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Curry is a variety of dishes originating in the Indian subcontinent, dating back to the Indus Valley Civilisation, that use a complex combination of spices or herbs including ground turmeric, coriander and fresh or dried chilies. Curry is prepared in a sauce. Curry dishes prepared in the southern states of India, where the word originated, may be spiced with leaves from the curry tree. There are many varieties of dishes called'curries'. For example, in original traditional cuisines, the precise selection of spices for each dish is a matter of national or regional cultural tradition, religious practice, and, to some extent, family preference; such dishes are called by specific names that refer to their ingredients and cooking methods. Spices are used both whole and ground, cooked or raw, they may be added at different times during the cooking process to produce different results; the main spices found in most curry powders of the Indian subcontinent are coriander and turmeric. A wide range of additional spices may be included depending on the geographic region and the foods being included.

Curry powder, a commercially prepared mixture of spices, is a Western creation, dating to the 18th century. Such mixtures are thought to have first been prepared by Indian merchants for sale to members of the British Colonial government and army returning to Britain. Outside of the Indian subcontinent, "curry" may be used to describe the various unrelated native dishes of Island Southeast Asia, Mainland Southeast Asia, Oceania which use coconut milk or spice pastes and are eaten over rice. Dishes called'curry' may contain fish, poultry, or shellfish, either alone or in combination with vegetables. Additionally, many instead are vegetarian, eaten among those who hold ethical or religious proscriptions against eating meat or seafood. Curries may be either'dry' or'wet'. Dry curries are cooked with little liquid, allowed to evaporate, leaving the other ingredients coated with the spice mixture. Wet curries contain significant amounts of sauce or gravy based on broth, coconut cream, coconut milk, dairy cream, legume purée, sautéed crushed onion, tomato purée or yogurt.

Curry is an anglicised form of the Tamil word kaṟi meaning'sauce' or'relish for rice' that uses the leaves of the curry tree. Kaṟi is described in a mid-17th century Portuguese cookbook by members of the British East India Company, who were trading with Tamil merchants along the Coromandel Coast of southeast India, becoming known as a "spice blend... called kari podi or curry powder". The first known appearance in its anglicised form appears in a 1747 book of recipes published by Hannah Glasse; the word cury appears in the 1390s English cookbook, The Forme of Cury, but is unrelated and comes from the Middle French word cuire, meaning'to cook' Archaeological evidence dating to 2600 BCE from Mohenjo-daro suggests the use of mortar and pestle to pound spices including mustard, fennel and tamarind pods with which they flavoured food. Black pepper is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia and has been known to Indian cooking since at least 2000 BCE. Domesticated Pacific coconuts and coconut milk extraction technology was introduced to southern India and Sri Lanka by the ancient maritime trade network of the Austronesian peoples, which influenced the curries of these regions.

The establishment of the Mughal Empire, in the early 15th century influenced some curries in the north. Another influence was the establishment of the Portuguese trading centre in Goa in 1510, resulting in the introduction of chili pepper to India from the Americas, as a byproduct of the Columbian Exchange. Curry was introduced to English cuisine starting with Anglo-Indian cooking in the 17th century as spicy sauces were added to plain boiled and cooked meats; the 1758 edition of Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery contains a recipe "To make a curry the Indian way". Curry was first served in coffee houses in Britain from 1809, has been popular in Great Britain, with major jumps in the 1940s and the 1970s. During the 19th century, curry was carried to the Caribbean by Indian indentured workers in the British sugar industry. Since the mid-20th century, curries of many national styles have become popular far from their origins, become part of international fusion cuisine. From the culinary point of view, it is useful to consider the Indian subcontinent to be the entire historical region encompassed prior to independence since August 1947.

