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Cryptanalysis

Cryptanalysis is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach cryptographic security systems and gain access to the contents of encrypted messages if the cryptographic key is unknown. In addition to mathematical analysis of cryptographic algorithms, cryptanalysis includes the study of side-channel attacks that do not target weaknesses in the cryptographic algorithms themselves, but instead exploit weaknesses in their implementation. Though the goal has been the same, the methods and techniques of cryptanalysis have changed drastically through the history of cryptography, adapting to increasing cryptographic complexity, ranging from the pen-and-paper methods of the past, through machines like the British Bombes and Colossus computers at Bletchley Park in World War II, to the mathematically advanced computerized schemes of the present. Methods for breaking modern cryptosystems involve solving constructed problems in pure mathematics, the best-known being integer factorization.

Given some encrypted data, the goal of the cryptanalyst is to gain as much information as possible about the original, unencrypted data. It is useful to consider two aspects of achieving this; the first is breaking the system —, discovering how the encipherment process works. The second is solving the key, unique for a particular encrypted message or group of messages. Attacks can be classified based on; as a basic starting point it is assumed that, for the purposes of analysis, the general algorithm is known. This is a reasonable assumption in practice — throughout history, there are countless examples of secret algorithms falling into wider knowledge, variously through espionage and reverse engineering.: Ciphertext-only: the cryptanalyst has access only to a collection of ciphertexts or codetexts. Known-plaintext: the attacker has a set of ciphertexts to which he knows the corresponding plaintext. Chosen-plaintext: the attacker can obtain the ciphertexts corresponding to an arbitrary set of plaintexts of his own choosing.

Adaptive chosen-plaintext: like a chosen-plaintext attack, except the attacker can choose subsequent plaintexts based on information learned from previous encryptions. Adaptive chosen ciphertext attack. Related-key attack: Like a chosen-plaintext attack, except the attacker can obtain ciphertexts encrypted under two different keys; the keys are unknown. Attacks can be characterised by the resources they require; those resources include: Time -- the number of computation steps. Memory — the amount of storage required to perform the attack. Data — the quantity and type of plaintexts and ciphertexts required for a particular approach. It's sometimes difficult to predict these quantities especially when the attack isn't practical to implement for testing, but academic cryptanalysts tend to provide at least the estimated order of magnitude of their attacks' difficulty, for example, "SHA-1 collisions now 252."Bruce Schneier notes that computationally impractical attacks can be considered breaks: "Breaking a cipher means finding a weakness in the cipher that can be exploited with a complexity less than brute force.

Never mind that brute-force might require 2128 encryptions. The results of cryptanalysis can vary in usefulness. For example, cryptographer Lars Knudsen classified various types of attack on block ciphers according to the amount and quality of secret information, discovered: Total break — the attacker deduces the secret key. Global deduction — the attacker discovers a functionally equivalent algorithm for encryption and decryption, but without learning the key. Instance deduction — the attacker discovers additional plaintexts not known. Information deduction — the attacker gains some Shannon information about plaintexts not known. Distinguishing algorithm — the attacker can distinguish the cipher from a random permutation. Academic attacks are against weakened versions of a cryptosystem, such as a block cipher or hash function with some rounds removed. Many, but not all, attacks become exponentially more difficult to execute as rounds are added to a cryptosystem, so it's possible for the full cryptosystem to be strong though reduced-round variants are weak.

Nonetheless, partial breaks that come close to breaking the original cryptosystem may mean that a full break will follow. In academic cryptography, a weakness or a break in a scheme is defined quite conservatively: it might require impractical amounts of time, memory, or known plaintexts, it might require the attacker be able to do things many real-world attackers can't: for example, the attacker may need to choose particular plaintexts to be encrypted or to ask for plaintexts to be encrypted using several keys related to the secret key. Furthermore

The Dream: Introduction into the Psychology of Dreams

The Dream – Introduction into the Psychology of Dreams is a book by the Austrian psychoanalyst Herbert Silberer, written 1918 in Vienna and published 1919 by Ferdinand Enke in Stuttgart. His main intention was to provide a short, comprehensible guide on how to read and understand more sophisticated literature on dreams, as well as giving an appreciation of fundamental dream phenomena, because he considered both of them as lacking at this time. Silberer himself called this book the preamble for more sophisticated and complicated works, which could build up on his own work; the Dream was written in 1918, a time in which Europe had suffered from World War I for nearly four years when it was about to come to an end. Furthermore, it originates from a period in which the field of psychology was influenced by psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud and like-minded psychologists. Since the publication of Freud's Interpretation of Dreams in 1900, psychoanalysis in general, dream interpretation in particular, became of increasing interest among professionals as well as laymen.

