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Curtiss P-40 Warhawk

The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. The P-40 design was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced development time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service; the Warhawk was used by most Allied powers during World War II, remained in frontline service until the end of the war. It was the third most-produced American fighter of World War II, after the P-51 and P-47. P-40 Warhawk was the name the United States Army Air Corps gave the plane, after June 1941, USAAF adopted the name for all models, making it the official name in the U. S. for all P-40s. The British Commonwealth and Soviet air forces used the name Tomahawk for models equivalent to the P-40B and P-40C, the name Kittyhawk for models equivalent to the P-40D and all variants. P-40s first saw combat with the British Commonwealth squadrons of the Desert Air Force in the Middle East and North African campaigns, during June 1941.

No. 112 Squadron Royal Air Force, was among the first to operate Tomahawks in North Africa and the unit was the first Allied military aviation unit to feature the "shark mouth" logo, copying similar markings on some Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 110 twin-engine fighters. The P-40's lack of a two-speed supercharger made it inferior to Luftwaffe fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 or the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 in high-altitude combat and it was used in operations in Northwest Europe. However, between 1941 and 1944, the P-40 played a critical role with Allied air forces in three major theaters: North Africa, the Southwest Pacific, China, it had a significant role in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and Italy. The P-40's performance at high altitudes was not as important in those theaters, where it served as an air superiority fighter, bomber escort and fighter-bomber. Although it gained a postwar reputation as a mediocre design, suitable only for close air support, more recent research including scrutiny of the records of individual Allied squadrons indicates that this was not the case: the P-40 performed well as an air superiority fighter, at times suffering severe losses, but inflicting a heavy toll on enemy aircraft.

Based on war-time victory claims, over 200 Allied fighter pilots from 7 different nations became aces flying the P-40, with at least 20 double aces in the North Africa, China-Burma-India and Russian Front theaters. The P-40 offered the additional advantage of low cost, which kept it in production as a ground-attack aircraft long after it was obsolete as a fighter. On 14 October 1938, Curtiss test pilot Edward Elliott flew the prototype XP-40 on its first flight in Buffalo; the XP-40 was the 10th production Curtiss P-36 Hawk, with its Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine replaced at the direction of Chief Engineer Don R. Berlin by a liquid-cooled, supercharged Allison V-1710 V-12 engine; the first prototype placed the glycol coolant radiator in an underbelly position on the fighter, just aft of the wing's trailing edge. USAAC Fighter Projects Officer Lieutenant Benjamin S. Kelsey flew this prototype some 300 miles in 57 minutes 315 miles per hour. Hiding his disappointment, he told reporters that future versions would go 100 miles per hour faster.

Kelsey was interested in the Allison engine because it was sturdy and dependable, it had a smooth, predictable power curve. The V-12 engine offered as much power as a radial engine but had a smaller frontal area and allowed a more streamlined cowl than an aircraft with a radial engine, promising a theoretical 5% increase in top speed. Curtiss engineers worked to improve the XP-40's speed by moving the radiator forward in steps. Seeing little gain, Kelsey ordered the aircraft to be evaluated in a NACA wind tunnel to identify solutions for better aerodynamic qualities. From 28 March to 11 April 1939, the prototype was studied by NACA. Based on the data obtained, Curtiss moved the glycol coolant radiator forward to the chin. Other improvements to the landing gear doors and the exhaust manifold combined to give performance, satisfactory to the USAAC. Without beneficial tail winds, Kelsey flew the XP-40 from Wright Field back to Curtiss's plant in Buffalo at an average speed of 354 mph. Further tests in December 1939 proved.

An unusual production feature was a special truck rig to speed delivery at the main Curtiss plant in Buffalo, New York. The rig moved the newly built P-40s in two main components, the main wing and the fuselage, the eight miles from the plant to the airport where the two units were mated for flight and delivery; the P-40 was conceived as a pursuit aircraft and was agile at low and medium altitudes but suffered from a lack of power at higher altitudes. At medium and high speeds it was one of the tightest-turning early monoplane designs of the war, it could out turn most opponents it faced in North Africa and the Russian Front. In the Pacific Theater it was out-turned at lower speeds by the lightweight fighters A6M Zero and Nakajima Ki-43 "Oscar" which lacked the P-40's structural strength for high-speed hard turns; the American Volunteer Group Commander Claire Chennault advised against prolonged dog-fighting with the Japanese fighters due to speed reduction favouring the Japanese. Allison's V-1710 engines produced 1,040 hp at sea

Convent of Saint Joseph (Lagoa)

The Convent of Saint Joseph is a former convent and current cultural centre of Lagoa, situated in the civil parish of Lagoa, urbanized part of the city of Lagoa, Portugal. Built on the north edge of the old quarter, with its belvedere tower straddling the main road north to Silves, it hosts exhibitions of painting, photography and pottery, as well as various shows and discussions in its auditorium; the convent appears to have been founded sometime between 1710 and 1713, by members of the Carmelite order of nuns, who fostered and educated abandoned girls. There still exists a “baby wheel” or “foundling wheel” in the convent for the anonymous relinquishing of unwanted babies; the original building was damaged in the 1755 earthquake and was rebuilt thereafter. In 1834 the government of Portugal suppressed all religious orders and monastic houses in the country; the institution continued to function as a foster home as an “Association of Poor Girls”. In 1876, after church-state relations had been more or less normalized, the convent was re-opened as a girls' school by a number of Third Order Dominican Sisters.

