Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. They have already displaced many traditional materials, such as wood, stone and bone, paper, metal and ceramic, in most of their former uses. In developed countries, about a third of plastic is used in packaging, other uses include automobiles and toys. In the developing world, the ratios may be different - for example, the worlds first fully synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term plastics. Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling, the word plastic is derived from the Greek πλαστικός meaning capable of being shaped or molded, from πλαστός meaning molded.
The common word plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic, used for insulating parts in electrical fixtures, paper laminated products, thermally insulation foams. Problems include the probability of moldings naturally being dark colors, One of the most expensive commercial polymers. It forms the basis of artistic and commercial acrylic paints when suspended in water with the use of other agents, polytetrafluoroethylene – Heat-resistant, low-friction coatings, used in things like non-stick surfaces for frying pans, plumbers tape and water slides. It is more known as Teflon. Urea-formaldehyde – One of the aminoplasts and used as an alternative to phenolics. Used as an adhesive and electrical switch housings. Early plastics were bio-derived materials such as egg and blood proteins, in 1600 BC, Mesoamericans used natural rubber for balls and figurines. Treated cattle horns were used as windows for lanterns in the Middle Ages, materials that mimicked the properties of horns were developed by treating milk-proteins with lye.
In the 1800s, as industrial chemistry developed during the Industrial Revolution, the development of plastics accelerated with Charles Goodyears discovery of vulcanization to thermoset materials derived from natural rubber. Parkesine is considered the first man-made plastic, the plastic material was patented by Alexander Parkes, In Birmingham, UK in 1856. It was unveiled at the 1862 Great International Exhibition in London, parkesine won a bronze medal at the 1862 Worlds fair in London
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, The Century of Philosophy. In France, the doctrines of les Lumières were individual liberty and religious tolerance in opposition to an absolute monarchy. French historians traditionally place the Enlightenment between 1715, the year that Louis XIV died, and 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution, some recent historians begin the period in the 1620s, with the start of the scientific revolution. Les philosophes of the widely circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffee houses. The ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church, a variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage back to the Enlightenment. The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution, earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Francis Bacon, René Descartes, John Locke, and Baruch Spinoza.
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Cesare Beccaria, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Adam Smith, Benjamin Franklin visited Europe repeatedly and contributed actively to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence, others like James Madison incorporated them into the Constitution in 1787. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie, the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by an intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking and his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter.
His skepticism was refined by John Lockes 1690 Essay Concerning Human Understanding and his dualism was challenged by Spinozas uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines, the political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept which was enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. Francis Hutcheson, a philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words. Much of what is incorporated in the method and some modern attitudes towards the relationship between science and religion were developed by his protégés David Hume and Adam Smith. Hume became a figure in the skeptical philosophical and empiricist traditions of philosophy.
Immanuel Kant tried to reconcile rationalism and religious belief, individual freedom and political authority, as well as map out a view of the sphere through private
Tableware is the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining. It includes cutlery, serving dishes and other items for practical as well as decorative purposes. The quality, nature and number of objects according to culture, number of diners, cuisine. For example, Middle Eastern, Indian or Polynesian food culture and cuisine sometimes limits tableware to serving dishes, special occasions are usually reflected in higher quality tableware. Sets of dishes are referred to as a service, dinner service or service set. Table settings or place settings are the dishes and glassware used for formal and informal dining, in Ireland such items are normally referred to as delph, the word being an English language phonetic spelling of the word delft, the town from which so much delftware came. Silver service or butler service are methods for a butler or waiter to serve a meal, Setting the table refers to arranging the tableware, including individual place settings for each diner at the table as well as decorating the table itself in a manner suitable for the occasion.
Tableware and table decoration is more elaborate for special occasions. Unusual dining locations demand tableware be adapted, dishes are usually made of ceramic materials such as earthenware, faience, bone china or porcelain. However, they can be made of materials such as wood, silver, glass. Before it was possible to purchase mass-produced tableware, it was fashioned from available materials, industrialisation and developments in ceramic manufacture made inexpensive washable tableware available. It is sold either by the piece or as a set for a number of diners, normally four, eight. Large quantities are purchased for use in restaurants, individual pieces, such as those needed as replacement pieces for broken dishes, can be procured from open stock inventory at shops, or from antique dealers if the pattern is no longer in production. Possession of tableware has to a large extent been determined by individual wealth, the greater the means, the higher was the quality of tableware that was owned and the more numerous its pieces.
