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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Crystallographic defect

Crystallographic defects are interruptions of regular patterns in crystalline solids. They are common because positions of atoms or molecules at repeating fixed distances determined by the unit cell parameters in crystals, which exhibit a periodic crystal structure, are imperfect. Point defects are defects that occur only around a single lattice point, they are not extended in space in any dimension. Strict limits for how small a point defect is are not defined explicitly. However, these defects involve at most a few extra or missing atoms. Larger defects in an ordered structure are considered dislocation loops. For historical reasons, many point defects in ionic crystals, are called centers: for example a vacancy in many ionic solids is called a luminescence center, a color center, or F-center; these dislocations permit ionic transport through crystals leading to electrochemical reactions. These are specified using Kröger–Vink notation. Vacancy defects are lattice sites which are vacant. If a neighboring atom moves to occupy the vacant site, the vacancy moves in the opposite direction to the site which used to be occupied by the moving atom.

The stability of the surrounding crystal structure guarantees that the neighboring atoms will not collapse around the vacancy. In some materials, neighboring atoms move away from a vacancy, because they experience attraction from atoms in the surroundings. A vacancy is sometimes called a Schottky defect. Interstitial defects are atoms that occupy a site in the crystal structure at which there is not an atom, they are high energy configurations. Small atoms in some crystals can occupy interstices without high energy, such as hydrogen in palladium. A nearby pair of a vacancy and an interstitial is called a Frenkel defect or Frenkel pair; this is caused when an ion creates a vacancy. Due to fundamental limitations of material purification methods, materials are never 100% pure, which by definition induces defects in crystal structure. In the case of an impurity, the atom is incorporated at a regular atomic site in the crystal structure; this is neither a vacant site nor is the atom on an interstitial site and it is called a substitutional defect.

The atom is not supposed to be anywhere in the crystal, is thus an impurity. In some cases where the radius of the substitutional atom is smaller than that of the atom it is replacing, its equilibrium position can be shifted away from the lattice site; these types of substitutional defects are referred to as off-center ions. There are two different types of substitutional defects: Isovalent substitution and aliovalent substitution. Isovalent substitution is where the ion, substituting the original ion is of the same oxidation state as the ion it is replacing. Aliovalent substitution is where the ion, substituting the original ion is of a different oxidation state than the ion it is replacing. Aliovalent substitutions change the overall charge within the ionic compound, but the ionic compound must be neutral. Therefore, a charge compensation mechanism is required. Hence either one of the metals is or oxidised or reduced, or ion vacancies are created. Antisite defects occur in an ordered alloy or compound when atoms of different type exchange positions.

For example, some alloys have a regular structure. If one cube has an A atom at its center, the atom is on a site occupied by a B atom, is thus an antisite defect; this an impurity. Topological defects are regions in a crystal where the normal chemical bonding environment is topologically different from the surroundings. For instance, in a perfect sheet of graphite all atoms are in rings containing six atoms. If the sheet contains regions where the number of atoms in a ring is different from six, while the total number of atoms remains the same, a topological defect has formed. An example is the Stone Wales defect in nanotubes, which consists of two adjacent 5-membered and two 7-membered atom rings. Amorphous solids may contain defects; these are somewhat hard to define, but sometimes their nature can be quite understood. For instance, in ideally bonded amorphous silica all Si atoms have 4 bonds to O atoms and all O atoms have 2 bonds to Si atom, thus e.g. an O atom with only one Si bond can be considered a defect in silica.

Moreover, defects can be defined in amorphous solids based on empty or densely packed local atomic neighbourhoods, the properties of such'defects' can be shown to be similar to normal vacancies and interstitials in crystals. Complexes can form between different kinds of point defects. For example, if a vacancy encounters an impurity, the two may bind together if the impurity is too large for the lattice. Interstitials can form'split interstitial' or'dumbbell' structures where two atoms share an atomic site, resulting in neither atom occupying the site. Line defects can be described by gauge theories. Dislocations are linear defects. There are two basic types of the edge dislocation and the screw dislocation. "Mixed" dislocations, combining aspects of both types, are common. Edge dislocations are caused by the termination of a plane of atoms in the middle of a crystal. In such a case, the adjacent planes are not straight, but instead be

Redneck Yacht Club

"Redneck Yacht Club" is a song written by Thom Shepherd and Steve Williams, recorded by American country music singer Craig Morgan. It was released in May 2005 as the second single from his album My Kind of Livin', it peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, behind "Better Life" by Keith Urban. The song was certified Gold by the RIAA for sales of 500,000 and was certified GOLD for digital downloads. Morgan told USA Today, "I think used to be considered a derogatory term, but not anymore. Now it's considered more of a lifestyle than anything." In the song, Morgan sings about being part of a special yacht club known as the "redneck yacht club". The video takes place out on Percy Priest Lake in Davidson County, TN, where Morgan and some of his buddies are having fun, such as soaking up the sun and boat-riding; some scenes of the video feature Morgan riding on a boat, singing on the deck, on a flotation device out in the middle of the lake. Country music singer Blake Shelton makes a cameo appearance along with Aaron Tippin.

