Croydon Airport was the UK's major and only international airport during the interwar period. Located in Croydon, South London, England, it opened in 1920 and was developed as Britain's main airport, handling more cargo and passengers than any other UK airport at the time. Innovations at the site included the world's first air traffic control and the first airport terminal. During World War II the airport was named RAF Croydon as its role changed to that of a fighter airfield during the Battle of Britain. After World War II, its role returned to civil aviation, but the role of London's primary international airport passed to London Heathrow Airport. Croydon Airport closed in 1959, it had been known under eight different names. In 1978, the terminal building and Gate Lodge were granted protection as Grade II listed buildings. In May 2017, Historic England raised the status of the terminal building to Grade II*. Owing to disrepair, the Gate Lodge is now classified as Heritage at Risk by Historic England.
In December 1915, Beddington Aerodrome was established – one of a number of small airfields around London that were created for protection against Zeppelin airship raids during the First World War. In January 1916, the first two aircraft, B. E 2C's, arrived at the aerodrome as part of Home Defence. Waddon Aerodrome opened in 1918 as part of the adjoining National Aircraft Factory No. 1, to serve aircraft test flights. The two airfields were on each side of Plough Lane. Beddington Aerodrome became a large Reserve Aircraft and Training aerodrome for the Royal Flying Corps. At the end of the First World War the aerodrome was retained, becoming an important training airfield for the newly formed Royal Air Force. During 1919, Prince Albert gained his "wings" here with No. 29 Training Squadron, the first member of the Royal Family to learn to fly. His elder brother, the Prince of Wales received flying training with No. 29 Training Squadron at Beddington during 1919. The two aerodromes were combined following the end of the First World War to become Croydon Aerodrome, the gateway for all international flights to and from London.
The new aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920 replacing the temporary civil aerodrome at a Cavalry ground on Hounslow Heath. Plough Lane remained a public road crossing the site, road traffic was halted when necessary, first by a man with a red flag and by a gate; the aerodrome stimulated a growth in regular scheduled flights carrying passengers and freight, the first destinations being Paris and Rotterdam. Two flights daily from Paris were scheduled for ease of communication with London during the Paris Peace Conference. In 1923, flights to Berlin Tempelhof Airport began. Penshurst Airfield was an alternative destination for airliners when Croydon was closed on account of fog. One such diversion was on 24 September 1921, when a de Havilland DH.18 aircraft was diverted to Penshurst. This situation lasted until Penshurst closed on 28 July 1936. Croydon was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control, a control tower, radio position-fixing procedures; the "aerodrome control tower", 15 ft high with windows on all four sides, was commissioned on 25 February 1920 and provided basic traffic and location information to pilots.
On the formation of Britain's first national airline, Imperial Airways, on 31 March 1924, Croydon became the new airline's operating base. Imperial Airways was the British Government's chosen instrument to develop connections with the U. K.'s extensive overseas interests. It was therefore from Croydon that Britain first developed its European and longhaul routes to India, the Middle and Far East, Asia and Australia. Following the Imperial Airways de Havilland DH.34 crash of December 1924, Britain's first major civil aviation accident, conditions at Croydon came under criticism from the public inquiry that investigated the causes. The inquiry was Britain's first into an aviation accident which led to an Act of Parliament, the Croydon Aerodrome Extension Act 1925; the Croydon Aerodrome Extension Act led to large scale expansion and construction of an improved new airport with airport buildings constructed adjacent to the Purley Way, Croydon. Under the provisions of the Croydon Aerodrome Extension Act 1925, the airport was enlarged between 1926 and 1928, with a new complex of buildings being constructed alongside Purley Way, including the first purpose-designed airport terminal and air traffic control tower, the world's first airport hotel, extensive hangars.
The development cost £267,000. Plough Lane was closed permanently to depart safely; the airport's terminal building and control tower were completed in 1928, the old wooden air traffic control and customs building demolished. The new buildings and layout began operations on 20 January 1928, were opened on 2 May 1928 by Lady Maud Hoare. Croydon was where regular international passenger services began using converted wartime bombers, the Croydon–Le Bourget route soon became the busiest in the world. Air traffic control was first developed here. Amy Johnson took off from Croydon on 5 May 1930 for her record-breaking flight to Australia. In 1927, Charles Lindbergh arrived in Spirit of St. Louis, to be greeted by an enthusiastic crowd of over 100,000 people. Winston Churchill took flying lessons. On the morning of 11 July 1936, Majo
Whitchurch Rugby Club is an amateur rugby union club in Whitchurch, Shropshire. The club was formed in 1936 and competes in the Midlands 1 West league since their promotion into the division as champions of Midlands 2 West at the end of the 2017-18 season; until the early 1970s, the club relied on the facilities of the local Grammar School until the move to Edgeley Park where they now reside. In 1959 a pre-fabricated club house was opened in the town and in 1970 a pitch was acquired on Edgeley Park followed in 1974 by a new clubhouse and changing rooms on the same site. Mini, colts ladies and more senior teams followed. A major fire in 1986 did not prevent the club celebrating its golden jubilee that year and its diamond ten years By the 1980s Whitchurch established themselves as the leading Shropshire rugby union club; the Senior team was placed in the North Midlands 1 division of the Courage League in 1987 and they progressed to Midlands 1 status in 1994. After the team won all 16 of their games in the 1997/98 season, Whitchurch were promoted to National Division Three North in 1998/99, maintained until 2002/3 when they dropped to Midlands 1 and in 2005/06 North 1.
