Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air envelops the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least 150 °C from an open flame, oven, or other heat source. Roasting can enhance flavor through Maillard browning on the surface of the food. Roasting uses indirect, diffused heat, is suitable for slower cooking of meat in a larger, whole piece. Meats and most root and bulb vegetables can be roasted. Any piece of meat red meat, cooked in this fashion is called a roast. Meats and vegetables prepared in this way are described as "roasted", e.g. roasted chicken or roasted squash. For roasting, the food may be placed on a rack, in a roasting pan or, to ensure application of heat, may be rotated on a spit or rotisserie. If a pan is used, the juice can be retained for use in Yorkshire pudding, etc.. During oven roasting, hot air circulates around the meat. There are several plans for roasting meat: low-temperature cooking, high-temperature cooking, a combination of both.
Each method can be suitable, depending on the tastes of the people. A low-temperature oven, 95 to 160 °C, is best when cooking with large cuts of meat and whole chickens; this is not technically roasting temperature. The benefit of slow-roasting an item is a more tender product. More of the collagen that makes meat tough is dissolved in slow cooking. At true roasting temperatures, 200 °C or more, the water inside the muscle is lost at a high rate. Cooking at high temperatures is beneficial if the cut is tender enough—as in filet mignon or strip loin—to be finished cooking before the juices escape. A reason for high temperature roasting is to brown the outside of the food, similar to browning food in a pan before pot roasting or stewing it. Fast cooking gives more variety of flavor, because the outside is brown while the center is much less done; the combination method uses high heat just at either the beginning or the end of the cooking process, with most of the cooking at a low temperature. This method produces the golden-brown texture and crust, but maintains more of the moisture than cooking at a high temperature, although the product will not be as moist as low-temperature cooking the whole time.
Searing and turning down to low is beneficial when a dark crust and caramelized flavor is desired for the finished product. In general, in either case, the meat is removed from the heat before it has finished cooking and left to sit for a few minutes, while the inside cooks further from the residual heat content, known as carry over cooking; the objective in any case is to retain as much moisture as possible, while providing the texture and color. As meat cooks, the structure and the collagen breaks down, allowing juice to come out of the meat. So meat is juiciest at about medium rare. During roasting and vegetables are basted on the surface with butter, lard, or oil to reduce the loss of moisture by evaporation. In recent times, plastic oven bags have become popular for roasts; these cut cooking times and reduce the loss of moisture during roasting, but reduce flavor development from Maillard browning, somewhat more like stew or pot roast. They are popular for turkeys; until the late 19th century, roasting by dry heat in an oven was called baking.
Roasting meant turning meat or a bird on a spit in front of a fire. It is one of the oldest forms of cooking known. Traditionally recognized roasting methods consist only of baking and cooking over or near an open fire. Grilling is not technically a roast, since a grill is used. Barbecuing and smoking differ from roasting because of the lower temperature and controlled smoke application. Grilling can be considered as a low-fat food preparation, as it allows any fat in the food to drip away. Before the invention and widespread use of stoves, food was cooked over open flames from a hearth. To roast meat, racks with skewers, or, if accessible, complicated gear arrangements, would be utilized to turn the piece. In the past, this method was associated with the upper class and special occasions, rather than customary mealtimes, because it required freshly killed meat and close attention during cooking, it was easy to ruin the meat’s taste with a smoky fire or negligence to rotate it at regular intervals.
Thus, elite families, who were able to afford quality meat, appointed this task to servants or invested in technology like automatic turning devices. With further technological advances, cooking came to accommodate new opportunities. By the 1860s, working families were able to afford low-priced stove models that became sufficiently available. However, the key element of observation during roasting became difficult and dangerous to do with the coal oven. Hence, traditional roasting disappeared as kitchens became no longer equipped for this custom and soon thereafter, "baking" came to be called "roasting". Roasting can be applied to a wide variety of meat. In general, it works best for cooking whole chickens and leaner cuts of lamb and beef; the aim is to highlight the flavor of the meat itself rather than a sauce or stew, as it is done in braising or other moist-heat methods. Many roasts are tied with string prior to roasting using the reef knot or the packer's knot. Tying holds them together during roasting, keeping any stuffing inside, keeps the roast in a round profile, which promotes cooking.