The party that the group of diehard friends is having symbolizes the fun that they have on the lake, "all summer long". The video was directed by Peter Zavadil; the song spent 27 weeks on Hot Country Songs. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Ali Isayev

Ali Isayev is a Russian and Azerbaijani amateur wrestler and mixed martial artist who competed at the 2008 Summer Olympics in men's freestyle wrestling at 125 kilos where Isaev placed 17th. He fights in the heavyweight division of Professional Fighters League, he is PFL heavyweight champion. Isayev is a Freestyle wrestling European champion, he made his professional MMA debut in April 2016. He fought his first four fights for Fight Nights Global and went undefeated with two decision wins and two knockout wins. In the summer of 2019, Isayev began competing in the Heavyweight division of the Professional Fighters League. In his debut, he defeated Valdrin Istrefi by unanimous decision at PFL 3 on June 6, 2019. In his second fight for the promotion, Isayev defeated Carl Seumanutafa by unanimous decision at PFL 6 on August 8, 2019. On October 31, 2019, he fought twice in one night in the 2019 PFL Heavyweight tournament, he defeated Kelvin Tiller by decision and Denis Goltsov by TKO in the quarterfinal and semifinal bouts, respectively.

He faced Jared Rosholt in the finals at PFL 10 on December 31, 2019. Isayev won the fight via TKO in the fourth round to claim the 2019 Heavyweight Championship. Professional Fighters League 2019 Heavyweight Championship Wrestler bio on FILAwrestling.com Ali Isaev at United World Wrestling Professional MMA record for Ali Isayev from Sherdog

Short S.6 Sturgeon

The Short S.6 Sturgeon was a prototype single-engined biplane naval reconnaissance aircraft, built to an Air Ministry specification but intended as a demonstrator of the corrosion resistance of duralumin aircraft structures. Two were made. Following the all-metal Silver Streak of 1920, Short Brothers produced a series of military aircraft with duralumin monocoque fuselages and wings which were at first duralumin covered fabric; the last of this series was the Short S.6 Sturgeon, a three-seat fleet reconnaissance aircraft designed to meet Air Ministry specification 1/24. The Air Ministry ordered two prototypes without raising hopes of series production. Nonetheless, Shorts were keen to demonstrate once again the corrosion resistance of treated duralumin; the Sturgeon was three-seat single bay biplane, with wings of mild sweep. They had parallel chord and equal span, but the lower one had a smaller chord than the upper, giving the appearance of stagger though the trailing edges were in line. Another consequence of the difference in chord was that the front steel interplane struts leant forwards, whilst the rear one was upright.

Apart from their fabric covering the wings were duralumin structures. There were push rod connected ailerons on both bottom wings; the Sturgeon was a ship-board aircraft and so its wings folded to save space. A thickened centre section held fuel tanks and was supported by two sets of N shaped struts to the upper fuselage. A wide, V-shape cut out in the upper trailing edge went forward to the rear spar to enhance the view from the cockpits, helped by the wide interplane gap that put the upper wing well clear of the fuselage; the lower wing was braced near its root by a pair of struts from each wing spar and aft, to a common point on the fuselage above the leading edge of the wing. The fuselage was built from a pair of duralumin monocoques, bolted together; each was constructed using Shorts' established method of plate riveted to oval, L-section frames and with longitudinal stiffeners. The Sturgeon was powered by an uncowled Bristol Jupiter VI radial engine, driving a two-bladed propeller and with exhausts leading back over the lower wing.

There were one behind the other. The pilot sat behind the leading edge with the navigator cum bomb-aimer close behind him; the latter's position was just at the wing cut-out. A little further back was the radio operator/rear gunner, clear of the trailing edge; the fuselage diameter decreased to the tail, where a squat fin carried a tall, horn balanced rudder which extended down to the bottom of the fuselage. The tailplane was strut sat on the fin just above the fuselage. One problem in adapting the monocoque method to a service aircraft was that the numerous openings and attachment brackets all needed local reinforcement, leading to a considerable weight gain. Though the Sturgeon was constructed as a landplane, it did all of its flying on floats; these joined to each other with a pair of transverse horizontal struts. There were three further struts per float to the fuselage:one from the forward part rearward to the engine bulkhead and two from a common point further aft to the two wing spars, joining the lower wing struts from below.