It is usual to distinguish broadly between northern and southern styles of Indian cuisine, recognising that within those categories are innumerable sub-styles and variations. The distinction is made with reference to the staple starch: wheat in the form of unleavened breads in the north. Bengali cuisine, which refers to the cuisine of Bangladesh and the West Bengal state of India, includes curries, including seafood and fresh fish. Mustard seeds and mustard oil are added to many recipes. Emigrants from the Sylhet district of Bangladesh founded the curry house industry in Britain and in Sylhet some restaurants run by expatriates specialise in British-style Indian food. Curries are the most well-known part of Indian cuisine. Most Indian dishes are curry based, prepared by adding different types of vegetables, lentils or meats in the curry; the content of the curry and style of preparation varies per the region

Monodora grandidieri

Monodora grandidieri is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is native to Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania. Henri Ernest Baillon, the French botanist who first formally described the species, named it after the French naturalist and explorer Alfred Grandidier who collected the specimen Baillon examined, it has been reported to be used as a traditional medicine by the Digo people of Kenya. It is a tree reaching 12 meters in height, its branches have lenticels. Its leaves are come to a point at their tips, its petioles are 2-3 millimeters long. Its flowers appear before young leaves; each flower is on a thin hairy pedicel 2-5.7 centimeters long. Its flowers have 3 sepals that are 1-2 by 3-5.5 centimeters with densely hairy margins. The sepals curve are green or red with green veins, its 6 petals are arranged in two rows of 3. The outer petals are light yellow with green or red highlights, curve backwards, come to a point at their tips; the outer petals are 3.7-6.5 by 0.5-1.8 centimeters, have wavy margins, are densely hairy on their outer surface.

The inner petals are colored, have a 0.7-0.9 centimeter long claw at their base and a 1.2-1.6 centimeter wide blade. Its stamens are 1 millimeters long, its smooth and white fruit are 5-7.5 by 4-4.5 centimeters in diameter. Its light brown seeds are 1.3-2.6 by 1-1.8 by 0.9-1.1 centimeters. The pollen of M. grandidieri is shed as permanent tetrads

2013 AFL draft

The 2013 AFL draft consisted of six opportunities for player acquisitions throughout the 2013–14 Australian Football League off-season. This included the 2013 free agency period, 2013 trade period, three separate delisted player free agency periods, the 2013 national draft held at the Gold Coast Convention Centre, as well as the 2014 pre-season and rookie drafts. Compensation draft picksThe following compensation draft picks were dispensed to four clubs by the AFL based on all restricted and unrestricted free agency transfers during the initial transfer window: Collingwood – First-round selection Hawthorn – First-round selection Melbourne – Second-round selection St Kilda – Second-round selection Note: The numbering of the draft picks in this trades table is based on the original order at the time of the trade; the number of the pick may have changed due to the allocation of Free Agency compensation picks or clubs not using picks. Following the completion of the free agency and trade periods, as well as the distribution of compensation picks to qualifying clubs, the final selection order for the 2013 National Draft was confirmed by the AFL on 18 November 2013.

Compensation picks are selections in addition to the normal order of selection, allocated to clubs by the AFL as compensation for losing uncontracted players to the new expansion clubs, Gold Coast and Greater Western Sydney. The picks can be held for up to five years and clubs declare at the beginning of the season of their intent to utilise the pick at the end of the season. Picks could be traded to other clubs in return for other draft selections. Free agency compensation picks are additional selections awarded to teams based on their net loss of players during the free agency trade period. Promoted rookies are players. Local talent selections are local zone selections available to the new expansion clubs

Do Kaliyaan

Do Kaliyan is a 1968 Indian Hindi-language film directed by R. Krishnan and S. Panju, it stars Mala Sinha, Biswajeet and Neetu Singh. It is a remake of Tamil movie Kuzhandaiyum Deivamum, which itself was an adaptation of the 1953 British film Twice Upon a Time and 1961 movie The Parent Trap - both based on the Erich Kästner's 1949 German novel Lottie and Lisa, it was revitalized the career of its lead actor Biswajeet. Proud and haughty Kiran meets with down-to-earth middle-class fellow collegian and after several clashes and misunderstandings, both fall in love and decide to get married. Shekhar meets with Kiran's dominating mom and mousy dad, is told that he must pass a test that will be put to him through Kiran's mom, to which he agrees and subsequently passes, much to Kiran's delight; the marriage is performed with great pomp and ceremony and Shekhar becomes a ghar jamai. He soon realizes, he wants Kiran to leave with him. But Kiran asks him to be patient. Thereafter identical twin girls are born.

