A cryptic crossword is a crossword puzzle in which each clue is a word puzzle in and of itself. Cryptic crosswords are popular in the United Kingdom, where they originated, Israel, the Netherlands, in several Commonwealth nations, including Australia, India, Malta, New Zealand, South Africa. In the United States, cryptics are sometimes known as "British-style" crosswords. Compilers of cryptic crosswords are called "setters" in the UK. Cryptic crossword puzzles come in two main types: the basic cryptic in which each clue answer is entered into the diagram and "themed" or "variety" cryptics, in which some or all of the answers must be altered before entering in accordance with a hidden pattern or rule which must be discovered by the solver. Cryptic crosswords originated in the UK; the first British crossword puzzles appeared around 1923 and were purely definitional, but from the mid-1920s they began to include cryptic material: not cryptic clues in the modern sense, but anagrams, classical allusions, incomplete quotations, other references and wordplay.
Torquemada, who set for The Saturday Westminster from 1925 and for The Observer from 1926 until his death in 1939, was the first setter to use cryptic clues and is credited as the inventor of the cryptic crossword. The first newspaper crosswords appeared in the Sunday and Daily Express from about 1924. Crosswords were taken up by other newspapers, appearing in the Daily Telegraph from 1925, The Manchester Guardian from 1929 and The Times from 1930; these newspaper puzzles were entirely non-cryptic at first and used more cryptic clues, until the cryptic puzzle as known today became widespread. In some papers this took until about 1960. Puzzles appeared in The Listener from 1930, but this was a weekly magazine rather than a newspaper, the puzzles were much harder than the newspaper ones, though again they took a while to become cryptic. Torquemada's puzzles were obscure and difficult, setters reacted against this tendency by developing a standard for fair clues, ones that can be solved, at least in principle, by deduction, without needing leaps of faith or insights into the setter's thought processes.
The basic principle of fairness was set out by Listener setter Afrit in his book Armchair Crosswords, wherein he credits it to the fictional Book of the Crossword: We must expect the composer to play tricks, but we shall insist that he play fair. The Book of the Crossword lays this injunction upon him: "You need not mean what you say, but you must say what you mean." This is a superior way of saying. He may attempt to mislead by employing a form of words which can be taken in more than one way, it is your fault if you take it the wrong way, but it is his fault if you can't logically take it the right way. An example of a clue which cannot logically be taken the right way: Hat could be dry Here the composer intends the answer to be "derby", with "hat" the definition, "could be" the anagram indicator, "be dry" the anagram fodder. I.e. "derby" is an anagram of "be dry". But "be" is doing double duty, this means that any attempt to read the clue cryptically in the form " " fails: if "be" is part of the anagram indicator the fodder is too short, but if it is part of the fodder, there is no anagram indicator.
A variation might read Hat turns out to be dry, but this fails because the word "to", necessary to make the sentence grammatical, follows the indicator though it is not part of the anagram indicated. Torquemada's successor at The Observer was Ximenes, in his influential work, Ximenes on the Art of the Crossword Puzzle, he set out more detailed guidelines for setting fair cryptic clues, now known as "Ximenean principles" and sometimes described by the word "square-dealing"; the most important of them are tersely summed up by Ximenes' successor Azed: A good cryptic clue contains three elements: a precise definition a fair subsidiary indication nothing elseThe Ximenean principles are adhered to most in the subgenre of "advanced cryptics" — difficult puzzles using barred grids and a large vocabulary. Easier puzzles have more relaxed standards, permitting a wider array of clue types, allowing a little flexibility; the popular Guardian setter Araucaria was a noted non-Ximenean, celebrated for his witty, if unorthodox, clues.
