An international airport is an airport with customs and border control facilities enabling passengers to travel between countries. International airports are larger than domestic airports and feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the heavier aircraft used for international and intercontinental travel. International airports also host domestic flights. Buildings and management have become sophisticated since the mid 20th century, when international airports began to provide infrastructure for international civilian flights. Detailed technical standards have been developed to ensure safety and common coding systems implemented to provide global consistency; the physical structures that serve millions of individual passengers and flights are among the most complex and interconnected in the world. By the second decade of the 21st century, there were over 1,200 international airports and two billion international passengers along with 50 million metric tonnes of cargo were passing through them annually.
In August 1919, Hounslow Heath Aerodrome, in London, England was the first airport to operate scheduled international commercial services. It was closed and supplanted by Croydon Airport in March 1920. In the United States, Douglas Municipal Airport in Arizona became the first international airport of the Americas in 1928; the precursors to international airports were aerodromes. In the early days of international flights, there was limited infrastructure, "although if engine problems arose there were plenty of places where aircraft could land". Since four-engined land planes were unavailable for over-water operations to international destinations, flying boats became part of the solution. At the far end of the longest international route, on-water landing areas were found in places such as Surabaya and in the open sea off Kupang. In Sydney, Rose Bay, New South Wales, was chosen as the flying boat landing area. International airports sometimes serve military as well as commercial purposes and their viability is affected by technological developments.
Canton Island Airport, for example, in the Phoenix Islands, after serving as a military airport during World War II, was used as a refuelling stop by commercial aircraft such as Qantas which stationed ground crew there in the late 1950s. The advent in the early 1960s of jet aircraft such as the Boeing 707 with the range to fly non-stop between Australia or New Zealand and Hawaii, meant that a mid-Pacific stop was no longer needed and the airport was closed to regular commercial use. Other international airports, such as Kai Tak Airport in Hong Kong, have been decommissioned and replaced when they reached capacity or technological advances rendered them inadequate; the construction and operation of an international airport depends on a complicated set of decisions that are affected by technology, politics and geography as well as both local and international law. Designing an airport for domestic traffic or as "non-hub" has, from the beginning, required extensive co-ordination between users and interested parties – architects, engineers and staff all need to be involved.
Airports may be regarded as emblematic of national pride and so the design may be architecturally ambitious. An example is the planned New Mexico City international airport, intended to replace an airport that has reached capacity. Airports can be non-towered, depending on air traffic density and available funds; because of high capacity and busy airspace, many international airports have air traffic control located on site. Some international airports require construction of additional infrastructure outside of the airport, such as at the Hong Kong International Airport, which included the construction of a high-speed railway and automobile expressway to connect the airport to the urban areas of Hong Kong. Construction of the expressway included the construction of two bridges and the Ma Wan viaduct on Ma Wan island to connect the bridges; each bridge carries automobile traffic. International airports have commercial relationships with and provide services to airlines and passengers from around the world.
Many serve as hubs, or places where non-direct flights may land and passengers may switch planes, while others serve direct point-to-point flights. This affects airport design factors, including the number and placement of terminals as well as the flow of passengers and baggage between different areas of the airport. An airport specializing in point-to-point transit can have international and domestic terminals, each in their separate building equipped with separate baggage handling facilities. In a hub airport, however and services are shared. Airport management have to take into account a wide range of factors, among which are the performance of airlines, the technical requirements of aircraft, airport-airline relationships, services for travelling customers and environmental impacts. Technical standards for safety and operating procedures at international airports are set by international agreements; the International Air Transport Association, formed in 1945, is the association of the airline companies.
The International Civil Aviation Organization is a body of the United Nations succeeding earlier international committees going back to 1903. These two organizations served to create regulations over airports which the airports themselves had no authority to debate; this sparked an entire subject of air travel politics. In January 1948, 19 representatives from various US commercial airports met for the first time in New York City to seek resolution to common problems they
The Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum is a contemporary art museum located in Ridgefield, Connecticut. The Aldrich has no permanent collection and is the only museum in Connecticut, dedicated to the exhibition of contemporary art; the museum presents the first solo museum exhibitions by emerging artists, significant exhibitions of established and mid-career artists whose work is under recognized, thematic group exhibitions exploring topics in contemporary art and society, newly commissioned work. The Aldrich was founded in 1964 by Larry Aldrich with the purpose of being one of the first contemporary art museums in the United States. Using money he raised from selling his own art collection, Mr. Aldrich bought an 18th-century former church and general store known as "Old Hundred" and converted it into the Larry Aldrich Museum; the museum was located in the historic "Old Hundred" building on Main Street in Ridgefield, constructed in 1783 by Joshua King and James Dole, two lieutenants in the Revolutionary War.
