Sud Aviation Caravelle
The Sud Aviation SE210 Caravelle was a French short/medium-range jet airliner. It holds the distinction of being the worlds first jet-powered airliner to be developed for the short/medium-range market, in order to achieve this, SNCASE formed partnerships with British companies such as de Havilland and Rolls-Royce Limited. Within a few years of commencing passenger services, the Caravelle had become regarded as being one of the most successful European first-generation jetliners. The airliner achieved substantial sales to operators throughout Europe and had managed to penetrate the United States market. The Caravelle established the aft-mounted engine, clean-wing design configuration that is used by smaller jetliners. On 12 October 1951, the Comité du matériel civil published a specification for a medium-range aircraft, which was sent to the aviation industry by the Direction technique et industrielle. This called for a capable of carrying 55 to 65 passengers and 1,000 kg of cargo on routes up to 2,000 km with a cruising speed of about 600 km/h.
The type and number of engines were not specified, hurel-Dubois had entered several turboprop designs based on a narrow fuselage and shoulder-mounted wing, similar to many regional propliners. Proposals from the SNCA du Sud-Ouest included the S. O.60 with two Rolls-Royce Avon RA.7 engines, outfitted with two smaller Turbomeca Marborés as auxiliaries. SNCA du Sud-Est had returned a number of designs from the X-200 to X-210, the Committee issued a request for SNCASE to re-submit its X-210 proposal as a twin-Avon design. This turned out to be a benefit to the design, as the noise was greatly reduced as a result. In July 1952, the revised X-210 design with twin Avons was re-submitted to the SGACC, two months later, SNCASE received official notification that its design had been accepted. On 6 July 1953, the SGACC placed an order for the construction of a pair of prototypes along with a pair of static airframes for fatigue testing. Suds design licensed several fuselage features from British aircraft company de Havilland, the nose area and cockpit layout were both taken directly from the de Havilland Comet jet airliner, while the rest of the airliner was locally designed. A distinctive design feature was the windows in the shape of a curved triangle which were smaller than conventional windows.
On 21 April 1955, the first prototype of the Caravelle, on 27 May 1955, the first prototype conducted its maiden flight, powered by a pair of British Rolls-Royce RA-26 Mk.522, capable of providing 4,536 kgf of unitary thrust. For the maiden flight, which had a duration of 41 minutes. Almost one year later, on 6 May 1956, the prototype made its first flight
The Anglo-Saxons are a people who have inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including government of shires. During this period, Christianity was re-established and there was a flowering of literature and law were established. The term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England, in scholarly use, it is more commonly called Old English. The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity and it developed from divergent groups in association with the peoples adoption of Christianity, and was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established, the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods.
Behind the symbolic nature of these emblems, there are strong elements of tribal. The elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, and identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms, above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed and extended kin groups remained. the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the meaning in all the sources. Assigning ethnic labels such as Anglo-Saxon is fraught with difficulties and this term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish the Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The Old English ethnonym Angul-Seaxan comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum, Anglo-Saxon is a term that was rarely used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is not an autonym. It is likely they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more probably, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age or the conquest of 1016, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders, Saxones who attacked the shores of Britain, procopius states that Britain was settled by three races, the Angiloi and Britons. The term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean English Saxons, the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli, for example in the story of Pope Gregory I and his remark, Non Angli sed angeli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people, at other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which presumably meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex, the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred
The term chapel usually refers to a place of prayer and worship that is attached to a larger, often nonreligious institution or that is considered an extension of a primary religious institution. Chapel has referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside of the established church, the earliest Christian places of worship are now often referred to as chapels, as they were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building. Most larger churches had one or more secondary altars, which if they occupied a distinct space, in Russian Orthodox tradition, the chapels were built underneath city gates, where most people could visit them. The most famous example is the Iberian Chapel, although chapels frequently refer to Christian places of worship, they are commonly found in Jewish synagogues and do not necessarily connote a specific denomination. In England—where the Church of England is established by law—non-denominational or inter-faith chapels in such institutions may nonetheless be consecrated by the local Anglican bishop, non-denominational chapels are commonly encountered as part of a non-religious institution such as a hospital, university or prison.
