Cunard Line

Cunard Line is a British cruise line based at Carnival House at Southampton, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc. Since 2011, Cunard and its three ships have been registered in Bermuda. In 1839, Samuel Cunard was awarded the first British transatlantic steamship mail contract, the next year formed the British and North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company together with Robert Napier, the famous Scottish steamship engine designer and builder, to operate the line's four pioneer paddle steamers on the Liverpool–Halifax–Boston route. For most of the next 30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage. However, in the 1870s Cunard fell behind the White Star Line and the Inman Line. To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganised as the Cunard Steamship Company, Ltd, to raise capital. In 1902, White Star joined the American-owned International Mercantile Marine Co. In response, the British Government provided Cunard with substantial loans and a subsidy to build two superliners needed to retain Britain's competitive position.

Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her running mate Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States' entering the First World War. In 1919, Cunard relocated its British homeport from Liverpool to Southampton, to better cater for travellers from London. In the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the Germans and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to suspend construction on its own new superliner because of the Great Depression. In 1934, the British Government offered Cunard loans to finish Queen Mary and to build a second ship, Queen Elizabeth, on the condition that Cunard merged with the ailing White Star line to form Cunard-White Star Line. Cunard owned two-thirds of the new company. Cunard purchased White Star's share in 1947. Upon the end of the Second World War, Cunard regained its position as the largest Atlantic passenger line. By the mid-1950s, it operated 12 ships to the United States and Canada. After 1958, transatlantic passenger ships became unprofitable because of the introduction of jet airliners.

Cunard undertook a brief foray into air travel via the "Cunard Eagle" and "BOAC Cunard" airlines, but withdrew from the airliner market in 1966. Cunard withdrew from its year-round service in 1968 to concentrate on cruising and summer transatlantic voyages for vacationers; the Queens were replaced by Queen Elizabeth 2, designed for the dual role. In 1998, Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation, accounted for 8.7% of that company's revenue in 2012. In 2004, QE2 was replaced on the transatlantic runs by Queen Mary 2; the line operates Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth. As of 2019, Cunard is the only shipping company to operate a scheduled passenger service between Europe and North America; the British Government started operating monthly mail brigs from Falmouth, Cornwall, to New York in 1756. These ships carried no cargo. In 1818, the Black Ball Line opened a scheduled New York–Liverpool service with clipper ships, beginning an era when American sailing packets dominated the North Atlantic saloon-passenger trade that lasted until the introduction of steamships.

A Committee of Parliament decided in 1836 that to become more competitive, the mail packets operated by the Post Office should be replaced by private shipping companies. The Admiralty assumed responsibility for managing the contracts; the famed Arctic explorer Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was appointed as Comptroller of Steam Machinery and Packet Service in April 1837. Nova Scotians led by their young Assembly Speaker, Joseph Howe, lobbied for steam service to Halifax. On his arrival in London in May 1838, Howe discussed the enterprise with his fellow Nova Scotian Samuel Cunard, a shipowner, visiting London on business. Cunard and Howe were associates and Howe owed Cunard £300. Cunard returned to Halifax to raise capital, Howe continued to lobby the British government; the Rebellions of 1837 were ongoing and London realized that the proposed Halifax service was important for the military. That November, Parry released a tender for North Atlantic monthly mail service to Halifax beginning in April 1839 using steamships with 300 horsepower.

The Great Western Steamship Company, which had opened its pioneer Bristol–New York service earlier that year, bid £45,000 for a monthly Bristol–Halifax–New York service using three ships of 450 horsepower. While British American, the other pioneer transatlantic steamship company, did not submit a tender, the St. George Steam Packet Company, owner of Sirius, bid £45,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax service and £65,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax–New York service; the Admiralty rejected both tenders. Cunard, back in Halifax did not know of the tender until after the deadline, he returned to London and started negotiations with Admiral Parry, Cunard's good friend from when Parry was a young officer stationed in Halifax 20 years earlier. Cunard offered Parry a fortnightly service beginning in May 1840. While Cunard did not own a steamship, he had been an investor in an earlier steamship venture, Royal William, owned coal mines in Nova Scotia. Cunard's major backer was Robert Napier whose Robert Napier and Sons was the Royal Navy's supplier of steam engines.

He had the strong backing of Nova Scotian political leaders at the time when London needed to rebuild support in British North America after the rebellion. Over Great Western's protests, in May 1839 Parry accepted Cunard's t

Stan Arthur

Admiral Stanley R. Arthur, USN was the Vice Chief of Naval Operations from 1992 to 1995, culminating more than 37 years as an officer in the United States Navy. Admiral Arthur was born in Jackson and was commissioned in U. S. Navy through the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps Program in June 1957. Following completion of flight training, he was designated as a Naval Aviator in 1958. Arthur flew more than 500 combat missions in the A-4 Skyhawk during the Vietnam War, receiving 11 separate awards of the Distinguished Flying Cross and over 50 separate awards of the Air Medal, making him one of the most decorated combat aviators of that conflict. During the 1970s and 1980s, he held command of a carrier-based attack squadron, a carrier air wing, an aircraft carrier, a carrier battle group, was Deputy Chief of Naval Operations. In December 1990, then-Vice Admiral Arthur took command of the United States Seventh Fleet, headquartered in Japan. At the time, the Seventh Fleet staff had oversight of U.