During its history the building has served as a grocery and hardware store, a residence, a church, now houses The Aldrich's administrative offices. The museum, whose original board of trustees included Alfred Barr, Joseph Hirshhorn, Philip Johnson, Vera List, was renamed The Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art in 1967. To better focus on its founding mission to exhibit only the newest art, the museum's board voted in 1981 to deaccession the museum's permanent collection. Mr. Aldrich stayed active and involved with the museum until his death in 2001, shortly prior to which The Aldrich's board of trustees, with their chairman emeritus in attendance, had voted to proceed with a major renovation and expansion. Groundbreaking took place in April 2003, the galleries reopened to the public in June 2004 with a new name, The Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum; the new building was designed by architect Charles Mark Hay, design principal at Tappé Associates, is based on an abstraction of traditional New England architecture.
The facility received a design award from the American Institute of Architects. The Aldrich Museum features works by international emerging and mid-career artists. Larry Aldrich said in a 1986 interview: "Almost all the well-known American artists you can think of have been seen here at early stages of their careers. Among them Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, Cy Twombly." Additional notable names include: Eva Hesse, Ann Hamilton, Robert Smithson, Jack Whitten, Olafur Eliasson, Huma Bhabha, KAWS, Mark Dion, Shazia Sikander. Recent notable exhibitions include Five Decades of Art by Harmony Hammond. In 2011, The Aldrich implemented a new programming strategy of twice-yearly show changes in which solo and group exhibitions are united under common themes that link their content. Recent themed exhibition series include Collaborations and Found; the Aldrich Museum has numerous educational programs for adults, teens and families, According to its website, the programs and materials are designed "to help people think in new directions by focusing on the process of looking at and analyzing contemporary art with the hope that these skills translate to the everyday lives of our viewers".
In 1993, former director Harry Philbrick, while director of education, started The Aldrich Museum’s discontinued Student Docent Program. Student Docents from local schools were trained to lead their classmates through the galleries while discussing contemporary art and concepts like structure, form, symbolism and metaphor. Students got to see the installation process of the exhibitions on view and meet the artists. In an interview with The New York Times Philbrick said: "It begins to get them to think critically about the process—making the work of art and hanging an exhibition, they know there's a real live human being who makes these things, can relate what they learn to a work of art." The program was adopted by museums across the United States. Dorothy Mayhall Carlus and Ruth Dyer Robert Metzger Ellen O'Donnell Rankin Barry Rosenberg Jill Snyder Harry Philbrick Alyson Baker Cybele Maylone Alfred H. Barr, Jr. Joseph Hirshhorn Philip Johnson Vera List Ruby Lerner Michael Joo Official website
The New Mexico Department of Health is the state agency charged with handling handles all medical and health related fields within the state of New Mexico New Mexico in the United States. Like most states, New Mexico’s health system consists of many components across multiple organizations. All of them contribute to assessing and improving health in New Mexico; those components include: state agencies such as NMDOH, NM Environment Department, NM Human Services Department, NM Children and Families Department and Aging and Long-Term Services Department as well as tribal entities. These state agencies worked together annually to produce the New Mexico Children’s Cabinet Report Card and Budget Report; the New Mexico Department of Health is a centralized system of health services. A Cabinet Secretary, is appointed by the Governor, oversees the NMDOH along with two Deputy Cabinet Secretaries. There are 33 counties and 22 sovereign tribes in New Mexico, all of which are organized into five public health regions.
Governance for these regions is provided by New Mexico Department of Health. Local public health offices are not governed by local boards of county officials. Public Health Regions have staff resources in all counties to locally assess and address public health needs. Public Health regions were realigned to better correspond geographically with patterns of public health services and to promote collaboration among local resources and other state agencies. NMDOH is the lead entity in New Mexico providing core public health functions and essential services; the NMDOH main campus is located in Santa Fe and the agency employs 3,250 people in more than 60 locations around the state and administers an annual budget in excess of $540 million. The NMDOH is divided into 7 divisions. In addition there are several offices which supports; the NMDOH operates 7 facilities providing behavioral health, long term care and rehabilitative services overseen by the Office of Facility Management. New Mexico has legalized medical cannabis and the Medical Cannabis Program was created as an independent self-supporting entity in 2012.
Although the NMDOH has many duties, three divisions perform most of the core public health essential services: the Public Health, the Emergency and Response and the Scientific Laboratory Divisions. However, other offices provide coordination and enabling services that make the delivery of these services possible and ensure adherence to policy compliance, as well as to quality and performance improvement practices. In 1919, the first meeting of the State Board of Health of New Mexico was held during the administration of Governor Octavio Ambrosio Larrazolo and the Division of Public Health Nursing was created; the Board’s budget for fiscal year 1921 was $16,700.16. From the beginning, public health nursing with its emphasis on providing health care and health education was seen as the most effective means of lowering the state’s high infant mortality rate, improving hygiene, preventing the spread of communicable diseases