Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 582,506 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
Youth is a 2017 Chinese coming-of-age drama film directed by Feng Xiaogang and written by Geling Yan. It was screened in the Special Presentations section at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival, it was scheduled to be released in China on October 1, 2017, but after previews in Beijing and other cities was pulled from the National Day schedule. It was released on 15 December 2017, it was the 6th highest-grossing domestic film of 2017 in China. The film chronicles the lives of a group of idealistic adolescents in a military art troupe in the People's Liberation Army during the Cultural Revolution, they experience love, lust and sufferings in the background of Mao-era songs and dances. Through the narration of Xiao Suizi, the film follows the story of two key characters, Feng Liu and Xiaoping He. Xiaoping He, a naive, innocent new recruit from Beijing, Feng Liu a morally impeccable character, whose comrades praise for being a real life Lei Feng; the pair participate in the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979 and become heroes for their act of courage.
Xiaoping He becomes the target of her roommates bullying for her provincial naive mannerisms. A majority of the acts spearheaded by the daughter of the regional commander. After the war, they are honorably discharged from the Army but struggle to make ends meet in the Reform-era China while they learn lessons from soul-crashing experiences of love, lust and heartbreak. Huang Xuan as Liu Feng Miao Miao as He Xiaoping Zhong Chuxi as Xiao Suizi Yang Caiyu as Lin Dingding, the heroine of the "touch incident" Li Xiaofeng as Hao Shuwen Wang Tianchen as Chen Can Wang Keru as Xiao Balei Suiyuan as Zhuoma Youth on IMDb
Royal Exhibitors was the former film exhibiting company of Kerala, established by Kattukkaran Varunny Joseph, known as "Father of film exhibiting industry of Kerala." Kattukkaran Varunny Joseph exhibited a film show in 1907 at Thekkinkadu Maidan a connection with Thrissur Pooram with his Bio-scope projector, purchased from Vincent Paul, a railway officer from Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. He built a tent to exhibit his film show in the Maidan that could fit around hundred people at a time; the show was some video clips of blooming flowers, horse races and the life of Christ with unrelated narrations that astounded the crowd. After a while, Varunny toured all of south India with his Bioscope and established the first electrically operated film projection named Jose Electrical Bioscope, with the advent of electricity, in 1913. An unprecedented disaster struck when he lost his bioscope to a storm, when sailing from Mangalore after an exhibition. Not one to give up, K W Joseph, founded Royal Exhibitors company, in partnership with a few others.
He eventually founded Babysun Talkies, laying the foundation for film exhibition in Kerala. In 1936, Jose Theatre in Thrissur, the first permanent theatre in Kerala, Davison Theatre in Kozhikode and Sapna Theatre in Thrissur were establish under Royal Exhibitors. സിനിമാ പ്രദർശനത്തിന് 120 വയസ്സ് ചലച്ചിത്ര കല ഇന്ത്യയിൽ സിനിമയുടെ രാഷ്ട്രീയം മലയാളചലച്ചിത്രം Experiments In Cinema History