Many people were fascinated by the putative meaning of their dreams and desired to discover their unconscious selves by means of interpreting them. In the following years, Silberer noticed that while the literature on the interpretation of dreams was increasing in amount and complexity, general information on basic elements of dreams was deficient. Therefore, he began to give public lectures on fundamental knowledge about dreams as well as his specific findings in this field in Vienna. After various listeners of one of such lectures had assured him that he had succeeded in providing an understandable introduction into the psychology of dreams, Silberer decided to write it down, thereby creating the book The Dream. Here, he builds up on his explorations and findings on limit states between sleep and wakefulness called hypnagogic states, which had encouraged him to write one of his first publications Report on a Method of Eliciting and Observing Certain Symbolic Hallucination-Phenomena in 1909.

Silberer's work on hypnagogic states, discussed in the first part of The Dream, grasped the attention of Sigmund Freud, who advised C. G. Jung to arrange its publication in the Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen in 1909. In 1910, Silberer joined. Freud considered the work of Silberer his theories on symbolism, as a valuable contribution to his own research, he included some of Silberer's findings in his own writings. However, it is documented, it is assumed. While Silberer and Freud drifted apart over the years, Jung appreciated Silberer's contribution to the theory of psychoanalysis. Being a pioneer in interpreting an alchemical text in a symbolic and psychoanalytic way, Silberer formed a connecting link to Jung's symbolic, archetypal interpretation of dreams as well as his analytical theory. In his work Mysterium Conjunctionis Jung wrote: "Herbert Silberer has the merit of being the first to discover the secret threads that lead from alchemy to the psychology of the unconscious".

The relationship between Silberer and Freud became tensed when Silberer got into closer contact with Wilhelm Stekel and C. G. Jung, who both had distanced themselves from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society by that time. In terms of professional viewpoints Freud and Silberer drifted apart progressively. While Freud dedicated himself to his traditional Psychoanalysis, Silberer focused more and more on occult phenomena. Silberer's standpoint became the content of his main work: Problems of Mysticism and its Symbolism, published in 1914. Here, he depicted the Freudian analysis as too superficial, not going far enough into interpreting the inner psychological and spiritual meanings of dreams or mental processes. Freud, in turn, criticized Silberer for this affirmation of mysticism. In the introduction of The Dream, Silberer explicitly states that he made use of Freud's doctrine of Psychoanalysis, he emphasizes, that he based his writings on his own research. Furthermore, he stresses his intention to keep himself clean from the exaggerations that eager followers of the doctrine of Freud are accused of.

When the magazine Psyche and Eros, published by Silberer and Stekel from 1920 onwards, was said to have become anti-Freudian, both authors abdicated in 1922. Following these growing discrepancies in terms of professional opinions, as well as increasing public tensions, Freud expressed his rejection of Silberer in a refusing letter, stating that he does not wish to stay in further contact. Several months in January 1923, Silberer committed suicide by hanging, it is debated in. It is believed that Silberer had long been suffering from loneliness though he was married, which led to the development of a suicidal depression; the book consists of eight subparts. The first main part elementary phenomena of dreams are described. In the second part the actual dream and its interpretation a

Martha Lake, Washington

Martha Lake is a census-designated place in Snohomish County, United States. The population was 15,473 at the 2010 census, it lies northeast of Lynnwood, near the lake of the same name. Based on per capita income, one of the more reliable measures of affluence, Martha Lake ranks 95th of 522 areas in the state of Washington to be ranked. Martha Lake is located at 47°51′3″N 122°14′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.8 square miles, of which, 4.8 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,633 people, 4,602 households, 3,419 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,654.0 people per square mile. There were 4,808 housing units at an average density of 1,010.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 58.80% White, 11.52% African American, 0.79% Native American, 12.63% Asian, 0.23% Pacific Islander, 1.30% from other races, 3.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.70% of the population.