Red meats such as beef and venison, certain game birds are roasted to be "pink" or "rare", meaning that the center of the roast is still red. Roasting
Magnesium chloride is the name for the chemical compound with the formula MgCl2 and its various hydrates MgCl2x. These salts are typical ionic halides, being soluble in water; the hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from sea water. In North America, magnesium chloride is produced from Great Salt Lake brine, it is extracted in a similar process from the Dead Sea in the Jordan Valley. Magnesium chloride, as the natural mineral bischofite, is extracted out of ancient seabeds, for example, the Zechstein seabed in northwest Europe; some magnesium chloride is made from solar evaporation of seawater. Anhydrous magnesium chloride is the principal precursor to magnesium metal, produced on a large scale. Hydrated magnesium chloride is the form most available. MgCl2 crystallizes in the cadmium chloride motif. Several hydrates are known with the formula MgCl2x, each loses water at higher temperatures: x = 12, 8, 6, 4, 2. In the hexahydrate, the Mg2+ is octahedral, but is coordinated to six water ligands.
The thermal dehydration of the hydrates MgCl2x does not occur straightforwardly. Anhydrous MgCl2 is produced industrially by heating the chloride salt of hexammine complex 2+; as suggested by the existence of some hydrates, anhydrous MgCl2 is a Lewis acid, although a weak one. In the Dow process, magnesium chloride is regenerated from magnesium hydroxide using hydrochloric acid: Mg2 + 2 HCl → MgCl2 + 2 H2OIt can be prepared from magnesium carbonate by a similar reaction. Derivatives with tetrahedral Mg2+ are less common. Examples include salts of 2MgCl4 and adducts such as MgCl2. MgCl2 is the main precursor to metallic magnesium; the conversion is effected by electrolysis: MgCl2 → Mg + Cl2This process is practiced on a substantial scale. Magnesium chloride is one of many substances used for dust control, soil stabilization, wind erosion mitigation; when magnesium chloride is applied to roads and bare soil areas, both positive and negative performance issues occur which are related to many application factors.
Ziegler-Natta catalysts, used commercially to produce polyolefins, contain MgCl2 as a catalyst support. The introduction of MgCl2 supports increases the activity of traditional catalysts and allowed the development of stereospecific catalysts for the production of polypropylene. Magnesium chloride is used for low-temperature de-icing of highways and parking lots; when highways are treacherous due to icy conditions, magnesium chloride helps to prevent the ice bond, allowing snow plows to clear the roads more efficiently. Magnesium chloride is used in three ways for pavement ice control: Anti-icing, when maintenance professionals spread it onto roads before a snow storm to prevent snow from sticking and ice from forming. Calcium chloride damages concrete twice as fast as magnesium chloride. Magnesium chloride is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Magnesium chloride is an important coagulant used in the preparation of tofu from soy milk. In Japan it is sold as nigari, a white powder produced from seawater after the sodium chloride has been removed, the water evaporated.
In China, it is called lushui. Nigari or lushui consists of magnesium chloride, with some magnesium sulfate and other trace elements, it is an ingredient in baby formula milk. Because magnesium is a mobile nutrient, magnesium chloride can be used as a substitute for magnesium sulfate to help correct magnesium deficiency in plants via foliar feeding; the recommended dose of magnesium chloride is smaller than the recommended dose of magnesium sulfate. This is due to the chlorine present in magnesium chloride, which can reach toxic levels if over-applied or applied too often, it has been found that higher concentrations of magnesium in tomato and some pepper plants can make them more susceptible to disease caused by infection of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, since magnesium is essential for bacterial growth. Magnesium values in natural seawater are between 1250 and 1350 mg/l, around 3.7% of the total seawater mineral content. Dead Sea minerals contain a higher magnesium chloride ratio, 50.8%.