S. Naval was forward deployed in the Persian Gulf. Thus, Vice Admiral Arthur oversaw the U. S. Navy buildup for the Persian Gulf War which broke out on 17 January 1991, he directed the operations of more than 96,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel and 130 U. S. Navy and Allied ships; this represented the largest U. S. naval armada amassed since World War II. He continued directing U. S. Naval Forces Central Command until April 1991, when he returned to Yokosuka to take up Seventh Fleet duties once more, he continued to command Seventh Fleet until July 1992. Admiral Arthur assumed duties as the Vice Chief of Naval Operations on 6 July 1992, he retired from active military service on 1 June 1995. In that job as the Navy's number two officer, he was the Navy's most senior Naval Aviator after the 1991 Tailhook Incident. Admiral Arthur was nominated by President Bill Clinton to head U. S. military forces in the Pacific as the prospective Commander of United States Pacific Command, but the nomination was withdrawn after Senator Dave Durenberger, questioned Arthur's handling of sexual harassment allegations brought by one of the Senator's constituents, a female Navy student helicopter pilot, then-Ensign Rebecca Hansen, attrited from flight training.

Rather than let the Pacific fleet job go unfilled during what might have been protracted congressional hearings, Arthur elected to retire from the Navy on February 1, 1995, as a four-star admiral. Critics charged that the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Mike Boorda, a non-aviator, sacrificed Arthur to improve the Navy's image on sexual harassment following the Tailhook Incident; the volume of complaints prompted Boorda to issue an unusual public defense of Arthur and his decision not to fight for the nomination: Stan Arthur is an officer of integrity... who chose to take this selfless action... in the interests of more filling a critical leadership position. Those who postulate other reasons for the withdrawal are wrong. Arthur joined Lockheed Martin in 1996 and was appointed President and Fire Control – Orlando, Florida, in July 1999. Arthur is a graduate of Miami University in Ohio, he earned a second bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering from the U. S. Naval Postgraduate School and received his master's degree in administration from George Washington University.

In 1996 Arthur received the Admiral Arleigh A. Burke Leadership Award from the Navy League, he was inducted into the Naval Aviation Hall of Honor in 2008. He received the Gray Eagle Award; the Admiral Stan Arthur Award For Logistics Excellence is presented annually in his honor, recognizes military and civilian logisticians who epitomize excellence in logistics planning and execution

Ristiḱ Palace

The Ristiḱ Palace is a monumental symbolic building at Macedonia Square in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The palace is located on the southern side of the Vardar river, in the southern part of Macedonia Square. Just to the east is the birthplace of Mother Teresa, to the south is the Memorial House of Mother Teresa and the headquarters of the Macedonian Ministry of Transport and Communications, it was built in 1926 and is used as an office block. Built in 1926 by Serbian Vladislav Ristić, a pharmacist, the building served as offices on the ground floor with the Ristiḱ family living in the other floors. However, now it is a complex of business offices; the palace is one of the few large buildings in Skopje from that period that survived the shocks of the 1963 Skopje earthquake which occurred in part of SFR Yugoslavia, now the Republic of Macedonia. The architectural design of the building is credited to Dragutin Maslać and construction credit is to Danilo Stanković, who provided the sculptural aspects of the building.

Threatened with destruction at one time, due to it being an alleged illegal construction area of some 50 square meters, a law was passed by the government of Skopje preserving the palace as a Cultural Heritage landmark. The palace was named after Vladislav Ristic. Designed by Dragutin Maslać, it is typical of the buildings that were built by wealthy businessmen of Skopje; the ground floor housed the business centers, the basement was used as stores and the upper floors were used for residential purpose by the owner and his family. At the time it was built, the building had many modern facilities such as refrigerator that functioned on ice and attached toilets and bathrooms with each room. Ristik Palace is a cream and beige painted building, aside from the basement it includes the ground floor, a first floor a midsection consisting of three floors, the attic and roof part of the building which contains the banner on top; the ground floor today contains flowers are sold to the right of the building.

Two of the rooms on the second floor contain small balconies overlooking the square. The railings are elegantly designed. Above the two balconies, between the second and third floors and again above that, between the third and fourth floors, are symmetrical sculptural designs painted white/cream, consisting of two, side by side, above each window, so eight in total, facing the square; when the building was built, the designers and architects were aware of the seismic conditions of the area, based on past experience of earthquake incidence and its damaging effects on buildings in metropolitan cities like Skopje. They had thus taken due care to account for the seismic parameters based on the magnitude of earthquakes as design factors in the design of the building; this is one reason due to. Ristiḱ Palace was one of the few buildings that survived when nearly 70% of the buildings in the town were destroyed. Most of the buildings were built in Skopje with vertical load bearing walls and this is one reason attributed for the collapse.

Other reasons mentioned for the collapse being use of the materials used in construction. In the case of the palace, modern building standards were followed. Ikonomov House was built in 1922 by architect Boris Dutov, Todorov House built in 1927 by the architect Novakovic. in the same area which became the elite area of Skopje