There were 4,602 households out of which 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.3% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were non-families. 17.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.10. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 27.0% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 6.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $57,568, the median income for a family was $59,813. Males had a median income of $46,262 versus $32,356 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $24,721. About 2.9% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 4.9% of those age 65 or over

List of Michigan Wolverines football trainers

This is a list of Michigan Wolverines football athletic trainers. Mike Murphy - Michigan's first football trainer in 1891, he served as an athletic trainer and coach at Yale University, Detroit Athletic Club, University of Michigan, Villanova University, University of Pennsylvania, the New York Athletic Club. He coached the American track athletes at the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1908, 1912, he spent a year in 1884 as the trainer of heavyweight boxing champion John L. Sullivan; the Washington Post in 1913 called Murphy "the father of American track athletics." He was considered the premier athletic trainer of his era and was said to have "revolutionized the methods of training athletes and reduced it to a science." He is credited with establishing many innovative techniques for track and field, including the crouching start for sprinters. Edward Moulton - Michigan's second athletic trainer, held the position in 1893, he was an American sprinter, athletic trainer, coach. He was a professional sprinter who won more than 300 races and was regarded as the American sprinting champion from 1872 to 1878.

Moulton worked as a trainer of sprinters, wrestlers and bicyclists. He trained many well-known track and field athletes from the 1880s through the 1910s, including the original "world's fastest human," Al Tharnish, Olympic medalists Alvin Kraenzlein, Charlie Paddock, Morris Kirksey, George Horine, Feg Murray. In the 1890s, Moulton was employed as a trainer and coach of American football, including one year as the head football coach at the University of Minnesota. Moulton coached athletics and worked as a trainer at other schools, including the University of Michigan, the University of Iowa, the University of Wisconsin, he spent most of the last 22 years of his life working as a coach and trainer of track and field and baseball at Stanford University. Keene Fitzpatrick - Michigan's third football trainer, he held the position from 1894-1895 and again in 1898 and from 1900-1909, he was principally known as a track coach, athletic trainer, professor of physical training and gymnasium director for 42 years at Yale University and Princeton University.

He is considered "one of the pioneers of intercollegiate sport." James Robinson Tom Cox Alvin Kraenzlein - He was Michigan's sixth football trainer, holding the position from 1910 to 1911. He was principally known as the first athlete to win four Olympic titles in a single Olympic Games; as of 2012, he is still the only field athlete to have done so in individual events only. Stephen Farrell - He was Michigan's seventh football trainer, holding the position from 1912 to 1915, he was professional track athlete, circus performer and track coach. He was a professional foot-racer in the 1880s and 1890s, beginning as a competitor in the hook and ladder teams of New England, he was the first American to win England's Sheffield Cup on two occasions and competed in races from 100 yards to one mile. He became known as "the greatest professional footracer this country has known." Seeking out new challenges, Farrell performed with the Barnum & Bailey Circus for several years racing against a horse, he was never known to lose to the horse.

Farrell became a track coach at Yale University, the University of Maine, Ohio State University, the University of Michigan. He coached at Michigan for 18 years and developed many great athletes, including DeHart Hubbard and Eddie Tolan. Harry Tuthill George A. May Archie Hahn, William Fallon Archie Hahn Charles B. Hoyt, William Fallon Charles B. Hoyt Ray Roberts Charles B. Hoyt Ray Roberts Jim Hunt Lindsy McLean Russ Miller Paul Schmidt Dave Granito Philip Dean Johnson

You Don't Like the Truth

You Don't Like The Truth: Four Days Inside Guantanamo is an award-winning 2010 documentary. The film focuses on the recorded interrogations of Canadian child soldier Omar Khadr, by Canadian intelligence personnel that took place over four days from February 13–16, 2003 while he was held at Guantanamo, it presents these with observations by his lawyers and former cell mates from the Bagram Theater Internment Facility and Guantanamo Bay detention camps. The film premiered at the Festival du nouveau cinéma in Montreal in October 2010; the film was shown to Canadian parliamentarians in October 2010. Khadr's defence attorney's planned to show the film during their summation if Khadr's trial went forward. According to the Montreal Gazette the film-makers Luc Côté and Patricio Henriquez produced a series of short YouTube videos as a companion to the feature-length documentary. Omar Khadr was taken captive in Pakistan at the age of 15 and imprisoned at Guantanamo, charged with killing a US soldier. Khadr was transferred into Canadian custody in late 2012.