Most of the major national newspapers in the UK carry both cryptic and concise crosswords in every issue. The puzzle in The Guardian is well loved for its humour and quirkiness, quite includes puzzles with themes, which are rare in The Times. Many Canadian newspapers, including the Ottawa Citizen, Toronto Star and The Globe and Mail, carry cryptic crosswords. Cryptic crosswords do not appear in U. S. publications, although they can be found in magazines such as GAMES Magazine, The Nation, Harper's, in the Sunday New York Times. The New York Post reprints cryptic crosswords from The Times. In April 2018, The New Yorker published the first of a new weekly series of cryptic puzzles. Other sources of cryptic crosswords in the U. S. are puzzle books, as well as UK and Canadian newspapers distributed in the U. S. Other venues include the Enigma, the magazine of the National Puzzlers' League, The Atlantic Monthly; the latter puzzle, after a long and distinguished ru
The poem code is a simple, insecure, cryptographic method, used by SOE to communicate with their agents in Nazi-occupied Europe. The method works by the receiver pre-arranging a poem to use; the sender chooses a set number of words at random from the poem and gives each letter in the chosen words a number. The numbers are used as a key for some cipher to conceal the plaintext of the message; the cipher used was double transposition. To indicate to the receiver which words had been chosen an indicator group is sent at the start of the message. To encrypt a message, the agent would select words from the poem as the key; every poem code message commenced with an indicator-group of five letters, which showed which five words of an agent's poem had been used to encrypt the message. The words would be written sequentially, their letters numbered to create a transposition key to encrypt a message. For example, if the words are YEO THOMAS IS A PAIN IN THE ARSE the transposition key is: 25 5 16, 23 8 17 13 1 20, 10 21, 2, 18 3 11 14, 12 15, 24 9 6, 4 19 22 7.
These are the locations of the first appearances of A's, B, etc. in the sentence. This defines a permutation, used for encryption. First, the plaintext message is arranged in columns; the columns are permuted, the rows are permuted. For example, the text "THE OPERATION TO DEMOLISH THE BUNKER IS TOMORROW AT ELEVEN" would be written on grid paper as: The above transposition key requires longer messages which would have at least 25 columns and 25 rows; as an additional security measure, the agent would add prearranged errors into the text as security checks. For example, there might be an intentional error in every 18th letter; this was to ensure that, if the agent was captured or the poem was found, the enemy might transmit without the security checks. The code's advantage is to provide strong security while not requiring any codebook. However, the encryption process is error-prone when done by hand, for security reasons, messages should be at least 200 words long; the security check was not effective: if a code was used once intercepted and decoded, any security checks were revealed and could be tortured out from the agent.
There are a number of other weaknesses Because the poem is re-used, if one message is broken by any means and future messages will be readable. If the agent used the same poem code words to send a number of similar messages, these words could be discovered by enemy cryptographers. If the words could be identified as coming from a famous poem or quotation all of the future traffic submitted in that poem code could be read; the German cryptologic units were successful in decoding many of the poems by searching through collections of poems. Since the poems used must be memorable for ease of use by an agent, there is a temptation to use well-known poems or poems from well-known poets further weakening the analysis; when Leo Marks was appointed codes officer of the Special Operations Executive in London during World War II, he quickly recognized the weakness of the technique, the consequent damage to agents and to their organizations on the Continent, began to press for changes. The SOE began using original compositions to give added protection.
The poems were humorous or overtly sexual to make them memorable. Another improvement was to use a new poem for each message, where the poem was written on fabric rather than memorized; the SOE replaced the poem code with more secure methods. Worked-out Keys was the first major improvement – an invention of Marks. WOKs are pre-arranged transposition keys given to the agents and which made the poem unnecessary; each message would be encrypted on one key, written on special silk. The key was disposed by tearing a piece off the silk, when the message was sent. A project of Marks, named by him "Operation Gift-Horse", was a deception scheme aimed to disguise the more secure WOK code traffic as poem code traffic, so that German cryptographers would think "Gift-Horsed" messages were easier to break than they were; this was done by adding false duplicate indicator groups to WOK-keys, to give the appearance that an agent had repeated the use of certain words of their code poem. The aim of Gift Horse was to waste the enemy's time, was deployed prior to D-Day, when code traffic increased dramatically.
The poem code was replaced with the one-time pad the letter one-time pad. In LOP, the agent was provided with a string of a substitution square; the plaintext was written under the string on the pad. The pairs of letters in each column indicated a unique letter on the square; the pad was never reused. This enabled secure encoding of messages. Between Silk and Cyanide by Leo Marks, HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-255944-7. Book cipher The Life That I Have
Ylands is a 2019 sandbox game developed by Bohemia Interactive. Developers describe Ylands as "sandbox exploration adventure and a platform for making custom games"; the game has been compared to Minecraft and features a built-in editor that allows players to make their own scenarios. Ylands gives players freedom in modification of the countryside. Players can choose an environment. Environments include temperate, winter etc; the editor allows the player to create their own scenario which allows gameplay set in different eras such as Wild West, medieval Europe or a steampunk world and others. Developers stated; the game was announced on 24 November 2017 when the Alpha version of the game was released on Bohemia Interactive's website. The game was formally announced worldwide on 1 November 2016 when it became part of project Bohemia Incubator; the Steam version of the game was announced on March 9 2017 and released on December 6 2017. According to the game's Steam page, the full version of the game was scheduled to be released 6-8 months after its release on Steam.