Carbonates and calcium are essential for all growth of corals, coralline algae and invertebrates. Magnesium can be depleted by mangrove plants and the use of excessive limewater or by going beyond natural calcium, pH values. Magnesium ions are bitter-tasting, magnesium chloride solutions are bitter in varying degrees, depending on the concentration of magnesium. Magnesium toxicity from magnesium salts is rare in healthy individuals with a normal diet, because excess magnesium is excreted in urine by the kidneys. A few cases of oral magnesium toxicity have been described in persons with normal renal function ingesting large amounts of magnesium salts, but it is rare. If a large amount of magnesium chloride is eaten, it will have effects similar to magnesium sulfate, causing diarrhea, although the sulfate contributes to the laxative effect in magnesium sulfate, so the effect from the chloride is not as severe. Chloride and magnesium are both essential nutrients important for normal plant growth.
Too much of either nutrient may
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral; these component ions can be inorganic, such as organic, such as acetate. Salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts. Salts that produce acidic solutions are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither basic. Zwitterions contain an anionic and a cationic centres in the same molecule, but are not considered to be salts. Examples of zwitterions include amino acids, many metabolites and proteins. Solid salts tend to be transparent. In many cases, the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals. Since light reflects from the grain boundaries, larger crystals tend to be transparent, while the polycrystalline aggregates look like white powders.
Salts exist in many different colors, which arise either from the cations. For example: sodium chromate is yellow by virtue of the chromate ion potassium dichromate is orange by virtue of the dichromate ion cobalt nitrate is red owing to the chromophore of hydrated cobalt. copper sulfate is blue because of the copper chromophore potassium permanganate has the violet color of permanganate anion. Nickel chloride is green of sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate are colorless or white because the constituent cations and anions do not absorb in the visible part of the spectrumFew minerals are salts because they would be solubilized by water. Inorganic pigments tend not to be salts, because insolubility is required for fastness; some organic dyes are salts, but they are insoluble in water. Different salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e.g. salty, sour and umami or savory. Salts of strong acids and strong bases are non-volatile and odorless, whereas salts of either weak acids or weak bases may smell like the conjugate acid or the conjugate base of the component ions.
That slow, partial decomposition is accelerated by the presence of water, since hydrolysis is the other half of the reversible reaction equation of formation of weak salts. Many ionic compounds exhibit significant solubility in water or other polar solvents. Unlike molecular compounds, salts dissociate in solution into cationic components; the lattice energy, the cohesive forces between these ions within a solid, determines the solubility. The solubility is dependent on how well each ion interacts with the solvent, so certain patterns become apparent. For example, salts of sodium and ammonium are soluble in water. Notable exceptions include potassium cobaltinitrite. Most nitrates and many sulfates are water-soluble. Exceptions include barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, lead sulfate, where the 2+/2− pairing leads to high lattice energies. For similar reasons, most alkali metal carbonates are not soluble in water; some soluble carbonate salts are: potassium carbonate and ammonium carbonate. Salts are characteristically insulators.
Molten salts or solutions of salts conduct electricity. For this reason, liquified salts and solutions containing dissolved salts are called electrolytes. Salts characteristically have high melting points. For example, sodium chloride melts at 801 °C; some salts with low lattice energies are liquid near room temperature. These include molten salts, which are mixtures of salts, ionic liquids, which contain organic cations; these liquids exhibit unusual properties as solvents. The name of a salt starts with the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. Salts are referred to only by the name of the cation or by the name of the anion. Common salt-forming cations include: Ammonium NH+4 Calcium Ca2+ Iron Fe2+ and Fe3+ Magnesium Mg2+ Potassium K+ Pyridinium C5H5NH+ Quaternary ammonium NR+4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group Sodium Na+ Copper Cu2+Common salt-forming anions include: Acetate CH3COO− Carbonate CO2−3 Chloride Cl− Citrate HOC2 Cyanide C≡N− Fluoride F− Nitrate NO−3 Nitrite NO−2 Oxide O2− Phosphate PO3−4 Sulfate SO2−4 Salts with varying number of hydrogen atoms, with respect to the parent acid, replaced by cations can be referred to as monobasic, dibasic or tribasic salts: Sodium phosphate monobasic Sodium phosphate dibasic Sodium phosphate tribasic Salts are formed by a chemical reaction between: A base and an acid, e.g. NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl A metal and an acid, e.g. Mg + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2 A metal and a non-metal, e.g. Ca + Cl2 → CaCl2 A base and an a
Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food from above or below. Grilling involves a significant amount of direct, radiant heat, tends to be used for cooking meat and vegetables quickly. Food to be grilled is cooked on a grill pan, or griddle. Heat transfer to the food when using a grill is through thermal radiation. Heat transfer when using a grill griddle is by direct conduction. In the United States, when the heat source for grilling comes from above, grilling is called broiling. In this case, the pan that holds the food is called a broiler pan, heat transfer is through thermal radiation. Direct heat grilling can expose food to temperatures in excess of 260 °C. Grilled meat acquires a distinctive roast aroma and flavor from a chemical process called the Maillard reaction; the Maillard reaction only occurs when foods reach temperatures in excess of 155 °C. Studies have shown that cooking beef, pork and fish at high temperatures can lead to the formation of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are carcinogens.
