Landévennec is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. Shortly before entering the roadstead of Brest, the river Aulne forms a bend around the Île de Térénez the pointe de Pen Forn near Landévennec, where there is 10m depth of water regardless of the tide and with the high surrounding hills blocking the winds and thus keeping the water calm. Here is sited a ship graveyard for civilian but naval vessels; the only difficulty is the Capelan bank, to the south of Logonna-Daoulas, where the depth is less than 5m - this bank has to be passed to reach the base and thus prevents deep-draught vessels from reaching it. A naval station was first set up here around 1840 to house reserve fleet vessels and their crews, it was visited by Napoleon III and empress Eugénie during their August 1858 trip into Brittany. During the Second World War the base was used by the German occupiers such as the school ship Armorique. Post-war, the ship moved from a base for reserve ships kept in readiness to disarmed naval ships left here for other purposes.
Other disarmed French ships have been used as breakwaters before the château de Brest or as training ships off the naval school at Lanvéoc-Poulmic, but those at Landévennec await demolition or use for target practice in naval exercises at sea. Despite requests from Landévennec's mayor, the aircraft carrier Clemenceau was not retired to the base, with the Capelan bank discouraging pilots from attempting to navigate it into the base. However, having been emptied of nearly all its occupants, in August 2006 the graveyard took on three former breakwaters which would become Brest's "port du Château" and had been moved to allow expansion work to begin; the cruiser Colbert and the Soviet-built hydrofoil ferry Kometa from the Penn-ar-Bed company are now based here. Communes of the Finistère department Landévennec Abbey Parc naturel régional d'Armorique INSEE Mayors of Finistère Association.
Audierne is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France. On 1 January 2016 the former commune of Esquibien merged into Audierne; the town lies on a peninsula at the mouth of the Goyen river and for centuries was a fishing village, with a wide sandy beach. Visitors can take a boat from Audierne's port of Esquibien to the Île de Sein; the harbour important to the local fishing industry, is now a yacht port. Remaining of the fishery is an oyster farm. Along the harbour stretches the town's main shopping area with its cafés, bars and restaurants, crêperies, estate agents and holiday agencies, the town hall, the tourism office, the regional bus stop. On Saturday mornings there is a farmers' market, which serves as a meeting place for natives and tourists alike; the battle of Audierne Bay, which took place on 23 August 1944, was an engagement between German and Allied naval flotillas. Three Allied warships, which had established control off the coast of Brittany and were lurking off Audierne south of the invested fortress of Brest and sank eight German vessels of an armed convoy.
This was the conclusion of Operation Kinetic, an allied operation aimed at intercepting shipping and hindering German forces besieged at Brest. Audierne is twinned with Hattingen in Germany. Inhabitants of Audierne are called Audiernais. Communes of the Finistère department INSEE Mayors of Finistère Association INSEE commune file Official website French Ministry of Culture list for Audierne
Bannalec is a commune in the Finistère department in the Brittany region in northwestern France. Inhabitants of Bannalec are called Bannalécois. In 2008, 7.91% of primary-school children attended bilingual schools. Communes of the Finistère department François Bazin Sculptor monument to aviatorBannalec is twinned with the Irish town of Castleisland. INSEE Mayors of Finistère Association.
Camaret-sur-Mer is a commune in the Finistère department in northwestern France, located at the end of Crozon peninsula. Camaret-sur-Mer is home to the Tour Vauban or Tour dorée, a historic fortification guarding the harbor and built in 1669-94. In 2008, the Tour dorée was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the "Fortifications of Vauban" group. Camaret is home to a marina and some beaches. Inhabitants of Camaret-sur-Mer are called Camarétois. Camaret-sur-Mer is twinned with St Ives, Cornwall, UK. Communes of the Finistère department Saint-Pol-Roux Parc naturel régional d'Armorique "List of the works of Charles Cottet depicting scenes of Brittany" INSEE Official website French Ministry of Culture list for Camaret-sur-Mer Cultural Heritage more than 500 photos of the Crozon Peninsula
Argol is a commune in the Finistère department and administrative region of Brittany in north-western France. In French the inhabitants of Argol are known as Argoliens. Communes of the Finistère department Parc naturel régional d'Armorique Argol Parish close INSEE Mayors of Finistère Association.