Shekhar still feels that they would be better off living away from Kiran's family, differences arise, Shekhar moves out with Ganga. Years the identical twins Ganga and Jamuna meet at a school outing and both decide to switch places to see how it is like on the other side. Both twins devise a scheme that will bring their proud grandmother to her heels, bring their parents together. Mala Sinha as Kiran Biswajeet as Shekhar Neetu Singh as Ganga / Jamuna Mehmood as Mahesh Om Prakash as Kiran's Father Nigar Sultana as Kiran's mother, Kamala Geethanjali as Menaka Manorama as Madhumati Hiralal Umesh Sharma Shabnam Bharathi Sujatha Do Kaliyan was produced by AVM Productions, it is a remake of the studio's own Tamil film Kuzhandaiyum Deivamum, itself based on the American film The Parent Trap. Kuzhandaiyum Deivamum's director duo Krishnan–Panju returned to direct the Hindi remake. Lyrics by Sahir Ludhianvi. "Bachche Mann Ke Sachche" - Lata Mangeshkar "Bachche Mann Ke Sachche" v2 - Lata Mangeshkar "Chit Nandan Aage Naachoongi" - Asha Bhosle "Murga Murgi" - Lata Mangeshkar "Sajna O Sajna Aise Mein Ji Na Jala" - Asha Bhosle "Muslim Ko Taslim Arj Hai" - Manna Dey "Tumhari Nazar Kyun Khafa" -Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar "Tumhari Nazar Kyun Khafa" - Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar "Ye Sama Ye Rut Ye Nazare" - Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar Do Kaliyan was a major commercial success and, according to film historian Randor Guy, "further brightened the radiant image of Meiyappan and AVM Studios".

Do Kaliyaan on IMDb

Crash (The Primitives song)

"Crash" is a song written by The Primitives band members Paul Court, Steve Dullaghan and Tracy Spencer. The song was first recorded by The Primitives for their 1988 debut album Lovely; this version of the song was released as a single and a cassette in February 1988 and peaked at number five on United Kingdom singles chart and number three on the U. S. Modern Rock Tracks. In 1994, the song was featured on the Dumb & Dumber movie soundtrack as "Crash"; this remix included additional guitars, percussion and backing vocals - none of which were performed by any of The Primitives. Several cover versions are based on the'95 Mix and not the original; the song was later featured in the 2004 film Surviving Christmas and the 2007 film Mr. Bean's Holiday. In 2011, the song was used in the international trailer for Disney/Pixar's Cars 2; the song is featured in two video games: 2009's Lego Rock Band and 2011's Burnout Crash!. 7" single"Crash" – 2:32 "Things Get in Your Way" – 2:2110" single"Crash" – 2:32 "I'll Stick with You" – 1:56 "Crash" – 2:0612" single"Crash" – 2:32 "I'll Stick with You" – 2:34 "Crash" – 2:19 "Things Get in Your Way" – 2:21 "Crash" was covered by Australian singer/songwriter Chloë for her album Beyond Coming, released as her second single.

It peaked at No. 10 on the ARIA singles chart. The music video was directed by Mark Barold, filmed at a Sushi Train restaurant, it depicts Chloë as a customer. Instead of sushi going around the conveyor belt there are objects like a drummer, some dancers, a fish and a pair of sumo wrestlers. "Crash" – 3:16 "Crash" – 7:03 "Stars" – 3:39 Crash was covered by British singer-songwriter Matt Willis and released as a single on 16 April 2007. Willis rerecorded the song specially for the 2007 film Mr. Bean's Holiday, for which Rowan Atkinson appeared as his character in the music video along with Willis. Love Bites - b-side to He's Fit, their second single, released on 27 February 2006 Luna-C, from the 2001 eurodance compilation Dancemania Speed 7 Sandy Mölling El Canto del Loco Shebang Scratching Post Daisies Cassolette Micky Eight Mulligan Stu The Acro-Brats Ann Beretta Pancake PLASTICZOOMS feat. Alina Rin The Mr. T Experience The Vibrators, from GARAGE PUNK LP 2009 Uberflussig, from 1st nur Spass, Baby CD Alexi Lalas recorded the song an album while he was in playing professional football in Italy Belle & Sebastian covered the song for their 2012 album Late Night Tales: Belle & Sebastian Vol. II The Wonder Stuff covered the song on their 2013 album Oh No It's...