Marination may reduce the formation of these compounds. Grilling is presented as a healthy alternative to cooking with oils, although the fat and juices lost by grilling can contribute to drier food. In Japanese cities, yakitori carts, restaurants, or shops can be found; these marinated grilled meat on a stick. Yakiniku is a type of food where meat and/or vegetables are grilled directly over small charcoal or gas grills at high temperatures. In Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, a popular food item from food vendors is satay, marinated meat on a bamboo skewer grilled over a charcoal fire and served with peanut sauce. In Germany, the most prominent outdoor form of grilling is using the gridiron over a bed of burning charcoal. Care is taken. Beer is sprinkled over the sausages or meat and used to suppress flames; the meat is marinated before grilling. Besides charcoal, sometimes gas and electric heat sources are used. Other methods are used less frequently. In Northern Mexico, carne asada is a staple food.
Popular cuts include arrachera and rib eye, as well as chorizo and chicken, among others. Charcoal, mesquite or firewood are used for the grilling. In Argentina and Uruguay, both asado and steak a la parrilla are staple dishes and hailed as national specialties. In Sweden, grilling directly over hot coals is the most prominent form of grilling; the meat is Boston butt, pork chops or pork fillet. It is common to cook meat and vegetables together on a skewer, this is called "grillspett". In the United Kingdom, Commonwealth countries, Ireland, grilling refers to cooking food directly under a source of direct, dry heat; the "grill" is a separate part of an oven where the food is inserted just under the element. This practice is referred to as "broiling" in North America. Sometimes the term grilling may refer to cooking with heat from below, as in the United States. In the 1970s and 1980s the electric, two sided vertical grill marketed by the Sunbeam company achieved cult status because of its quick, no added fat operation.
In electric ovens, grilling may be accomplished by placing the food near the upper heating element, with the lower heating element off and the oven door open. Grilling in an electric oven may create a large amount of smoke and cause splattering in the oven. Both gas and electric ovens have a separate compartment for grilling, such as a drawer below the flame or one of the stove top heating elements. In the United States, the use of the word grill refers to cooking food directly over a source of dry heat with the food sitting on a metal grate that leaves "grill marks." Grilling is done outdoors on charcoal grills or gas grills. Grilling may be performed using stove-top "grill pans" which have raised metal ridges for the food to sit on, or using an indoor electric grill. A skewer, brochette, or rotisserie may be used to cook small pieces of food; the resulting food product is called a "kabob" or "kebab" which means "to grill" in Persian. Kebab is short for "shish kebab". Mesquite or hickory wood chips may be added on top of the coals to create a smoldering effect that provides additional flavor to the food.
Other hardwoods such as pecan, apple and oak may be used. As is true of any high-temperature frying or baking, when meat is grilled at high temperatures, the cooking process can generate carcinogenic chemicals. Two processes are thought to be responsible. Heterocyclic amines are formed when amino acids and creatine react at high temperatures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are formed when fat and juices from meat grilled directly over an open fire drip onto the fire, causing flames; these flames contain PAHs that adhere to the surface of the meat. However it is possible to reduce carcinogens when grilling meat, or mitigate their effect. Garlic, olive oil and vitamin E have been shown to reduce formation of both HCAs and PAHs. V-profiled grill elements placed at an angle may help drain much of the meat juices and dripping fat, transport them away from the heat source. Hea
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables and may include meat tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry and seafood are used. While water can be used as the stew-cooking liquid, stock is common. Seasoning and flavourings may be added. Stews are cooked at a low temperature, allowing flavours to mingle. Stewing is suitable for the least tender cuts of meat that become tender and juicy with the slow moist heat method; this makes it popular in low-cost cooking. Cuts having a certain amount of marbling and gelatinous connective tissue give moist, juicy stews, while lean meat may become dry. Stews are thickened by reduction or with flour, either by coating pieces of meat with flour before searing, or by using a roux or beurre manié, a dough consisting of equal parts of fat and flour. Thickeners like cornstarch or arrowroot may be used. Stews are similar to soups, in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two.
