The Himba are indigenous peoples with an estimated population of about 50,000 people living in northern Namibia, in the Kunene region and on the other side of the Kunene River in Angola. There are a few left of the Ovatwa, who are OvaHimba. The OvaHimba are considered the last nomadic people of Namibia, the OvaHimba are predominantly livestock farmers who breed fat-tailed sheep and goats, but count their wealth in the number of their cattle. They grow and farm rain-fed crops such as maize and millet, livestock are the major source of milk and meat for the OvaHimba, their milk-and-meat nutrition diet is supplemented by maize cornmeal, chicken eggs, wild herbs and honey. Only occasionally, and opportunistically, are the livestock sold for cash, the responsibility for milking the cows and goats lies with the women and girls. Women and girls take care of the children, and one woman or girl will take care of another womans children. The cosmetic mixture, often perfumed with the resin of the omuzumba shrub, gives their skin and hair plaits a distinctive orange or red-tinge characteristic, as well as texture.
Otjize is considered foremost a highly desirable aesthetic beauty cosmetic, symbolizing earths rich red color and blood the essence of life and jewelry play a significant role among the OvaHimba, it indicates age and social status within their community. Some young girls, with exception, may have one braided hair plait extended forwards, unmarried young men continue to wear one braided hair plait extended to the rear of the head, while married men wear a cap or head-wrap and un-braided hair beneath. Widowed men will remove their cap or head-wrap and expose un-braided hair, the OvaHimba are accustomed to use wood ash for hair cleansing due to water scarcity. The OvaHimba are polygamous, with the average Himba man being husband to two wives at the same time and they practice early arranged marriages. Young Himba girls are married to male partners chosen by their fathers and this happens from the onset of puberty which may mean that girls aged 10 or below are married off. This practice is illegal in Namibia, and even some OvaHimba contest it but it is nevertheless widespread, among the Himba people, it is customary as a rite of passage to circumcise boys before puberty.
Upon marriage, a Himba boy is considered a man, unlike a Himba girl who is not considered a woman until she bears a child. The OvaHimba coexist and interact with members of their countrys other ethnic groups, because of the harsh desert climate in the region where they live and their seclusion from outside influences, the OvaHimba have managed to maintain and preserve much of their traditional lifestyle. Members live under a structure based on bilateral descent that helps them live in one of the most extreme environments on earth. Under bilateral descent, every tribe member belongs to two clans, one through the father and another through the mother, Himba clans are led by the eldest male in the clan. Sons live with their fathers clan, and when daughters marry, inheritance of wealth does not follow the patriclan but is determined by the matriclan, that is, a son does not inherit his fathers cattle but his maternal uncles instead
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water, small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the term river as applied to geographic features. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location, examples are run in parts of the United States, burn in Scotland and northeast England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always, Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the study of rivers while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Extraterrestrial rivers of liquid hydrocarbons have recently found on Titan. Channels may indicate past rivers on other planets, specifically outflow channels on Mars and rivers are theorised to exist on planets, a river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths.
The water in a river is confined to a channel. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. This distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred, especially in areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become greatly developed by housing. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i. e. against the direction of flow. Likewise, the term describes the direction towards the mouth of the river. The term left bank refers to the bank in the direction of flow. The river channel typically contains a stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water. Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide and they occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are similar to braided rivers and are quite rare
Angola /æŋˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa and is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to west. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Republic of the Congo, the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. In the 19th century, European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to themselves in the interior. As a Portuguese colony, Angola did not encompass its present borders until the early 20th century, following resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. Independence was achieved in 1975 under a communist one-party state backed by the Soviet Union, the country soon descended into an even lengthier civil war that lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable presidential republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest growing in the world, Angolas economic growth is highly uneven, with the majority of the nations wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population.
Angola is a state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union. A highly multiethnic country, Angolas 25.8 million people span various tribal groups, Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, namely in the predominance of the Portuguese language and the Catholic Church, combined with diverse indigenous influences. The name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, the toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo was a kingdom in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, nominally tributary to the king of Kongo but which was seeking greater independence during the 16th century, modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations. The Khoi and San peoples were neither pastoralists nor cultivators, following a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and they were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, some of whom likely originated in northwestern Nigeria.
Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large herds, to Angolas central highlands. During this time, the Bantu established a number of entities in most of what today comprises Angola. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was known as Dongo. The region now known as Angola was reached by the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão in 1484, the year before, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their primary trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave
The Epupa Falls are created by the Kunene River on the border of Angola and Namibia, in the Kaokoland area of the Kunene Region. The river is 0.5 km wide and drops in a series of waterfalls spread over 1.5 km, the name Epupa is a Herero word for foam, in reference to the foam created by the falling water. Due to the nature of this steep riparian habitat, the Epupa Falls are the locus of endemism for a number of fish. The Epupa Constituency is named for the falls, the Ruacana Falls in northern Namibia are located 135 km upstream. Epupa Falls is known for people, the Ovahimba people. While there are tribes like Ovatjimba and Ovatwe people. Migration to Epupa Falls is constantly increasing due to high Tourism growth, there are four lodges namely Kapika Waterfall Lodge, Omarunga Camp Lodge, Epupa Camp Lodge and Epupa Falls Campsite Lodge. All these lodges have campsites except Kapika waterfall lodge plus Motjikutu campsite, tourists are offered whitewater rafting at Epupa Camp. Epupa falls are featured in the 8th episode of the first season of The Grand Tour, national Council for Science and the Environment
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries. The term southern Africa or Southern Africa, generally includes Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia, from a political perspective the region is said to be unipolar with South Africa as a first regional power. It is not used in political, economic or human geography contexts because this definition cuts Mozambique in two, the Southern African Development Community was established in 1980 to facilitate co-operation in the region. Comoros, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Réunion, Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, though more commonly reckoned in Central and Eastern Africa, are occasionally included in Southern Africa as they are SADC members. The terrain of Southern Africa is varied, ranging from forest, the region has both low-lying coastal areas, and mountains. While colonialism has left its mark on the development over the course of history, today poverty, the pursuit of economic and political stability is an important part of the regions goals, as demonstrated by the SADC.
In terms of strength, South Africa is by far the dominant power of the region. South Africas GDP alone is many times greater than the GDPs of all countries in the region. Southern Africa has a diversity of ecoregions including grassland, karoo, savannah. It has complex Plateaus that create massive mountain structures along the South African border, there are numerous environmental issues in Southern Africa, including air pollution and desertification. Southern Africa is home to cultures and people. It was once populated by San and Pygmies in widely dispersed concentrations, the process of colonization and settling resulted in a significant population of European and Asian descent in many southern African countries. These factors vary from country to country, for example, the Democratic Republic of Congo has favourable climatic and physical conditions, but performs far below its capacity in food provision due to political instability and poor governance. The Republic of South Africa is a food producer and exporter in the region.
However this data might not fully capture the reality of a region with high urban populations, urban food security has been noted as an emerging area of development concern in the region, with recent data showing high levels of food insecurity amongst low-income households. In South Africa for example, while over 50% experience hunger, there is only limited data on the other Southern African countries. History of Southern Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Southern Africa
United Nations Human Rights Council
The United Nations Human Rights Council is a United Nations System inter-governmental body responsible for promoting and protecting human rights around the world. Its 47 seats are filled by member states elected for three-year terms, the UNHRC is the successor to the UN Commission on Human Rights, and is a subsidiary body of the UN General Assembly. The council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the UNHRC addresses human rights-related situations in all UN member states. The United States boycotted the Council during the George W. Bush administration, beginning in 2009 however, with the United States taking a leading role in the organization, American commentators began to argue that the UNHRC was becoming increasingly relevant. The UN General Assembly elects the members who occupy the UNHRCs 47 seats, the General Assembly takes into account the candidate States’ contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights, as well as their voluntary pledges and commitments in this regard.
The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms, the resolution establishing the UNHRC states that members elected to the Council shall uphold the highest standards in the promotion and protection of human rights. On 18 June 2007, one year after holding its first meeting, the UNHRC adopted its Institution-building package, among the elements was the Universal Periodic Review. The Universal Periodic Review assesses the human rights situations in all 193 UN Member States, a further element is a Complaint procedure, which allows individuals and organizations to bring complaints about human rights violations to the attention of the Council. The members of the General Assembly elect the members who occupy the UNHRCs 47 seats, the term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms. The previous CHR had a membership of 53 elected by the Economic and Social Council through a majority of those present, the suspension process requires a two-thirds majority vote by the General Assembly.
The UNHRC holds regular sessions three times a year, in March and September, the UNHRC can decide at any time to hold a special session to address human rights violations and emergencies, at the request of one-third of the member states. To date there have been 20 Special Sessions, Members of the UNHRC are elected to staggered three-year terms. Current Previous The first election of members was held on 9 May 2006 and their terms of office began on 19 June 2006. On 19 May, it was announced that Mexico would serve as the Councils chair during its first year of existence. 2010 Group The replacement for the 2007 Group was duly elected by the General Assembly on 17 May 2007, known as the 2010 Group, in this election and Egypt were elected to the council, whereas Belarus was rejected. 2011 Group, The replacement for the 2008 Group was duly elected by the General Assembly on 21 May 2008, known as the 2011 Group, the year when their terms expire. 2012 Group, The replacement for the 2009 Group was duly elected by the General Assembly on 12 May 2009, known as the 2012 Group, the year when their terms expire.