In the London of the 13th century, the more affluent citizens owned fine furniture and silver, while those of straiter means possessed only the simplest pottery and kitchen utensils. By the 16th century, even the poorer citizens dined off pewter rather than wood and had plate, the nobility often used their arms on heraldic china. Table decoration may be ephemeral and consist of items made from confectionery or wax - substances commonly employed in Roman banqueting tables of the 17th century, in modern times, ephemeral table decorations continue to be made from sugar or carved from ice. In wealthy countries such as 17th century France, table decorations for the aristocracy were made of silver
Barbecue or barbeque is both a cooking method and an apparatus. The word barbecue when used as a noun can refer to, the method itself, the meat cooked this way. The term is used as a verb, i. e. barbecuing is usually done outdoors by smoking the meat over wood or charcoal. Restaurant barbecue may be cooked in large, specially-designed brick or metal ovens, barbeque is practiced in many areas of the world and there are numerous regional variations. The English word barbecue and its cognates in other languages come from the Spanish word barbacoa, the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word to Haiti and translates it as a framework of sticks set upon posts. Gonzalo Fernández De Oviedo y Valdés, a Spanish explorer, was the first to use the word barbecoa in print in Spain in 1526 in the Diccionario de la Lengua Española of the Real Academia Española. After Columbus landed in the Americas in 1492, the Spaniards apparently found native Haitians roasting meat over a grill consisting of a wooden framework resting on sticks above a fire, the flames and smoke rose and enveloped the meat, giving it a certain flavor.
The same framework was used as protection from nocturnal animal attacks. Traditional barbacoa involves digging a hole in the ground and placing some meat—usually a whole lamb—above a pot so the juices can be used to make a broth and it is covered with maguey leaves and coal, and set alight. The cooking process takes a few hours, linguists have suggested the word barbacoa migrated from the Caribbean and into other languages and cultures, it moved from Caribbean dialects into Spanish, Portuguese and English. According to the OED, the first recorded use of the word in English was a verb in 1661, in Edmund Hickeringills Jamaica Viewed, Some are slain, And their flesh forthwith Barbacud and eat. The word barbecue was published in English in 1672 as a verb from the writings of John Lederer, the first known use of the word as a noun was in 1697 by the British buccaneer William Dampier. In his New Voyage Round the World, Dampier wrote, and lay there all night, upon our Borbecus, or frames of Sticks, raised about 3 foot from the Ground.
The spelling barbeque is given in Merriam-Webster and the Oxford Dictionaries as a variant, in the southeastern United States, the word barbecue is used predominantly as a noun referring to roast pork, while in the southwestern states cuts of beef are often cooked. Because the word came from native groups, Europeans gave it savage connotations. However, according to Andrew Warnes, there is little proof that Hickeringills tale of cannibalism in the Caribbean is even remotely true. Today, those in the U. S. associate barbecue with classic Americana, in American English usage, grilling refers to a fast process over high heat while barbecuing refers to a slow process using indirect heat or hot smoke, similar to some forms of roasting. In a typical U. S. home grill, food is cooked on a grate directly over hot charcoal and its South American versions are the southern Brazilian churrasco and the Argentine asado
Table setting or place setting refers to the way to set a table with tableware—such as eating utensils and for serving and eating. The arrangement for a single diner is called a place setting, the practice of dictating the precise arrangement of tableware has varied across cultures and historical periods. Informal settings generally have fewer utensils and dishes but use a layout based on more formal settings, utensils are arranged in the order and according to the manner in which the diner will use them. In the West, plate, butter knife, and napkin generally are placed to the left of the plate, and knives, spoons and tumblers, cups. Sauceboats and serving dishes, when used, either are placed on the table or, more formally, at an informal setting, fewer utensils are used and serving dishes are placed on the table. Sometimes the cup and saucer are placed on the side of the spoon. Often, in formal settings, the napkin should be in the wine glass. However, such objects as napkin rings are rare in the United Kingdom, Mexico.
Utensils are placed inward about 20 cm from the edge of the table, utensils in the outermost position are to be used first. The blades of the knives are turned toward the plate, glasses are placed an inch or so above the knives, in the order of use, white wine, red wine, dessert wine, and water tumbler. The most formal dinner is served from the kitchen, when the meal is served, in addition to the central plate at each place there are a bread roll and flatware. Coffee is served in Butler Service style in demitasses, and a spoon placed on the saucer to the right of each handle, serving dishes and utensils are not placed on the table for a formal dinner. At a less formal dinner, not served from the kitchen, flatware Haft-Sin, traditional table setting of Nowruz, the traditional Iranian spring celebration. List of glassware Napkin folding Silver service, a method of service in the United Kingdom Tableware Von Drachenfels. The Art of the Table, A Complete Guide to Table Setting, Table Manners, and Tableware
An airline meal, airline food, plane food or in-flight meal is a meal served to passengers on board a commercial airliner. These meals are prepared by specialist airline catering services and these meals vary widely in quality and quantity across different airline companies and classes of travel. They range from a snack or beverage in short-haul economy class to a seven-course gourmet meal in a first class long-haul flight. When ticket prices were regulated in the American domestic market, food was the primary means airlines differentiated themselves, the first airline meals were served by Handley Page Transport, an airline company founded in 1919, to serve the London–Paris route in October of that year. Passengers could choose from a selection of sandwiches and fruit, the type of food varies depending upon the airline company and class of travel. Meals may be served on one tray or in multiple courses with no tray and with a tablecloth, metal cutlery, often the food is reflective of the culture of the country the airline is based in.