Stews have less liquid than soups, are much thicker and require longer cooking over low heat. While soups are always served in a bowl, stews may be thick enough to be served on a plate with the gravy as a sauce over the solid ingredients. Stews have been made since ancient times; the world's oldest evidence of stew was found in Japan the place of the origin of fishing equipment. Herodotus says that the Scythians "put the flesh into an animal's paunch, mix water with it, boil it like that over the bone fire; the bones burn well, the paunch contains all the meat once it has been stripped off. In this way an ox, or any other sacrificial beast, is ingeniously made to boil itself." Amazonian tribes used the shells of turtles as vessels, boiling the entrails of the turtle and various other ingredients in them. Other cultures used the shells of large mollusks to boil foods in. There is archaeological evidence of these practices going back 8,000 years or more. There are recipes for lamb stews and fish stews in the Roman cookery book Apicius, believed to date from the 4th century AD.
Le Viandier, one of the oldest cookbooks in French, written in the early 14th century by the French chef known as Taillevent, has ragouts or stews of various types in it. The first written reference to'Irish stew' is in Byron's "The Devil's Drive": "The Devil... dined on... a rebel or so in an Irish stew." In meat-based stews, white stews known as blanquettes or fricassées, are made with lamb or veal, blanched, or seared without browning, cooked in stock. Brown stews are made with pieces of red meat that are first seared or browned, before a browned mirepoix and sometimes browned flour and wine are added. Baeckeoffe, a potato stew from Alsace Beef bourguignon, a French dish of beef stewed in red burgundy wine Beef Stroganoff, a stew with beef from Russia Bigos, a traditional stew in Polish cuisine Birria, a goat stew from Mexico Bo Kho, a beef stew in rich seasonings, served with bread, noodle or plain rice from Vietnam Bollito misto, consisting of beef and pork simmered in an aromatic vegetable broth from Italy Booyah, an American meat stew Bosnian Pot, a stew with beef or lamb, a national dish in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bouillabaisse, a fish stew from Provence Brunswick stew, from Virginia and the Carolinas Burgoo, a Kentuckian stew Caldeirada, a fish stew from Portugal Carbonade flamande, a traditional Belgian beef and onion stew made with Belgian beer Cawl, a Welsh stew Chakapuli, a Georgian stew made with lamp chops and tarragon leaves and white wine Chanakhi, a Georgian lamb stew with tomatoes, potatoes and garlic Charquicán, a Chilean dish Chankonabe, a Japanese dish flavoured with soy sauce or miso.
Chankonabe is traditionally eaten by sumo wrestlers Chicken stew, whole chicken and seasonings Chicken paprikash, chicken stew with paprika Chili con carne, Mexican-American meat and chili pepper stew Chili sin carne, a meatless American adaptation of the Mexican dish Chilorio, a pork stew from Sinaloa, Mexico Cincinnati chili, chili developed by Greek immigrants in the Cincinnati area Cholent, a slow-cooked Jewish dish Chorba, a stew like soup dish found in various Middle Eastern, Central Asian, South Asian and European cuisines Cochinita pibil, an orange color pork stew from Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico Cocido montañés or Highlander stew, a bean and pork meat stew from Cantabria, Spain Cotriade, a fish stew from Brittany Cozido, a traditional Portuguese stew.
