The Cumans known as Polovtsians, were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation. After the Mongol invasion, many sought asylum in the Kingdom of Hungary, as many Cumans had settled in Hungary, the Second Bulgarian Empire, Anatolia before the invasion. Related to the Pecheneg, they inhabited a shifting area north of the Black Sea and along the Volga River known as Cumania, from which the Cuman–Kipchaks meddled in the politics of the Caucasus and the Khwarezm Empire; the Cumans were fierce and formidable nomadic warriors of the Eurasian steppe who exerted an enduring influence on the medieval Balkans. They were numerous, culturally sophisticated, militarily powerful. Many settled to the west of the Black Sea, influencing the politics of Kievan Rus', the Galicia–Volhynia Principality, the Golden Horde Khanate, the Second Bulgarian Empire, the Kingdom of Serbia, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Georgia, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Nicaea, the Latin Empire and Wallachia, with Cuman immigrants becoming integrated into each country's elite.
The Cumans played a prominent role in the Fourth Crusade and in the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Cuman and Kipchak tribes joined politically to create the Cuman–Kipchak confederation; the Cuman language is attested to in some medieval documents and is the best-known of the early Turkic languages. The Codex Cumanicus was a linguistic manual written to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Cuman people; the original meaning of the endonym Cuman is unknown. It is often unclear whether a particular name refers to the Cumans alone, or to both the Cumans and the Kipchaks, as the two tribes lived side by side. However, in Turkic languages qu, qun, qūn, quman or qoman means "pale, cream coloured", "pale yellow", or "yellowish grey". While it is assumed that the name referred to the Cumans's hair, Imre Baski – a prominent Turkologist – has suggested that it may have other origins, including: the color of the Cumans' horses. In East Slavic languages and Polish, they are known as the Polovtsy, derived from the Slavic root *polvъ "pale.
Polovtsy or Polovec is said to be derived from the Old East Slavic polovŭ "yellow. The old Ukrainian word polovtsy, derived from polovo "straw" – means "blond, pale yellow"; the western Cumans, or Polovtsy, were called Sorochinetses by the Rus', – derived from the Turkic sary chechle "yellow-haired". A similar etymology may have been at work in the name of the Sary people, who migrated westward ahead of the Qun. However, according to O. Suleymenov polovtsy may come from a Slavic word for "blue-eyed", i.e. the Serbo-Croatian plȃv means "blue", but this word means "fair, blonde" and is in fact a cognate of the above. An alternative etymology of Polovtsy is possible: the Slavic root *pȍlje "field", which would therefore imply that Polovtsy were "men of the field" or "men of the steppe" in contrast to the Lipovtsi. In Germanic languages, the Cumans were called Folban, Vallani or Valwe – all derivations of old Germanic words for "pale". In the German account by Adam of Bremen, in Matthaios of Edessa, the Cumans were referred to as the "Blond Ones".
The Hungarian term for the Cumans is Kun, which in Old Hungarian meant "nomad", but was applied to the Cumans. As stated above, it is unknown whether the name Kipchak referred only to the Kipchaks proper, or to the Cumans as well; the two tribes fused, lived together and exchanged weaponry and languages. This confederation and their living together may have made it difficult for historians to write about either nation; the Kipchaks' folk-etymology posited that their name meant'hollow tree'. Kamusella points to two Iranian words: kip "red. Németh points to the Siberian qıpčaq "angry, quick-tempered" attested only in the Siberian Sağay dialect. Klyashtorny links Kipchak to qovı, qovuq "unfortunate, unlucky". Regardless, Golden notes that the ethnonym's original form and etymology "remain a matter of contention and speculation"The member clans of the Cumans and/or Kipchaks were: the Terteroba, Etioba/Ietioba, Itogli, Urosoba, El'Borili, Andjogli, Djartan, Kotan/Hotan, Olelric, Toksobychi, Ulashevichi, Elobichi, Etebichi, Yetebychi, Olperliuve, Phalagi, Toksobichi or Toqsoba, Borchol or Burdjogli, Csertan or Curtan, Olas or Ulas, Kor or Kol and Koncsog.
Jeff Webb is an American entrepreneur and business executive focused on the development of cheerleading. He is the founder of the Universal Cheerleading Varsity Spirit, he is the founder and current president of the International Cheer Union, the world governing body of the sport of cheerleading, as well as founder and chairman of The New American Populist. Webb attended the University of Oklahoma. During college, Webb worked for the National Cheerleaders Association, founded by Lawrence Herkimer, he planned to go to law school but instead accepted an offer to work at the NCA, which launched his business career. In 1971, Webb began working full-time for Lawrence Herkimer's National Cheerleaders Association, he went on to found the Universal Cheerleading Association and Varsity Spirit in 1974 and would purchase the NCA after Herkimer retired. Like the NCA, the UCA began as a series of training camps and clinics for high school and college cheerleaders that added cheerleading competitions. Varsity Fashions is accessory brand.
In 2012, Varsity merged with Herff Jones, an Indianapolis company that produces items like graduation apparel and class rings. Webb would serve as president and CEO of the company effective July 1, 2013. Webb's company had become known as Varsity Brands. Along with Herff Jones, the company oversees BSN Sports, Varsity Spirit, the UCA, the NCA. In 2014, Webb became the Chairman of Herff Jones. In 2016, he stepped down as CEO of Varsity Brands. Bain Capital Private Equity bought Varsity Brands for $2.8 billion in 2018. Varsity Brands' annual revenues exceed $1.8 billion, according to the company. It has more than 8,000 full-time employees; as of 2019, Webb is Varsity Spirit's chairman, continues to teach and lead cheer camps. Webb is credited with modernizing cheerleading by making it more competitive, bringing it to the mainstream audience with partnerships with ESPN, favoring more acrobatics and athleticism, creating new outfit designs, he is the founder and current president of the International Cheer Union, the world governing body of the sport of cheerleading.
He is recognized as one of the leaders in the sport who has pushed for international recognition, including adding it as an Olympic sport. Varsity website
The 2004–05 season was Newport County's first season in the newly formed Conference South. The club finished in 18th place. There were high hopes that County could prosper in the newly formed division, but inconsistent early-season results led to the sacking of Peter Nicholas on 13 September; the County board at the time stated that they didn't want to rush a replacement, but they'd rather get the right man. On 29 September John Cornforth was announced as that man, he inherited a side in 14th place in the table. By the end of February 2005 County were just one place above the relegation zone. With just one game remaining County were still not mathematically safe, but a final-day victory against Maidenhead United was enough to keep them in Conference South for another season, relegate their opponents; the season was notable for the alternative home kit sponsored by Newport-based rap group Goldie Lookin' Chain. Designed for use in the FAW Premier Cup, County were drawn away to yellow-shirted Caernarfon Town, the alternative kit was instead worn for two matches in Conference South, away to Maidenhead United and at home against Redbridge F.
C.. Newport County AFC 2004-2005: Results Newport County's results from season 2004/2005