron such as William Melville Alexander, Ellis Vair Reid, or Desmond Fitzgibbon. Cunnell was killed by German anti-aircraft fire a few days on 12 July 1917, near Wervicq, Belgium, he was buried at the Bailleul Communal Cemetery Extension North at Bailleul, close to the Belgian border, in grave number III. C.263. Aerial victories: Notes BibliographyGuttman, Jon & Dempsey, Harry.

Pusher Aces of World War I. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-417-6. Smart, Sue; when Heroes Die. Breedon Books. ISBN 1-85983-256-3

Poleyn

The poleyn or genouillere was a component of Medieval and Renaissance armor that protected the knee. During the transition from mail armor to plate armor, this was among the earliest plate components to develop, they first remained in use until 1650 when firearms made them obsolete. The specifics of poleyn design varied over that period; the earliest poleyns were strapped over mail chausses. Fourteenth century and early fifteenth century poleyns attached to padded leggings or plate cuisses. During the fifteenth century poleyns developed an articulated construction that attached to the cuisses and schynbalds or greaves. A characteristic of late fifteenth century Gothic plate armor was a projection that guarded the side of the knee. Gaiters Knee pad The Poleyn instructions for creating reproduction sixteenth century poleyns Leg Harness description of historic developments in leg armor

Eimer's organ

Eimer's organs are sensory organs in which the epidermis is modified to form bulbous papillae. First isolated by Theodor Eimer from the European mole in 1871, these organs are present in many moles, are common in the star-nosed mole, which bears 25,000 of them on its unique tentacled snout; the organs are formed from a stack of epidermal cells, innervated by nerve processes from myelinated fibers in the dermis, which form terminal swellings just below the outer keratinized layer of epidermis. They contain a Merkel cell-neurite complex in the epidermis and a lamellated corpuscle in the dermal connective tissue. Theodor Eimer described the discrete microscopic organ of touch that densely populates the tip of the nose of the European mole Talpa europaea; the organ is named in his honour. In his original publication in 1871, he examined the structure of the nose, the distribution of the touch organs on the nasal skin, the relationship of their density with the nose's use for palpation, to examine or explore by touching.

Eimer established a connection between function. Eimer recognized the importance of the mole's nose to its behaviour, he stated in 1871: "The mole's snout must be the seat of an extraordinarily well developed sense of touch because it replaces entirely the animal's sense of face, constituting its only guide on its paths underground." He estimated that the nose of the European mole was covered with more than 5,000 Eimer's organs, which were invested with 105,000 nerve fibres. He took the abundance of sensory innervation to affirm his contention that the nose's touch must represent the moles dominant facial sense. Eimer asserted. In his publication he noted that the extreme density of sensitive nerve fibres is the cause of a light blow to the snout being able to kill the mole instantly. 130 years after Eimer's discovery and colleagues recorded in 2004 striking behavioural evidence in favour of his conclusions, using a high-speed camera. Moles with the help of their Eimer's organs may be poised to detect seismic wave vibrations.

The organ consists of a minute skin papilla with 0.1–0.2 mm diameter. At the papilla's core, a geometric constellation of nerve fibres with free endings is embedded symmetrically in a column of epithelial cells. Eimer saw two to three single nerve fibres, rising straight in the middle of the column and ending in the fifth layer under the stratum corneum that forms the hard top of the epidermis; the fibres extend short protrusions perpendicularly into each epithelial layer they traverse, where the protrusions end in'buttons'. They are ringed by a circle of 19 evenly spaced nerve fibres, known as satellite fibres, whose protrusions point inwards. In addition, Eimer distinguished a separate set of nerve fibres with free nerve endings. By contrast to the fibres in the papilla's core, these travel obliquely toward the surface at the papilla's perimeter. With improved histological techniques, a second touch receptor type, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, was found in the stratum germinativum at the bottom of the epidermis, a third, lamellated corpuscles of Vater and Pacini, was discovered in the stratum papillare of the dermis underneath the Merkel cells as published by Halata in 1975.

Today it is still not understood how these receptors convert touch into the electrical signals that the nerve fibres transmit to the brain. Interesting are the properties of touch, e.g. frequency and force, to which the receptors respond and how their responsiveness changes with prolonged stimulation. The receptors can be functionally distinguished based on these features: The nerve fibers with free nerve endings The nerve fibers which end on Merkel cells adapt their responses to touch The nerve fibers which end in the lamellated corpuscles and which are considered adaptingMarasco et al. attribute different functions to Eimer's two sets of free-ending nerve fibres in the star-nosed mole and the coast mole Scapanus orarius. The authors published micrographs of the organ and its innervation, depicting Eimer's free-ending fibers as well as the Merkel cell-neurite complexes and the Vater-Pacini corpuscles. Using a histochemical marker for a protein known to be involved in the processing of pain, they were able to label the nerve fibres at the perimeter of the papilla, suggesting that they are nociceptive, i.e. they respond to pain.

By contrast, the fibres in papilla's core did not stain for the protein, suggesting that they are mechano-receptive. These nerve fibres as well as the Merkel cell-neurite complexes are known to respond to local touches with great sensitivity, whereas the Vater-Pacini corpuscles are tuned to the frequencies of dispersed vibrations. Eimer's organ, forms a receptor complex, integrating pain receptors as well as three fundamentally different types of touch receptors which preferentially respond to either skin indentations or vibrations; the follicles of whiskers known as vibrissae or sinus hairs, the push rods in monotremes, as published by Proske et al. represent the only other known discrete structures in the skin that combine three mechanoreceptor types. The Eimer's organs on the nose may be the mole's main tool with which the animal can capture a refined picture of its underground habitat. Catania and Kaas have shown that the nose of the star-nosed mole is mapped in multiple topographic representations on an extraordinarily large swath of cerebral cortex that processes touch.