Many military installations have chapels for the use of military personnel, the earliest Christian places of worship were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building, such as a room in an individuals home. Here one or two people could pray without being part of a communion/congregation, people who like to use chapels may find it peaceful and relaxing to be away from the stress of life, without other people moving around them. The word, like the word, chaplain, is ultimately derived from Latin. The other half he wore over his shoulders as a small cape, the beggar, the stories claim, was Christ in disguise, and Martin experienced a conversion of heart, becoming first a monk, bishop. This cape came into the possession of the Frankish kings, the tent which kept the cape was called the capella and the priests who said daily Mass in the tent were known as the capellani. From these words, via Old French, we get the names chapel, the word appears in the Irish language in the Middle Ages, as Welsh people came with the Norman and Old English invaders to the island of Ireland.
While the traditional Irish word for church was eaglais, a new word, séipéal, in British history, chapel or meeting house, was formerly the standard designation for church buildings belonging to independent or Nonconformist religious societies and their members. As a result, chapel is used as an adjective in the UK to describe the members of such churches. A proprietary chapel is one that belonged to a private person. In the 19th century they were common, often being built to cope with urbanisation, frequently they were set up by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more privately, with a wealthy person building a chapel so they could invite their favorite preachers and they are anomalies in the English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being able to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there. Historically many Anglican Churches were Proprietary Chapels, over the years they have often been converted into normal Parishes.
While the usage of the chapel is not exclusively limited to Christian terminology
Grumman F-9 Cougar
The Grumman F9F/F-9 Cougar was an aircraft carrier-based fighter aircraft for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. Based on Grummans earlier F9F Panther, the Cougar replaced the Panthers straight wing with a more modern swept wing, the Navy considered the Cougar an updated version of the Panther, despite having a different official name, and thus Cougars started off from F9F-6 upward. Rumors that the Soviet Union had produced a swept-wing fighter had been circulating since 1948, despite the level of activity taking place with swept-wing aircraft, the Navy was initially not heavily focused on the development of such aircraft. Nonetheless the Navy appreciated the importance of getting a capable carrier-based swept-wing jet fighter, Grumman was awarded a contract for the development of a swept-wing fighter jet in 1951. The arrival of the Mig 15, which easily outclassed straight-wing fighters in the air war over North Korea was a contributing factor. Prototypes were quickly produced by modifying Panthers, and the first flew on 20 September 1951.
The aircraft was still subsonic, but the critical Mach number was increased from 0.79 to 0.86 at sea level and to 0.895 at 35,000 ft, improving performance markedly over the Panther. Instead of using conventional ailerons for roll control, the F9F-6 uses spoilers on the surfaces of the wing. Wing fences were added and the spoilers extended from the fences to the tips of the wing. The rudder pedals controlled the part of the rudder below the tail surface. This allowed the Cougar to fly safely and easily without the portion of the tail. Initial production was the F9F-6, delivered from mid-1952 through July 1954, the F9F-6 first flew on September 20,1951, seven months after Grumman signed a contract with the Navy for swept-wing fighter. The first 30 production aircraft used the same J42 P-6 engine used in the F9F-5, Armament was four 20 mm It had AN/M3 cannons in the nose and provisions for two 1,000 lb bombs or 150 US gal drop tanks under the wings. Most were fitted with a UHF homing antenna under the nose, the F9F-6 used an Aero 5D-1 weapons sight with an APG-30A gun-ranging radar.
The F9F-6 was designated F-9F in 1962, sixty were built as F9F-6P reconnaissance aircraft with cameras instead of the nose cannon. The F9F/F-9 Cougar is one of few aircraft which do not have ailerons, after withdrawal from active service, many F9F-6s were used as unmanned drones for combat training, designated F9F-6D, or as drone controllers, designated F9F-6K. The F9F-6K and the F9F-6D were redesignated the QF-9F and DF-9F, the F9F-7 referred to the next batch of Cougars that were given the Allison J33 found in the F9F-4, instead of the Pratt & Whitney J48. A total of 168 were built, but the J33 proved both powerful and less reliable than the J48
Humfrey Wanley was an English librarian and scholar of Old English, employed by manuscript collectors such as Robert and Edward Harley. He was the first keeper of the Harlein Library, now the Harleian Collection and he was the son of Nathaniel Wanley, born on 21 March 1672 at the Vicarage House adjoining Jesus Hall, Coventry. Starting out as a draper in his town, he soon tired of this and moved to Oxford University to study in 1695 thanks to his patron William Lloyd, bishop of Coventry. Wanley, together with John Bagford and John Talman, was one of three members of the reconstituted Society of Antiquaries, which first met at the Bear Tavern on the Strand on 5 December 1707. He died of dropsy on 6 July 1726 and was buried at St Marylebone Church, wanleys contributed to the scholarship of Old English literature. His 1705 catalog of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, Antiquae literaturae septentrionalis liber alter, cum totius thesauri linguarum septentrionalium sex indicibus, was of paramount importance in the field.