The club competes in the Midlands 1 West league. Investment in clubhouse facilities in 1975 and again in 2004, with the opening of a new stand, ensured that the club maintained their position as one of the leading sporting clubs in the area; every week four full size pitches accommodate four senior men's sides, 1 ladies XV, under 19's, under 17's plus the mini and junior teams. Whitchurch RUFC has a dedicated youth structure and has produced some top rugby players over the years. Current Northampton Saints number eight, Mark Hopley began his playing career in the mini and junior teams at Whitchurch. Whitchurch has become one of the many towns in a supermarket conflict. Supermarket giants Tesco and Sainsburys both plan to build new stores. Tesco's plan though is to build on the current site of Edgely Park combined with the proposed re-development of the rugby club. In a meeting on 1 December 2010 at the club's general meeting the club members voted for the future of Edgely Park; the voting majority was for the deal to go ahead and for Tesco to build on the club's current grounds.
The deal for the land is thought to be worth around £1.25 million. A planning application must first be accepted though and will be decided over in the early stages of 2011 The store's planning permission has been declined according to the Whitchurch Herald the local newspaper. North Midlands Cup winners: 1996–97, 1998–99 Midlands 1 champions: 1997–98 North Midlands Cup Plate winners: 2015–16 Midlands 2 West champions: 2017–18 "Mark Hopley". Northampton Saints. Retrieved 3 February 2009. Whitchurch Rugby Club
Occupy Dame Street or Occupy Dublin was a peaceful protest and demonstration against economic inequality, social injustice and corporate greed taking place outside the Central Bank of Ireland plaza on Dame Street in Dublin, beside the Temple Bar area of the city. Part of the global Occupy movement, it took its name from the Occupy Wall Street demonstration in New York City's Wall Street financial district. Occupy Dame Street had four requests: the withdrawal of the EU/IMF from Ireland, an end to public ownership of private debt, the return to public ownership of Ireland's privatised oil and gas reserves, the implementation of what the movement describes as "real participatory democracy"; the national police force, Garda Síochána, dismantled their camp during a late-night raid on 8 March 2012. The protesters vowed to fight on; some were never heard of again. The most detailed account and analysis of events was written by Helena Sheehan; the movement started with an online Facebook and Twitter campaign.
The occupation began on 8 October 2011, a Saturday afternoon with around 60 protesters who set up camp in tents outside the Central Bank's head office on Dame Street. The tents were attached to each other and were not pegged to the concrete as that would not be permitted. A free Wi-Fi connection was established anonymously in the first days of the movement; the original group was joined by further people during the days that followed. Around 1,000 people passed through the encampment from the afternoon of 8 October and the afternoon of 11 October. On 22 October, a demonstration in Dublin city centre organised by the group was reported to have over 2,000 in attendance, including English left-wing activist and alternative rock musician Billy Bragg. On 12 November 2011, organisers of the movement marched from the Garden of Remembrance at Parnell Square to their "Tent Town" outside the Central Bank. In mid-November 2011, the Central Bank of Ireland announced it would seek a court order to put an end to the protest taking place outside its headquarters.
The group gained the support of Irish musicians Christy Moore, Damien Dempsey and Glen Hansard, who all played separately at the group's "Tent Town" on 8, 23 and 24 December respectively. The group began their'Occupy Nama' strategy, whereby group members non-violently occupy NAMA owned buildings for a brief period of time until the intervention of Garda SíochánaAuthorities requested the protesters to postpone the camp for the Saint Patrick's Day Parade. Parade Grand Marshal Johnny Giles suggested the protest move for the parade; until March 2012, Occupy Dame Street continued to engage in organised meetings and actions. Occupy Dame Street's camp was dismantled by Gardaí in the early hours of 8 March during which time some 15 protesters affiliated with the group were present. Protesters announced a demonstration at the Central Bank for that day and vowed that the destruction of their camp does not mean their quest for justice is over. On the evening of 8 March over 70 people took part in a spontaneous march from Dame Street to a nearby Garda station on Pearse Street in protest of the removal of the camp.
Aubrey Robinson, the son of former President of Ireland Mary Robinson, is among the people to have participated. The movement held assemblies at 18:00 three days per week. Occupy movement hand signals were encouraged instead of loud cheers. In 2011, local Garda Síochána described the movement as "peaceful" and "well behaved". In March 2012, they dismantled the Occupy Dame Street camp. Dublin City Council received one complaint, but a spokeswoman said: "As it is private property, Dublin City Council has no authority to move these people"; this is. Some local businesspeople had complained about the camp saying it affected their businesses. In December 2011, TD Aengus Ó Snodaigh and Luke'Ming' Flanagan praised the efforts of the group in interviews to RTÉ Radio 1. On 9 October 2011, the United States Embassy in Dublin warned its citizens to avoid the area where the protest movement is occurring. Anti-austerity protests in Ireland List of Occupy movement protest locations Post-2008 Irish banking crisis Post-2008 Irish economic downturn Official website Occupy Dublin on Facebook