The first of the two Sturgeons made its maiden flight on 22 June 1927 in the hands of John Lankester Parker. Some extension of the wing root. Despite the higher than expected weight, the seaplanes performed well in the air; as Shorts had intended, they did demonstrate the resistance of duralumin aircraft to the elements. Their final fate is not known. Data from Barnes & James 1989, p. 216General characteristics Crew: 3 Length: 32 ft 6 in Wingspan: 45 ft 11 in Wing area: 650 sq ft Gross weight: 6,213 lb Powerplant: 1 × Bristol Jupiter VI 9-cylinder radial, 520 hp Performance Maximum speed: 115 mph Armament Guns: 1× 0.303 in Vickers machine gun firing forward from blister on the port side of the engine and 1× 0.303 in Lewis gun on Scarff ring in rear cockpit Barnes, C. H.. N.. Shorts Aircraft since 1900. London: Putnam Publishing. ISBN 0-87021-662-7

Krani

Krani is a village in the Resen Municipality of North Macedonia 19 kilometres south of the municipal centre of Resen. Krani has four known archaeological sites, two of which are from the Middle Ages, one from Late Antiquity, one from the Hellenistic era; the latter was a fishing settlement and the two from the Middle Ages were churches. In 1905, Arvati's population consisted of 342 Albanians. There was a Bulgarian school in the village. Krani is inhabited by an Orthodox Macedonian minority. A small number of Albanian speaking Muslim Romani used to live in Krani which during the latter decades of the 20th century have migrated to Ohrid and Resen. In the late Ottoman period, some Bektashi Albanians, known locally as Kolonjarë, used to reside in the village of Krani; as of the most recent national census in 2002, Krani has 416 residents, less than half of its 1961 population. The data on the mother tongues of Krani's residents, according to the 2002 census, is similar to the ethnic makeup of the village with 311 declaring Albanian their mother tongue, followed by 104 declaring Macedonian, one declaring Serbian.

The main religions in the village are Islam and Orthodox Christianity, with 309 belonging to the former and 105 to the latter, as of the latest census. Additionally, two individuals declared Catholicism as their religion; these figures suggest that the ethnic Macedonian population is Orthodox Christian, while the Albanian population is Muslim, as is the case nationally. Krani has two churches, the Church of the Dormition of the Virgin Mary and the Church of St Nicholas, it has one mosque. Ali Aliu and translator

Glassing

Glassing is a physical attack using a glass or bottle as a weapon. Glassings can occur at bars or pubs where alcohol is served and such items are available; the most common method of glassing involves the attacker smashing an intact glass in the face of the victim. However, the glass may be smashed before the attack, gripped by the remaining base of the glass or neck of the bottle with the broken shards protruding outwards. Glassing is prevented by using containers made from plastic or tempered glass instead, but they suffer from unpleasant feel and higher expense; these alternative containers are being adopted in areas with a high frequency of glassing, such as the United Kingdom and Australia. In New Zealand, a similar phenomenon is referred to as "bottling". Common injuries resulting from glassings are heavy blood loss, permanent scarring and loss of sight through ocular injury. In the United Kingdom, there are more than 87,000 glassing attacks per year, resulting in over 5,000 injuries. Glassing is a small portion of all alcohol-related violence, constituting 9% of injuries from alcohol-related violence in New South Wales, from 1999 to 2011, for instance.

At least three states in Australia are addressing glassing incidents by introducing regulations for liquor-licensed venues: New South Wales introduced many restrictions in 2008, including the removal of glass after midnight for high-risk venues. This has resulted in a significant reduction in the number of glassings. In response to glassing violence, the government of Western Australia in 2011 made recommendations to the state hospitality industry on the use of tempered glass in hotels; the state government and the Australian Hotels Association created a self-regulatory program on the rollout of tempered glass in pubs, with most hotels and bars expected to change over to tempered beer glasses in six to 12 months. Royal Perth Hospital's head of plastic surgery Mark Duncan-Smith described it as an important step in protecting the public. In relation to continuing glassing incidents despite limited glass bans in Queensland, state Liquor Licensing Minister Paul Lucas in 2011 predicted that all Queensland pubs and clubs would be glass-free in 10 years.

In 2000, following a series of glassing attacks in Manchester, Greater Manchester Police and the Manchester Evening News launched a campaign Safe Glass Safe City promoting the use of toughened glass in pubs and clubs to prevent such attacks. "Surgeon on glass bottle "weapon"". BBC News. 2003-10-24. "Glassed". Risky Single Occasion Drinking. BBC News. Archived from the original on June 17, 2005. Brian Ferguson. "Bars face glass ban in violence crackdown". Edinburgh Evening News; the Scotsman