According to Neil Ripley Ker, Wanley was a great paleographer. His catalogue of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts is a book which scholars continue to use. The first edition of text is available as an article on Wikisource
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100.
The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived.
Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin
A transept is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice. In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a building within the Romanesque. Each half of a transept is known as a semitransept, the transept of a church separates the nave from the sanctuary, choir, presbytery or chancel. The transepts cross the nave at the crossing, which belongs equally to the main nave axis, upon its four piers, the crossing may support a spire, a central tower or a crossing dome. Since the altar is located at the east end of a church. The north and south end walls often hold decorated windows of stained glass, such as rose windows, the basilicas and the church and cathedral planning that descended from them were built without transepts, sometimes the transepts were reduced to matched chapels. More often, the transepts extended well beyond the sides of the rest of the building, forming the shape of a cross and this design is called a Latin cross ground plan, and these extensions are known as the arms of the transept.
A Greek cross ground plan, with all four extensions the same length, when churches have only one transept, as at Pershore Abbey, there is generally a historical disaster, war or funding problem, to explain the anomaly. At Beauvais only the chevet and transepts stand, the nave of the cathedral was never completed after a collapse of the daring high vaulting in 1284. At St. Vitus Cathedral, only the choir, in a metro station or similar construction, a transept is a space over the platforms and tracks of a station with side platforms, containing the bridge between the platforms. Placing the bridge in a rather than an enclosed tunnel allows passengers to see the platforms. Aisle Apse Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram Glossary of the Catholic Church Transom
The Well-Tempered Clavier
The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, is a collection of two series of Preludes and Fugues in all 24 major and minor keys, composed for solo keyboard by Johann Sebastian Bach. In the German of Bachs time Clavier was a name indicating a variety of keyboard instruments, most typically a harpsichord or clavichord –. The modern German spelling for the collection is Das wohltemperierte Klavier, some 20 years Bach compiled a second book of the same kind, which became known as The Well-Tempered Clavier, Part Two. Modern editions usually refer to both parts as The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I and The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II, the collection is generally regarded as being among the most influential works in the history of Western classical music. Each set contains twenty-four pairs of preludes and fugues, the first pair is in C major, the second in C minor, the third in C♯ major, the fourth in C♯ minor, and so on. The rising chromatic pattern continues until every key has been represented, the first set was compiled in 1722 during Bachs appointment in Köthen, the second followed 20 years in 1742 while he was in Leipzig.
The C♯ major prelude and fugue in book one was originally in C major – Bach added a key signature of seven sharps, although the Well-Tempered Clavier was the first collection of fully worked keyboard pieces in all 24 keys, similar ideas had occurred earlier. His contemporary Johann Heinrich Kittel composed a cycle of 12 organ preludes in successive keys, Fischer was published in 1702 and reissued 1715. It is a set of 20 prelude-fugue pairs in ten major and nine minor keys, Bach knew the collection and borrowed some of the themes from Fischer for the Well-Tempered Clavier. Finally, a lost collection by Johann Pachelbel, Fugen und Praeambuln über die gewöhnlichsten Tonos figuratos and it was shown that this was the work of a composer who was not even born in 1689, Bernhard Christian Weber. It was in written in 1745–50, and in imitation of Bachs example. Bachs title suggests that he had written for a tuning system in which all keys sounded in tune. The opposing system in Bachs day was meantone temperament in which keys with many accidentals sound out of tune, Bach would have been familiar with different tuning systems, and in particular as an organist would have played instruments tuned to a meantone system.