The game was released on 5 December 2019. The game switched to free-to-play. Official website
Karl Shuker is a British zoologist and author. He lives in the Midlands, where he works as a zoological consultant and writer. A columnist in Fortean Times and contributor to various magazines, Shuker is the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Cryptozoology, which began in November 2012. Shuker received a B. Sc. in zoology from the University of Leeds and a PhD in zoology and comparative physiology from the University of Birmingham. He is a Scientific Fellow of the Zoological Society of London, a Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society, a consultant for the Centre for Fortean Zoology, a member of the Society of Authors; some of his larger works include Mystery Cats of the World, The Lost Ark: New and Rediscovered Animals of the 20th Century, In Search of Prehistoric Survivors, as well as two worldwide bestsellers – Dragons: A Natural History, The Unexplained. Shuker published Star Steeds and Other Dreams, a book of poetry which appeared in 2009. According to Jonathan Downes, there are a number of little-known cryptids to which Shuker was the first cryptozoologist to bring widespread public attention.
These include the Sri Lankan horned jackal and Devil Bird, Gambo the Gambian sea serpent, Goodenough Island mystery bird, New Guinea ropen and devil pig or gazeka, Scottish earth hound, Indonesian veo and horned cat, New Caledonian du, Irish dobhar-chú, Shatt al Arab venomous mystery fish, Zanzibar makalala, Ethiopian death bird, Zululand kondlo, Arctic North American waheela, Kellas cat, Mongolian Death Worm, Hungarian reedwolf, Fujian blue or Maltese tiger as shown on the cover of Mysteries of Planet Earth, Welsh cenaprugwirion, bigfin squid, St Helena sirenian, Timor Sea ground shark, crowing crested cobra. Shuker pens two cryptozoological columns in Fortean Times, contributes to Strange Magazine, to Fate Magazine, to Paranormal Magazine. In addition, he is the zoological consultant for Guinness World Records. In a 2012 interview, Shuker stated that three of the most important zoological discoveries of the twentieth century were the okapi, the coelacanth and the saola. Shuker's 2012 volume, The Encyclopaedia of New and Rediscovered Animals provides a detailed discussion of similar discoveries, including discoveries made as as 2011.
In November 2012, Shuker launched the Journal of Cryptozoology. As the journal's founding editor-in-chief, Shuker has the stated goal of "providing an outlet for cryptozoological research with a genuinely scientific approach," with the hope of elevating the field's reputation among the scientific community. Upon announcing plans to start the new journal, Shuker had expressed "hope that cryptozoological researchers will submit papers to the journal that are worthy of publication in mainstream zoological journals but which may not be accepted by them because their subject is cryptozoological." Remarking that many newly discovered or rediscovered species begin as cryptids, Shuker believes that the field of cryptozoology is at a disadvantage, noting "as soon as one of its subjects is confirmed to be real, it is no longer cryptozoological but zoological instead." Shuker engages in what he describes as the scientific investigation of "animals still awaiting formal zoological detection and description in the 21st century."
However, Shuker is critical of investigators who set out to uncritically validate their preconceptions, stating that such activity is not serious cryptozoology. Shuker's approach sometimes leads to a more reserved position regarding cryptid claims. Having investigated the mystery of the chupacabra, Shuker noted in an interview with Benjamin Radford that the inconsistencies surrounding descriptions and accounts of the creature made it difficult to separate actual reports from folklore. Based on his interpretation of available accounts and evidence of the creature, Shuker hypothesized that the chupacabra itself might be "a nonexistent composite" resulting from accounts of "different entities all being lumped together." In a 1996 review of Shuker's book Dragons: A Natural History in Natural History, Richard Ellis discussed the "impressive assortment of illustrations," as well as Shuker's coverage of dragon imagery and icons throughout history, but criticized a lack of focus on "the'real' animals held to be responsible for some of the dragon or sea serpent stories, such as the crocodile, the Komodo dragon, the African rock python, the oarfish."