Mayonnaise, informally mayo, is a thick cold condiment or dressing used in sandwiches and composed salads or on chips. It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk, acid, either vinegar or lemon juice. There are many variants using additional flavorings; the proteins and lecithin in the egg yolk serve as emulsifiers in mayonnaise. The color of mayonnaise varies from near-white to pale yellow, its texture from a light cream to a thick gel, it is a base in sauces such as Tartar sauce. Commercial egg-free varieties are made for vegans and others who avoid chicken eggs or dietary cholesterol. A "mayonnaise de poulet" is mentioned by a traveler to Paris in 1804, but not described. Viard's 1806 recipe for "poulets en mayonnaise" describes a sauce involving a velouté, vinegar, an optional egg to thicken it, which gels like an aspic. Grimod de La Reynière's 1808 "bayonnaise" sauce is a sort of aspic: "But if one wants to make from this cold chicken, a dish of distinction, one composes a bayonnaise, whose green jelly, of a good consistency, forms the most worthy ornament of poultry and fish salads."
The word is attested in English in 1815. Mayonnaise may have existed long before: "It is probable that wherever olive oil existed, a simple preparation of oil and egg came about — in the Mediterranean region, where aioli is made." The origin of the name is unclear. A common theory is that it is named for Port Mahon in Menorca, in honor of the 3rd Duke of Richelieu's victory over the British in 1756, in fact the name "mahonnaise" is used by some authors, but the name is only attested long after that event. One version of this theory says that it was known as salsa mahonesa in Spanish, but that spelling is only attested later. Grimod de La Reynière rejected the name "mayonnaise" because the word "is not French". Carême preferred the spelling "magnonnaise", which he derived from the French verb manier'to handle'. Another suggestion is it derives from Charles de Lorraine, duke of Mayenne, because he took the time to finish his meal of chicken with cold sauce before being defeated in the Battle of Arques.
Recipes for mayonnaise date back to the early nineteenth century. In 1815, Louis Eustache Ude wrote: No 58.—Mayonnaise. Take three spoonfuls of Allemande, six ditto of aspic, two of oil. Add a little tarragon vinegar, that has not boiled, some pepper and salt, minced ravigotte, or some parsley. Put in the members of fowl, or fillets of soles, &c. Your mayonnaise must be put to ice. Next dish your meat or fish, mask with the sauce before it be quite frozen, garnish your dish with whatever you think proper, as beet root, nasturtiums, &c. In an 1820 work, Viard describes something like the more familiar emulsified version: This sauce is made to "take" in many ways: with raw egg yolks, with gelatine, with veal or veal brain glaze; the most common method is to take a raw egg yolk in a small terrine, with a little salt and lemon juice: take a wooden spoon, turn it while letting a trickle of oil fall and stirring constantly. This sauce is used for cold fish entrees. Modern mayonnaise can be made by hand with a whisk, a fork, or with the aid of an electric mixer or blender.
It is made by adding oil to an egg yolk, while whisking vigorously to disperse the oil. The oil and the water in the yolk form a base of the emulsion, while lecithin and protein from the yolk is the emulsifier that stabilizes it. A combination of van der Waals interactions and electrostatic repulsion determine the bond strength among oil droplets; the high viscosity of mayonnaise is attributed to the total strength created by these two intermolecular forces. Addition of mustard contributes to the taste and further stabilizes the emulsion, as mustard contains small amounts of lecithin. If vinegar is added directly to the yolk, it can emulsify more oil. For large-scale preparation of mayonnaise where mixing equipment is being employed, the process begins with the dispersal of eggs, either powdered or liquid, into water. Once emulsified, the remaining ingredients are added and vigorously mixed until hydrated and evenly dispersed. Oil is added as as it can be absorbed. Though only a small part of the total, ingredients other than the oil are critical to proper formulation.
These must be hydrated and dispersed within a small liquid volume, which can cause difficulties including emulsion breakdown during the oil-adding phase. A long agitation process is required to achieve proper dispersal/emulsification, presenting one of the trickiest phases of the production process. Though, as technology in the food industry advances, processing has been shortened drastically, allowing 1000 liters to be produced in 10 minutes. Egg-free varieties of mayonnaise are available for vegans and others who want to avoid eggs, animal fat, cholesterol, or who have egg allergies. In the U. S. these alternatives cannot be labelled as "mayonnaise" because of the FDA's definition of mayonnaise making egg a requirement. Egg-free varieties contain soya or pea protein as the emulsifying agent to stabilize oil droplets in water. Well-known brands include Nasoya's Nayonaise and Just Mayo in Nort