The establishment was well supported both in terms of money by the local community. The school had about 30 boarders and 60 day students. After the founding of the Portuguese First Republic in 1910, there was a formal separation of church and state under which the state took over all educational functions. At that time the São José convent was the only one in the Algarve. Much of the contents were stolen. In 1924 the building and grounds were purchased from the Comissão by the town of Lagoa which used it as a primary school up until the 1970s when a new purpose-built school was opened. At various times space in the convent was used for public offices – offices for the civil parish of Lagoa e Carvoeiro, for the engineering and service departments – and for storage; the chapel was used as the Civil Registry Office up to about 1940 after which it was restored and used for religious services. In 1961-1963 it functioned as the main town church. Services ended in the chapel in 1974 due to reduced attendance.

The chapel was renovated in 1989 at which time whatever of the original furnishings could be found were restored and returned. The rest of the building was restored during 1992 and 1993 and the complex was re-opened on 27 May 1993 as the town's cultural centre. Part of the old building was appropriated by the civil parish authority of Lagoa e Carvoeiro where it continues to operate. Built of limestone with lime mortar, the convent has been altered many times since its construction; the small chapel was restored in the mid-19th century by Luís Antonio Maravilhas. This is less the shape it has today. Among the restored furnishings there are carved altar-pieces and an image of the patron saint, Saint Joseph with the Christ Child. In front of the building is a belvedere tower built on an archway over the street; the bell gable has two bells, one 55 x 64 cm, weighing 190 kg and dated 1794. The original entrance to the convent was to the left of the tower. A new entrance has been constructed to the right of the tower in what used to be the vestry courtyard.

The cloister has a subterranean cistern to catch rain water. Many of the rooms around the cloister have been opened up and converted into connected exhibition rooms. An auditorium was added during the last renovations. In the entrance garden is a menhir, found in the Areias das Almas, dated to sometime between 5000 and 4000 B. C, it was discovered during an archaeological dig in 1975-76 by Varela Gomes. Notes Sources Marques, José Inácio, Convento de S. José/S. José Convent, Portugal: Câmra Municipal da Lagoa

List of drugs: An-Ap

This multi-page article lists pharmaceutical drugs alphabetically by name. Many drugs have more than one name and, the same drug may be listed more than once. Brand names and generic names are differentiated by the use of capital initials for the former. See the list of the top 100 bestselling branded drugs, ranked by sales. Abbreviations are used in the list as follows: INN = International Nonproprietary Name BAN = British Approved Name USAN = United States Adopted Name Two-letter codes for countriesList of drugs1–9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z Aa–Ab | Ac | Ad–Ak | Al | Am | An–Ap | Aq–Ar | As–Az An-DTPA An-MAA An-sulfur colloid Ana-Kit anacetrapib Anacin-3 Anadrol-50 Anafranil anagestone anagliptin anagrelide Anaids Tablet anakinra Analpram-HC AnaMantle HC Anamine Syrup anamorelin Anandron Anaprox anaritide Anaspaz anastrozole Anatrast anatumomab mafenatox Anatuss anaxirone anazocine anazolene sodium Anbesol ancarolol Ancef ancestim ancitabine Ancobon Ancotyl ancriviroc ancrod andolast Andriol Androcur Androderm Androgel Android-f Android Androlone androstanolone Anectine Anemagen OB Angeliq Anergan Anestacon Anexsia Angio-Conray Angiomax angiotensin ii angiotensinamide Angiovist 282 Angiscein Anhydron anidoxime anilamate anileridine anilopam Animi-3 anipamil aniracetam anirolac anisacril anisindione anisopirol anistreplase anitrazafen anivamersen Anodynos-DHC Anolor 300 Anoquan anpirtoline anrukinzumab Ansaid Ansolysen ansoxetine Anspor Antabuse antafenite Antagon Antagonate antazoline antazonite antelmycin Antepar Anthra-Derm Anthraforte Anthranol Anthrascalp anthiolimine antienite Antilirium Antiminth Antineaream antithrombin alfa antithrombin iii, human Antitussive Antivert Antizol antrafenine antramycin Antrenyl Antrizine Anturane Anusol hc Anxanil Oral Anzemet known as dolasetron apadenoson apadoline apafant apalcillin Apap with codeine phosphate Apatate apaxifylline apaziquone Aphedrid Aphrodyne Aphthasol apicycline Apidra known as insulin apilimod apixaban aplaviroc aplindore Aplisol Aplitest Apogen Apokyn apolizumab apoptozole apovincamine APPG apraclonidine apramycin apratastat apremilast Apresazide Apresoline-Esidrix Apresoline Apri apricitabine apricoxib aprikalim aprindine aprinocarsen aprobarbital Aprodine aprofene ru:Апрофен aprosulate sodium aprotinin aptazapine aptiganel aptocaine