Ellis found fault with coverage of "aquatic serpent dragons" such as the Loch Ness monster, lamenting that "despite corroborated evidence that the famous Loch Ness monster's'surgeon's photograph' was a hoax,'Nessie' is one of the contemporary'dragons' in this book."In June 1997 Shuker criticized Fortean Times publisher Mike Dash, who has described most reports of strange phenomena to be products of the imagination, to which Shuker stated, "there are some intriguing pieces of evidence for the existence of a large underwater mammal in Loch Ness, not least the sonar soundings of 1972 which showed the presence of a 6-ft flipper." However, in a 1998 Sunday Times interview, Shuker suggested that the Loch Ness monster was losing traction, with more attention going toward large cat sightings, stating, "They're more tangible," and that "ny scientist who these days decides to take the Loch Ness monster knows that it will damage his reputation."Reviewing Shuker's 2003 book The Beasts that Hide from Man, Mark Bayless described the work as "thought provoking and well researched," contrasting Shuker's work favorably against other cryptozoology texts as providing a "scholarly, reader-friendly format," and addressing a
Ken O'Halloran is a retired Irish sportsperson. He plays Gaelic football and hurling with his local club Bishopstown and was a member of the Cork senior inter-county football team from 2010 till his retirement in 2017, he teaches Business and History in Christians BRothers college cork. He has hurling. At minor level he won a Munster Hurling Championship in 2004. At Under 21 football he won Munster Football Championships in 2005, 2006 & 2007, in 2007 he won a Munster Hurling Championship as well as an All Ireland Football medal, he graduated to the Cork seniors where he won a Munster senior 2012, an All Ireland 2010 and three National Football Leagues. He started sigerson football from 2006-2011, he started for the UCC team in the Sigerson Cup, he played in the 2010 final but was on the losing side. He was on the winning ucc side of 2011, he received two sigerson all stars 1010/2011. At club level he has enjoyed success with Bishopstown, he won back to back Minor hurling Championships with the club in 2003 & 2004.
He did the same at Under 21 level in 2006 & 2007. He won an Intermediate Hurling Championship with the club, he was on the losing side in 2012 county hurling final to Sarsfields. He helped his school, Coláiste an Spioraid Naoimh from Bishopstown, to win the Corn Uí Mhuirí title in 2005, the first in the school's history, he was man of the match in the final. Cork Intermediate Hurling Championship: Winner: 2006 Cork Minor Hurling Championship: Winner:2003, 2004 Cork Under-21 Hurling Championship: Winner:2006, 2007 Football All-Ireland Senior Football Championship: Winner: Munster Senior Football Championship: Winner: 2012 Runner-up: 2011 National Football League: Winner: 2010, 2011, 2012 All-Ireland Under-21 Football Championship: Winner: 2007 Runner-up: 2006 Munster Under-21 Football Championship: Winner: 2005, 2006, 2007 Munster Minor Football Championship: Winner: Runner-up: 2004Hurling Munster Minor Hurling Championship: Winner: 2004 Munster Under-21 Hurling Championship: Winner: 2005, 2007 Runner-up: 2006 Corn Uí Mhuirí: Winner: 2005 Sigerson Cup: Winner: 2011 Runner up: 2010
The 2018 El Paso County Elections will be held on November 6, 2018. The election includes Assessor and Recorder, Commissioner - District 1, Commissioner - District 5, Sheriff and Treasurer. All Candidates are from the Colorado Secretary of State Site. All Primary Results and General Election Candidates from the El Paso County Election page. Republican Incumbent Assessor Steve Schleiker is running for re-election. Sue McKnight Steve Schleiker, Incumbent Assessor Steve Schliker - Incumbent Assessor Sue McKnight Republican Incumbent Clerk and Recorder Chuck Broerman is running for re-election. Elizabeth Wilkes Chuck Broerman, Incumbent Clerk and Recorder Chuck Broerman - Incumbent Clerk and Recorder Johnathan Herrera Elizabeth Wilkes Republican Incumbent Darryl Glenn is term limited and cannot run for another term, he is running for U. S. House Representative of Colorado District 5 Frank DeLalla Holly Williams Holly Williams Calandra Vargas Frank Delalla Republican Incumbent Peggy Littleton is term limited and cannot run for another term.
Kari Frederick Cami Bremer Vickie Tonkins Cami Bremer Kari Fredrick Republican Incumbent Robert Bux, M. D. is retiring. Chauncey Frederick Leon Kelly Leon Kelly, M. D. Chauncey Fredrick Matthew Reid Republican Incumbent Bill Elder is running for re-election. Grace A. Sweeney-Maurer Bill Elder, Incumbent Sheriff Bill Elder - Incumbent Sheriff Michael Angley Grace A. Sweeney-Maurer Republican Incumbent Lawrence Burnett is term limited and cannot run for another term. Destarte Ashleigh Haun Richard Mariotti Richard Mariotti Destarte Ashleigh Haun Republican Incumbent Mark Lowderman is running for re-election. Julie Torres Mark Lowderman Mark Lowderman Julie Torres