The Wonder Stuff Loose Change featuring guest vocals from Cinder Block of Tilt on the album Fire It Up Johnny Marr performed the song on his 2015 UK tour


Igueben is a Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The headquarters are in the town of Igueben. Igueben has an area of a population of 69,639 according to the 2006 census; the post code is 310. Igueben was founded around 1516, during the reign of the Benin monarch, Oba Esigie, one of the warrior kings of the great kingdom. War had broken out between the Kingdom of Benin and the Attah of the Igala Kingdom based at Idah, a town on the banks of the Niger River. Oba Esigie sent warriors in pursuit of men from Idah; the Igala kingdom subsequently had to pay a yearly tribute to the Oba for this transgression. On their way to Idah, these warriors camped at a spot for a number of days before setting out on the final leg; some months when they had accomplished their mission, they were returning home when they passed the same camp spot again. Whilst resting there, they found that the remains of the yams they fed on during their outward journey had germinated and blossomed. Searching for food and water, they found lots of succulent fruit and vegetables as well as many animals to hunt.

The water from the springs tasted good. They were impressed with the fertility of the soil in this area. A further survey of the place had no rocks or mountains. There were lots of palm, coconut and walnut trees together with a variety of fruit like mango, lime, lemon, pineapple, tomatoes, avocado pear, wild berries, okra, pumpkin and plantain. There were a wide variety of vegetables like water-leaf which grew and quickly, they found that tubular root crops like yams and sweet potatoes germinated and matured quickly. They knew that news of the discovery of this fertile land would please the king and decided that instead of going back to Benin, they would settle on the land and send their taxes back to him in the form of farm produce instead, they sent an emissary to the king of Benin to obtain permission to set up a new settlement in the area, ensuring that the king saw the advantages of a rich harvest and more crop taxes. After much deliberation, he granted them permission to live there. To reward these soldiers for their effort and retain their loyalty, the king granted them the patent to engage in bronze casting for added trade.

The new settlers perfected their craft of bronze casting and the production of the royal pestal called Eben. They cast and sent the Oba an Eben each year to show their gratitude and loyalty for this benevolence; the settlers named the place Igue-Eben which means a village or camp for producing Eben. The little settlement soon started to grow with the influx of traders from Benin city, they did business with distant lands toward the north eastern axis from Benin city. Its trade with other areas began to thrive and it became prosperous; the village is governed by a traditional ruler called Onogie. The present Onogie is HRM Ehizogie Eluojerior. He, along with his council of chiefs and prominent traditional rulers, maintain law and order in an ever-changing westernized world; this governance system is the same as is used in the current monarchy of Benin and has been in existence since the earliest times in Benin's history. The indigenous people of Igueben are hard working, creative and fun-loving, they are a literate population with most families educated to university level.

They continue to maintain their cultural heritage from Benin, celebrating many festivals and ritualistic traditions. Their language is a unique dialect of Esan, they use Pidgin English, a mixture of Portuguese and Esan. The majority speak good English due to their high levels of education. Today, Igueben is endowed with numerous sons and daughters in various professions e.g. doctors, barristers, bank directors and women, poets, engineers, architects, technicians, politicians and marketing professionals and some self-made millionaires. Igueben consists of several towns; some of the popular towns are: Eguare, Afuda, Idumonka, Egbiki, Ekekhen Idigun, Idumedo and Idumogo. A woman’s town origin may be determined by the manner in which she greets her elders in the early morning; the people of Igueben are sociable, showing deep respect for other cultures. They possess deep sense of fidelity and social responsibility. HRM EHIZOGIE ELUOJIERIOR JP. On 6 December 1956, a male child named Ehizogie, was born into the Royal family of His Royal Highness, Eluojierior Imadojemu II, the Onogie of Igueben, As the first male child with Royal blood, Ehizogie was therefore ordained by God to rule the people of Igueben KINGDOM.

At age one. Ehizogie lived with Chief Aire from 1957 to 1968. During this period, he travelled to so many towns and places in the Midwest as a Travel Teacher, they travelle