He was transferred in 2014 to a medium-security one. He was released in 2015. Peter Bradshaw wrote in The Guardian, His unseen interrogator here is a Canadian intelligence officer, evidently the lead officer in a team, permitted by the Americans to question the prisoner on the understanding that a friendly seeming fellow countryman might cause Khadr to open up and give the US valuable intelligence. So far from being a respite from torture, this insincere friendly chat is a hideous refinement of cruelty: a horrifying turn of the screw. According to Andrew O'Hehir wrote in Salon, "Khadr became a sort of ritual sacrifice by the Canadian government, an offering to its American allies and/or overlords."Sam Kressner wrote in Filmcritic.com: The question posed in You Don't Like the Truth: 4 Days Inside Guantanamo is not that of Omar's innocence. We will never know what happened. Rather, the crux of the film lies in the legal "black-hole" that Guantanamo detainees find themselves in. Is it possible to hold a man, let alone a child, accountable to the status of Prison of War, illegal under United Nations law since the days of the Nuremberg Trials?

The film won the Special Jury Award at the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam. The film won an award for "best documentary about society" at the Prix Gémeaux on September 13, 2011; the film was nominated in the best documentary category for the 2010 Genie awards. According to a September 27, 2011 review in the Film Journal, the film did not yet have a distributor in the United States, but was eligible for an Oscar nomination opening in New York City in September 2011, it did not receive a nomination. Shortly before the film's premiere, Canada lost its bid for one of the rotating seats on the United Nations Security Council. According to Rhéal Séguin, writing in The Globe and Mail, the filmmakers "are convinced one reason Canada failed to get a seat on the United Nations Security Council was because the federal government has been condemned by many countries for failing to respect Mr. Khadr's human rights and the provisions of the international convention on child soldiers." Official website Trailer Video on YouTube Full video on TVOntario You Don't Like the Truth on IMDb

Molesworth Institute

The Molesworth Institute supports creative research and production in the fields of absurdist informatics, disjunctive librarianship, word play. It is one of the major sources of library humor, a repository for various kinds of librariana, its Archives of Library Humor is the most extensive of its kind. The Institute's collection of over 25,000 library postcards, library ephemera and souvenir china, medals and stereographs, is housed in the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal. Since 1956, The Molesworth Institute has been defined by vocational shenanigans, invented histories, a refusal to accept definition, it was founded by Norman D. Stevens, Director Emeritus. Katie Herzog was appointed Director in April, 2011, the Institute is based in the Glassell Park neighborhood of Los Angeles. Herzog represented the Molesworth Institute at the first Cycling for Libraries "unconference" from Copenhagen to Berlin. Since the first article, "The Molesworth Institute", appeared in the ALA Bulletin, over 50 articles describing the results of specialized research carried out by the staff of the Institute have appeared in all of the major American professional library journals, as well as in library journals in Brazil, Italy and Sweden.

Its most recent article, "The First Fully Electronic Library", appears in the January 2006 issue of College & Research Libraries and variant versions have been published in France and Sweden. In addition to the research staff, there are now 88 Fellows of the Molesworth Institute who assist in the furtherance of the organization's work. In 2012 Catherine Lord was appointed a Molesworth Institute Fellow for her installation at the One Archive titled To Whom It May Concern. Other significant collections include a file of prominent individuals who worked in libraries, a file of more than 1,000 quotations relating to librarians and libraries, a collection of more than 1,000 postcards depicting books and reading, a large collection of children's books dealing with books, reading and libraries, a collection of several hundred objects in the shape of books; the children's books are now part of the Northeast Children's Literature Collection in the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut.

The other collections, along with the Archives of the Institute, will be housed in the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center as well; the Molesworth institute Journal of Rejected Research is an experimental publication falling under the category of disjunctive librarianship and engaging a wide range of approaches to the idea of the journal as a conceptual platform for exchange. All submissions must have been rejected at some point in time. Content of Volume One Issue One was rejected by the Iowa Prison Industries Graphic Arts Department. Content of Volume One Issue Two was collected via open call, through a popup publishing platform in the Quint Gallery restroom in La Jolla, from April 21 through July 14, 2012; the Molesworth Institute is a member of the American Library Association Librariana defined Article citing hoax in Who's Who in Library Service as the source of the name Molesworth Archives of Library Research From the Molesworth Institute The Norman D. Stevens Collection of Library Architecture at the Canadian Centre for Architecture The Laughing Librarian by Jeanette C. Smith