There is debate whether Bach meant a range of temperaments, perhaps even altered slightly in practice from piece to piece. During much of the 20th century it was assumed that Bach wanted equal temperament, internal evidence for this may be seen in the fact that in Book 1 Bach paired the E♭ minor prelude with its enharmonic key of D♯ minor for the fugue. This represents an equation of the most tonally remote enharmonic keys where the flat, any performance of this pair would have required both of these enharmonic keys to sound identically tuned, thus implying equal temperament in the one pair, as the entire work implies as a whole. However, research has continued into various unequal systems contemporary with Bachs career, accounts of Bachs own tuning practice are few and inexact. The three most cited sources are Forkel, Bachs first biographer, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, who received information from Bachs sons and pupils, and Johann Kirnberger, one of those pupils
Architecture of cathedrals and great churches
Cathedrals in particular, as well as many abbey churches and basilicas, have certain complex structural forms that are found less often in parish churches. Such a cathedral or great church is one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride. Many cathedrals and basilicas, and a number of churches are among the worlds most renowned works of architecture. The earliest large churches date from Late Antiquity, as Christianity and the construction of churches and cathedrals spread throughout the world, their manner of building was dependent upon local materials and local techniques. Overlaid on each of the styles are the regional characteristics. Some of these characteristics are so typical of a country or region that they appear, regardless of style. Among the worlds largest and most architecturally significant churches, many were built to serve as cathedrals or abbey churches, among the Roman Catholic churches, many have been raised to the status of basilica. The categories below are not exclusive, a church can be an abbey, serve as a cathedral, and be a basilica.
Among the great Protestant churches, such as Ulm Minster have never served as any of these, such as Westminster Abbey, are former abbeys and cathedrals. Neither Orthodox or Protestant churches are designated as basilicas in the Catholic sense, the term cathedral in Orthodoxy and Protestantism is sometimes loosely applied to a large church that is not a bishops principal church. Some significant churches are termed temples or oratories, in fact, a cathedral does not have to be large or imposing, although many cathedrals are. The cathedral takes its name from the word cathedra, or bishops throne, a cathedral has a specific ecclesiastical role and administrative purpose as the seat of a bishop. The role of bishop as administrator of local clergy came into being in the 1st century and it was two hundred years before the first cathedral building was constructed in Rome. With the legalising of Christianity in 313 by the Emperor Constantine I, the architectural form which cathedrals took was largely dependent upon their ritual function as the seat of a bishop.
But in a cathedral, in general, these things are done with an amount of elaboration, pageantry. This elaboration is particularly present during important liturgical rites performed by a Bishop, a cathedral is often the site of rituals associated with local or national Government, the Bishops performing the tasks of all sorts from the induction of a mayor to the coronation of a monarch. Some of these tasks are apparent in the form and fittings of particular cathedrals, the church that has the function of cathedral is not always a large building. It might be as small as Christ Church Cathedral, but frequently, the cathedral, along with some of the abbey churches, was the largest building in any region
Although it was founded in the Anglo-Saxon period, its architecture is mainly Norman, following a rebuilding in the 12th century. With Durham and Ely Cathedrals, it is one of the most important 12th-century buildings in England to have remained intact, despite extensions. Peterborough Cathedral is known for its imposing Early English Gothic West Front which, the appearance is slightly asymmetrical, as one of the two towers that rise from behind the façade was never completed, but this is only visible from a distance. The monastic settlement with which the church was associated lasted at least until 870, in an alcove of the Lady Chapel, lies an ancient stone carving, the Hedda Stone. This medieval carving of 12 monks, six on each side, commemorates the destruction of the Monastery, the Hedda Stone was likely carved sometime after the raid, when the monastery slipped into decline. The original central tower was, retained and it was dedicated to St Peter, and came to be called a burgh, hence the town surrounding the abbey was eventually named Peter-burgh.
The community was revived in 972 by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury. This newer church had as its focal point a substantial western tower with a Rhenish helm and was largely constructed of ashlars. In 2008, Anglo-Saxon grave markers were reported to have been found by workmen repairing a wall in the cathedral precincts, the grave markers are said to date to the 11th century, and probably belonged to townsfolk. Although damaged during the struggle between the Norman invaders and local folk-hero, Hereward the Wake, it was repaired and continued to thrive until destroyed by a fire in 1116. This event necessitated the building of a new church in the Norman style, by 1193 the building was completed to the western end of the Nave, including the central tower and the decorated wooden ceiling of the nave. The ceiling, completed between 1230 and 1250, still survives and it is unique in Britain and one of only four such ceilings in the whole of Europe. It has been over-painted twice, once in 1745, in 1834, after completing the Western transept and adding the Great West Front Portico in 1237, the medieval masons switched over to the new Gothic style.