Discrete morphological modules of nerve cells that are discernible in histologically stained sections represent each ray in the same order as they surround the nose. This topographic morphological representation of the se

Charles G. D. Roberts

Sir Charles George Douglas Roberts was a Canadian poet and prose writer. He was one of the first Canadian authors to be internationally known, he published various works on Canadian exploration and natural history, travel books, fiction." He continued to be a well-known "man of letters" until his death. Besides his own body of work, Roberts has been called the "Father of Canadian Poetry" because he served as an inspiration and a source of assistance for other Canadian poets of his time. Roberts, his cousin Bliss Carman, Archibald Lampman and Duncan Campbell Scott are known as the Confederation Poets. Roberts was born in Douglas, New Brunswick in 1860, the eldest child of Emma Wetmore Bliss and Rev. George Goodridge Roberts. Rev. Roberts was canon of Christ Church Cathedral, New Brunswick. Charles's brother Theodore Goodridge Roberts and sister, Jane Elizabeth Gostwycke Roberts became authors. Between the ages of 8 months and 14 years, Roberts was raised in the parish of Westcock, New Brunswick, near Sackville, by the Tantramar Marshes.

He was homeschooled by his father, educated in Greek and French. He published three articles in The Colonial Farmer, at 12 years of age. After the family moved to Fredericton in 1873, Roberts attended Fredericton Collegiate School from 1874 to 1876, the University of New Brunswick, earning his B. A. in 1879 and M. A. in 1881. At the Collegiate School he came under the influence of headmaster George Robert Parkin, who gave him a love of classical literature and introduced him to the poetry of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Algernon Charles Swinburne. Roberts worked as principal of Chatham High School in Chatham, New Brunswick, from 1879 to 1881, of York Street School in Fredericton from 1881 to 1883. In Chatham he met and befriended Edmund Collins, editor of the Chatham Star and the future biographer of Sir John A. Macdonald. Roberts first published poetry in the Canadian Illustrated News of March 30, 1878, by 1879 he had placed two poems in the American magazine, Scribner's. In 1880, Roberts published his first book of poetry and Other Poems.

Thanks in part to his industry in sending out complimentary review copies, there were many positive reviews, including praise from Rose-Belford's Canadian Monthly and several American periodicals, including the New York Independent, which called it'a little book of choice things, with the indifferent things well weeded out.'"On December 29, 1880, Roberts married Mary Fenety, they had five children. The biography by Roberts's friend Edmund Collins, The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald, was published in 1883; the book was a success. It contained a chapter on "Thought and Literature in Canada," which devoted 15 pages to Roberts, quoting from Orion. Collins' characterization of Roberts as "our greatest Canadian poet" helped develop Roberts' reputation as a prominent Canadian writer. From 1883 to 1884, Roberts was in Toronto, working as the editor of Goldwin Smith's short-lived literary magazine, The Week. After five months of long hours and disagreements with Smith, Roberts resigned. In 1885, Roberts became a professor at the University of King's College in Nova Scotia.

In 1886, his second book, In Divers Tones, was published by a Boston publisher. During the following six years, Roberts wrote articles on a variety of subjects, lectured in a number of cities in Canada and the United States, he published about thirty poems in The Independent and other American periodicals, as well as stories for young readers in The Youth's Companion. He edited a poetry collection, Poems of Wild Life in 1888, created the Canadian Guide Book in 1891; the anthology, Songs of the Great Dominion, edited by W. D. Lighthall, included a selection of Roberts's work. Roberts resigned from King's College in 1895, when his request for a leave of absence was turned down. In a short period of time he had published his first novel, The Forge in the Forest, as well as a fourth collection of poetry, The Book of the Native, he wrote a book of nature-stories, Earth's Enigmas, completed a book of boys' adventure stories Around the Campfire. In 1897, Roberts moved to New York City to work free-lance.

Between 1897 and 1898, he worked for The Illustrated American as an associate editor. In New York, Roberts wrote prose in many genres, but had most success with animal stories, drawing upon his early experience in the wilds of the Maritimes, he published about a dozen volumes of these, beginning with Earth's Enigmas in 1896 and ending with Eyes of the Wilderness in 1933. Roberts wrote historical romances and novels. Barbara Ladd is the story of a young girl who runs away from her aunt in New England in 1769, he wrote descriptive text for guide books, such as Picturesque Canada and The Land of Evangeline and Gateways Thither for Nova Scotia's Dominion Atlantic Railway. Roberts became involved in a literary debate known as the nature fakers controversy after John Burroughs denounced his popular animal stories, those of other writers, in a 1903 article for Atlantic Monthly; the controversy lasted for nearly six years and included American environmental and political figures of the day, including President Theodore Roosevelt.

In 1907, Roberts moved to Europe. First living in Paris, he moved to Munich in 1910, in 1912 to London, where he lived until 1925. During World War I he enlisted with the British Army as a trooper becoming a captain and a cadet trainer in England. After the war he joined the Canadian War Records Office in London. Roberts returned to Canada in 1925 and began once more t

Antharmostes

Antharmostes is a genus of moths in the family Geometridae first described by Warren in 1899. Some species of this genus are: Antharmostes alcaea L. B. Prout, 1930 Antharmostes dargei Herbulot, 1982 Antharmostes interalbicans Warren, 1902 Antharmostes marginata Antharmostes mesoleuca Warren, 1899 Antharmostes orinophragma Prout, 1930 Antharmostes papilio Prout, 1912 Antharmostes reducta Herbulot, 1996 Antharmostes simplicimargo Prout, 1917 Antharmostes sufflata Herbulot, 1982 Antharmostes tutsiana Herbulot, 1996