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Parc naturel régional d'Armorique
The Parc naturel régional d'Armorique, or Armorica Regional Natural Park, is a rural protected area located in Brittany. The park land reaches from the Atlantic Ocean to hilly inland countryside. There are sandy beaches, strange rocks, fast rivers and the hills of Monts d'Arrée, all blended into one landscape; the park includes three islands: Île de Sein, Molène and Ouessant. The wildlife of the park is interesting to naturalists. There are sea birds on the islands, European otters and beavers in the rivers and swamps, interesting birds of prey. In the marshes lives a species of rare carnivorous plant, the sundew, which captures unwary insects; the Armorica regional natural park was founded through a partnership of local and national government in 1969. The park's three islands of Sein, Molène and Ouessant were collectively deemed a UNESCO biosphere reserve in 1988; the area is formed from sedimentary rocks of Palaeozoic age which have been faulted and folded during the Variscan Orogeny. Several granite plutons such as that at Huelgoat were emplaced at that time.
The Armorican Sandstone is a striking white/light grey rock which forms the cliffs at Pen Hir and Cap de Chevre. Islands and rocks within the Iroise Sea are in the main formed from granite and Carboniferous age limestone; the regional natural park is working towards Geopark status. A local geological museum known as the Maison des Mineraux near the Cap de la Chevre houses displays on the geology of the ‘Espace Remarquable de Bretagne’ or ‘ERB’, designated to conserve the area’s geological heritage. A series of geosites has been designated within the peninsular part of the regional park: Beg ar gwinn Enez Louarn Le Fort Le Fraternit Keric Bihan Le Loch Lostmarc'h Pen Hat Plage de la Source Pointe du Drezec Pointe de Gouin - Correjou Pointe de Raguenez Pointe Sainte Barbe Porz Koubou Porz Kregwenn Porz Nay Postolonnec Quilien Rozan Run ar C'hrank Saint Fiacre Sillon des Anglais Sillon du Pal Trez Bihan Nord Trez Rouz Veryac'h Le Zorn Besides the islands, the Crozon peninsula forms the western section of the regional natural park.
The principal town is Crozon whilst the coastal resorts of Morgat, Camaret-sur-Mer li to its southwest and northwest respectively. Tengruc-sur-Mer is situated in the southeastern part of the peninsula. Road access to the peninsula is provided by the D791 road from Route nationale 165 at Le Faou and the D887 from Chateaulin; the headlands of Cap de la Chevre and Pointe de Pen Hir are significant local attractions for their coastal scenery and historical associations. Monts d'Arrée is an area where Celtic Christian traditions coexist peacefully. A local legend explains why the Monts d'Arrée are so bare: when Christ was born, God asked the trees from Monts d'Arrée to cross the sea in order to greet the newborn child. All trees except for the humble pine and heather refused to do this, so they were wrenched from the ground as divine punishment. Although the highest hill, Tuchen Gador, is only 384 meters high, it is easy to get lost. Low fog is frequent above the swamps; the Monts are irregular. The sharp rocks of Tuchen Gador create a striking contrast to the rounded hills of the Mont Saint Michel de Brasparts.
Hiking on the Monts can be treacherous because of the ever-changing weather and the uneven and marshy ground. Mont Saint-Michel de Brasparts, is the most famous hill in the range; the Mont is the second highest in the chain of Monts d'Arrée. The Mont was once claimed to be 391 meters high, but this is only true if the height of the Chapel of Saint-Michel is included. One source claims that the top of the Chapel of Saint-Michel is the highest point in Brittany however the Émetteur de Roc'h Trédudon is 3 m higher at 383 m. If structures on top of these hills are included, the Émetteur de Roc'h Trédudon is higher, with a 220m antenna on the summit; the summit of Saint-Michel de Brasparts offers fine views of the bogs of Elez Yeun, on to Lake Brennilis. When the weather permits, one can see the Pont de l'Iroise, the Bay of Morlaix; the Chapel of Saint-Michel was built in 1672. It is dedicated to Archangel Michael, it was vandalized in 1935. Now the building is empty. Elez Yeun is a visible from the summit of Mont Saint-Michel de Brasparts.
Ancient tradition claims. The word "ellez" is found in few other names around the region, comes from the same Indo-European root as the world "hell" in English. Elez Yeun is surrounded by many superstitions, it is said that hapless mortals peering into Elez Yeun risked being seized, dragged down by unseen forces below. Malevolent fiends taking the form of a great black dog, are heard baying at night. Another sound heard. In Christian folklore, the Youdic was thought to be a place to confine the possessed, but Saint Michael has the power to save souls from falling into it. One legend describes what happened to a priest and a sexton by the name of Job, when they tried to cross Elez Yeun: A vast desolation surrounded them. So dark was the night. Beneath their feet they heard the hissing and moaning of the bog, awaiting its prey like a restless and voracious wild beast. Through the dense blackness they could see the iridescent waters gleaming below. "Surely," said Job half to himself, "this must be the gateway to hell!"
At that word the dog uttered. It tugged and strained at the cord which held it with the strength of a d