2013 Group, The replacement for the 2010 Group was duly elected by the General Assembly on 13 May 2010, known as the 2013 Group, the year when their terms expire
Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share such characteristics, Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world. Estimates put the population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. The adjective indigenous is derived from the Latin word indigena, which is based on the root gen- to be born with a form of the prefix in in. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their tribal land claim. Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, james Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others. They are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire, throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms.
Their ability to influence and participate in the policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands. The presence of external laws and cultural mores either potentially or actually act to constrain the practices and observances of an indigenous society. These constraints can be observed even when the society is regulated largely by its own tradition. They may be imposed, or arise as unintended consequence of trans-cultural interaction. They may have an effect, even where countered by other external influences. This definition has some limitations, because the definition applies mainly to pre-colonial populations, the primary impetus in considering indigenous identity comes from the post-colonial movements and considering the historical impacts on populations by the European imperialism. Greek sources of the Classical period acknowledge the existence of indigenous people. These peoples inhabited lands surrounding the Aegean Sea before the subsequent migrations of the Hellenic ancestors claimed by these authors, the disposition and precise identity of this former group is elusive, and sources such as Homer and Herodotus give varying, partially mythological accounts.
However, it is clear that cultures existed whose indigenous characteristics were distinguished by the subsequent Hellenic cultures, greco-Roman society flourished between 250 BC and 480 AD and commanded successive waves of conquests that gripped more than half of the globe. The rapid and extensive spread of the various European powers from the early 15th century onwards had an impact upon many of the indigenous cultures with whom they came into contact. The Canary Islands had an indigenous population called the Guanches whose origin is still the subject of discussion among historians, the United Nations estimates that there are over 370 million indigenous people living in over 70 countries worldwide
The Cuando River is a river in south-central Africa flowing through Angola and Namibias Caprivi Strip and into the Linyanti Swamp on the northern border of Botswana. Below the swamp, the river is called the Linyanti River and, farther east, the Cuando rises in the central plateau of Angola on the slopes of Mount Tembo, thence flowing southeast along the Zambian border. Along this reach it flows in a maze of channels in a swampy corridor 5–10 km wide, the Cuando continues in its marshy channel across the neck of the Caprivi Strip of Namibia and forms the border between Namibia and Botswana as it continues southeast. Some 10,014 years ago, the Cuando merged with the Okavango River and they flowed south to Lake Makgadikgadi, but the land in that area was uplifted. As a consequence the Cuando now meets slightly higher ground and breaks up into channels and swamps dotted with alluvial islands. But instead it has diverted east and has been captured by the Zambezi, the flow turns sharply east, still forming the border with Botswana.
In the dry season there are few open channels through the swamps, beginning at this point it is known as the Linyanti, and after it flows through a seasonal lake, Lake Liambesi, it is called the Chobe. The river flows into the Zambezi just above the Kazungula Ferry, in years when the Okavango experiences a good flood some of the water escapes east along the normally dry channel of the Magwekwana River into the Linyanti Swamp, thus entering the Zambezi basin. The Selinda Spillway and the Boteti River are the outlets of the Okavango basin. On the north side of the Chobe River are the Caprivi Swamps, the Cuando system is noted for its wildlife and for most of its length the land either side is protected as game reserves or wildlife management areas. Some of these suffered poaching during wars and conflict in Namibia and Angola, michael Hogan Makgadikgadi, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham Robert Mepham, R. H. Hughes, G. M. Chobe
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south, although it does not border Zimbabwe, a part of less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek, and it is a state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union. The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by the San, since about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups in total, known as the Ovambo people, have dominated the population of the country, in the late 19th century during European colonization, the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate in 1884.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming, and maintained this German colony until 1915, after the end of World War I, in 1920 the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa. It imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules, from 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In 1878 the Cape of Good Hope had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands, following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990, but Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia has a population of 2.1 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy. The large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world, Namibia enjoys high political and social stability.
The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa, as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans. The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by San, from about the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onwards, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were largely peaceful. The missionaries accompanying the Oorlam were well received by them, the right to use waterholes, on their way further northwards, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment. The Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the places and cemented the status quo among the Nama, Oorlam. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century