The completed building was consecrated in 1238 by Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, the trio of arches forming the Great West Front, the defining image of Peterborough Cathedral, is unrivalled in medieval architecture. The line of spires behind it, topping an unprecedented four towers, chief amongst them was the wish to retain the earlier Norman towers, which became obsolete when the Gothic front was added. Between 1496 and 1508 the Presbytery roof was replaced and the New Building, the supposed arm of Oswald of Northumbria disappeared from its chapel, probably during the Reformation, despite a watch-tower having been built for monks to guard its reliquary. Various contact relics of Thomas Becket were brought from Canterbury in a reliquary by its Prior Benedict when he was promoted to Abbot of Peterborough. These items underpinned the importance of what is today Peterborough Cathedral, at the zenith of its wealth just before the Reformation it had the sixth largest monastic income in England, and had 120 monks, an almoner, an infirmarian, a sacristan and a cellarer
Christian cross variants
This is a list of Christian cross variants. The Christian cross, with or without a figure of Christ included, is the religious symbol of Christianity. A cross with figure of Christ affixed to it is termed a crucifix, the term Greek cross designates a cross with arms of equal length, as in a plus sign, while the term Latin cross designates a cross with an elongated descending arm. Numerous other variants have developed during the medieval period. Christian crosses are used widely in churches, on top of buildings, on bibles, in heraldry, in personal jewelry, on hilltops. Crosses are a prominent feature of Christian cemeteries, either carved on gravestones or as sculpted stelae, roman Catholic and Lutheran depictions of the cross are often crucifixes, in order to emphasize that it is Jesus that is important, rather than the cross in isolation. Large crucifixes are a prominent feature of some Lutheran churches, as illustrated in the article Rood, several Christian cross variants are available in computer-displayed text.
The Latin cross symbol is included in the character set as 271D. For others, see Religious and political symbols in Unicode, basic variants, or early variants widespread since antiquity
A tetraconch, from the Greek for four shells, is a building, usually a church or other religious building, with four apses, one in each direction, usually of equal size. The basic ground plan of the building is therefore a Greek cross and they are most common in Byzantine, and related schools such as Armenian and Georgian architecture. It has been argued that they were developed in areas or Syria. Apart from churches, the form is suitable for a mausoleum or baptistery, there will be a higher central dome over the central space. The Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan is possibly the first example of a grander type, in middle Byzantine architecture, the cross-in-square plan was developed, essentially filling out the tetraconch to form a square-ish exterior. Either of these types may be described precisely as cross-domed. In these types the semi-dome of the apse usually starts directly from the central domed space, the ruined Ninotsminda Cathedral of c.575 in Georgia is perhaps the oldest example in that country.
The Armenian and Georgian examples are than others but a distinctive. In Armenia, the plan developed in the 6th century. The ruined so-called Cathedral of Bosra, of the early 6th century, is the earliest major Syrian tetraconch church, though in Syria the type did not remain as popular as in the Caucasus. The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, world-famous for its mosaics, is almost a tetraconch and these end in a flat wall with no semi-dome, and the entrance end is slightly longer. A famous revival of the formula in the West is Bramantes first design for the Basilica of St. Peter. A triconch building has three apses, normally omitting the one at the liturgical west end, which may be replaced with a narthex. Many churches of both types have been extended, especially to the west by addition of naves, so that came to resemble more conventional basilica-type churches. The church in Istanbul of St. Mary of the Mongols is an example and Judith Collins, The Origins of the Romanesque, Lund Humphries, London,1985, ISBN 0-85331-487-X Hill, Julie.
The Silk Road Revisited, Markets and Minarets, AuthorHouse,2006, ISBN 1-4259-7280-2, Google books Kleinbauer and the Origins of Christian Architecture in Armenia, The Art Bulletin, Vol.54, No. 3, pp. 245–262 JSTOR Graphic model of a 7th-century Armenian simple tetraconch church