The airline dinner typically includes meat, fish, or pasta, a salad or vegetable, a bread roll. Caterers usually produce alternative meals for passengers with restrictive diets and these must usually be ordered in advance, sometimes when buying the ticket. Some of the common examples include, Cultural diets, such as Turkish, Italian, Korean. Some airlines offer meals, containing foods that children will enjoy such as baked beans, mini-hamburgers. Medical diets, including low/high fiber, low fat/cholesterol, peanut free, non-lactose, low salt/sodium, low-purine, low-calorie, low-protein, religious diets, including kosher and Hindu, Buddhist and Jain vegetarian meals. Some airlines do not offer a meal for non-vegan vegetarians, instead. For several Islamic airlines, in accordance with Islamic customs, all classes and dishes on the plane are served a Muslim meal with Halal certification – without pork, Garuda Indonesia still serving alcoholic beverages to non-Muslim passengers. In the case the Israeli airlines El Al, Arkia and Israir, even destinations outside Israel, sky chefs must be supervised by rabbis to make kosher meals and load their planes.
Before the September 11 attacks in 2001, first class passengers were provided with full sets of metal cutlery. Afterward, common household items were evaluated more closely for their use as weapons on aircraft. Many airlines switched back to metal cutlery, both airlines cited cost saving, international quarantine, and environmental as the reasons for the choice. Both have said that the plastic cutlery is commercially washed and sterilized before reuse, reusing plastic tablewares though is a regular practice among many airliners and food caterers
Household silver or silverware includes tableware and other household items made of sterling silver, Britannia silver or Sheffield plate silver. Silver is sometimes bought in sets or combined to form sets, silverware was divided into table silver, for eating, and dressing silver for bedrooms and dressing rooms. The grandest form of the latter was the service, typically of 10-30 pieces, often silver-gilt. Silver requires a good deal of care, as it tarnishes and must be polished, since careless or machine polishing ruins the patina. This expertise covers the maintenance, proper use and presentation of these assets to create aesthetically correct layouts for effective ambience at such splendid occasions, the role of silverman tends now to be restricted to some private houses and large organizations, in particular the military. One advantage of silverware is that growth of bacteria is inhibited by the oligodynamic effect, cutlery Francis 1st silverware pattern Holloware The Armada Service Plate
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
An excursion is a trip by a group of people, usually made for leisure, education, or physical purposes. It is often an adjunct to a journey or visit to a place. Public transportation companies issue reduced price excursion tickets to attract business of this type, often these tickets are restricted to off-peak days or times for the destination concerned. Short excursions for education or for observations of phenomena are called field trips. One-day educational field studies are made by classes as extracurricular exercises. The term is used for short military movements into foreign territory. Business trip Field trip Picnic Escorted tour
A fork, in cutlery or kitchenware, is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end. The usually metal utensil is used to food to the mouth or to hold ingredients in place while they are being cut by a knife. Food can be lifted either by spearing it on the tines or by holding it on top of the tines, the early history of the fork is obscure. As a kitchen and dining utensil it is believed to have originated in the Roman Empire. The personal table fork most likely originated in the Eastern Roman Empire and its use spread to what is now the Middle East during the first millennium AD and spread into southern Europe during the second millennium. It did not become common in northern Europe until the 18th century and was not common in North America until the 19th century, the fork is a primarily Western utensil, whereas in east Asia chopsticks have been more prevalent. Today, forks are available throughout east Asia. The word fork comes from the Latin furca, meaning pitchfork, some of the earliest known uses of forks with food occurred in Ancient Egypt, where large forks were used as cooking utensils.
Bone forks had been found in the site of the Bronze Age Qijia culture as well as Chinese dynasties tombs. The Ancient Greeks used the fork as a serving utensil, the Greek name for fork is still used in some European languages, for instance in the Venetian and Albanian languages. In the Roman Empire and silver forks were used, the use varied according to local customs, social class and the nature of food, but forks of the earlier periods were mostly used as cooking and serving utensils. The personal table fork was most likely invented in the Eastern Roman Empire, records show that by the 9th century a similar utensil known as a barjyn was in limited use in Persia within some elite circles. By the 10th century, the fork was in common use throughout the Middle East. By the 11th century, the fork had become increasingly prevalent in the Italian peninsula. At first, pasta was consumed using a wooden spike. In Italy, it became commonplace by the 14th century and was almost universally used by the merchant and upper classes by 1600.
It was proper for a guest to arrive with his own fork and spoon enclosed in a box called a cadena, in Portugal, forks were first used at the time of Infanta Beatrice, Duchess of Viseu, King Manuel I of Portugals mother around 1450. However, forks were not commonly used in Southern Europe until the 16th century when they part of Italian etiquette