Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine." In other words, it is the scientific study of how humans and machines control and communicate with each other. Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop—originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship—that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in the system in some manner that triggers a system change. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, physical, biological and social systems; the essential goal of the broad field of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems that have goals and that participate in circular, causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with desired goal, again to action.
Its focus is how anything processes information, reacts to information, changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms and organizations including self-organization. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, adaptation, social control, convergence, efficiency and connectivity. In cybernetics these concepts are abstracted from the context of the specific device; the word cybernetics comes from Greek κυβερνητική, meaning "governance", i.e. all that are pertinent to κυβερνάω, the latter meaning "to steer, navigate or govern", hence κυβέρνησις, meaning "government", is the government while κυβερνήτης is the governor or "helmperson" of the "ship". Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience and psychology in the 1940s attributed to the Macy Conferences.
During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics from second-order cybernetics. More there is talk about a third-order cybernetics. Studies in cybernetics provide a means for examining the design and function of any system, including social systems such as business management and organizational learning, including for the purpose of making them more efficient and effective. Fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory, perceptual control theory, psychology, philosophy and organizational theory. System dynamics, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s, is a related field. Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, by a variety of people, from a variety of disciplines. Cybernetician Stuart Umpleby reports some notable definitions: "Science concerned with the study of systems of any nature which are capable of receiving and processing information so as to use it for control."—A. N. Kolmogorov "'The art of steersmanship': deals with all forms of behavior in so far as they are regular, or determinate, or reproducible: stands to the real machine -- electronic, neural, or economic -- much as geometry stands to real object in our terrestrial space.
– Humberto Maturana "The ability to cure all temporary truth of eternal triteness."—Herbert BrunOther notable definitions include: "The science and art of the understanding of understanding."—Rodney E. Donaldson, the first president of the American Society for Cybernetics "A way of thinking about ways of thinking of which it is one."—Larry Richards "The art of interaction in dynamic networks."—Roy Ascott "The study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and produce themselves from themselves."—Louis Kauffman, President of the American Society for Cybernetics The term cybernetics stems from κυβερνήτης "steersman, pilot, or rudder". As with the ancient Greek pilot, independence of thought is important in cybernetics. French physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère first coined the word "cybernetique" in his 1834 essay Essai sur la philosophie des sciences to describe the science of civil government; the term was borrowed by Norbert Wiener, in his book Cybernetic
Public interest design is a human-centered and participatory design practice that places emphasis on the “triple bottom line” of sustainable design that includes ecological and social issues and on designing products and systems that address issues such as economic development and the preservation of the environment. Starting in the late 1990s, several books and exhibitions have generated new momentum and investment in public interest design. Since public interest design—frequently described as a movement or field—has gained public recognition. Public interest design grew out of the community design movement, which got its start in 1968 after American civil rights leader Whitney Young issued a challenge to attendees of the American Institute of Architects national convention:"... you are not a profession that has distinguished itself by your social and civic contributions to the cause of civil rights, I am sure this does not come to you as any shock. You are most distinguished by your thunderous silence and your complete irrelevance."
The response to Young’s challenge was the establishment of community design centers across the United States. CDCs, which were established with the support of area universities, provided a variety of design services – such as affordable housing - within their own neighborhoods. In architecture schools, “design/build programs” provided outreach to meet local design needs in low-income and underserved areas. One of the earliest design/build programs was Yale University’s Vlock Building Project; the project, initiated by students at Yale University School of Architecture in 1967, requires graduate students to design and build low-income housing. One of the most publicized programs is the Auburn University Rural Studio design/build program, founded in 1993; the Rural Studio’s first project, Bryant House, was completed in 1994 for $16,500. Interest in public interest design – socially responsible architecture – began to grow during the 1990s and continued into the first decade of the new millennium.
Conferences and exhibitions began to showcase the design work being done beyond the community design centers, which had decreased in numbers since their peak in the seventies. Non-profit organizations – including Architecture for Humanity, BaSiC Initiative, Design Corps, Public Architecture, Project H, Project Locus, MASS Design Group – began to provide design services that served a larger segment of the population than had been served by traditional design professions. Many public interest design organizations provide training and service-learning programs for architecture students and graduates. In 1999, the Enterprise Rose Architectural Fellowship was established, giving young architects the opportunity to work on three-year-long design and community development projects in low-income communities. Two of the earliest formal public interest design programs include the Gulf Coast Community Design Studio at Mississippi State University and the Public Interest Design Summer Program at the University of Texas.
In February 2015, Portland State University launched the first graduate certificate program in Public Interest Design in the United States. The first professional-level training was conducted in July 2011 by the Public Interest Design Institute and held at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In 2011, a survey of American Institute of Architects, 77% of AIA members agreed that the mission of the professional practice of public interest design could be defined as the belief that every person should be able to live in a economically, environmentally healthy community. Several books have been published that showcase a variety of public interest design projects and practitioners: Good Neighbors, Affordable Family Housing." Tom Jones, William Pettus, Michael Pyatok, 1997 Learning by Building: Design and Construction in Architectural Education." William J. Carpenter, 1997 Good Deeds, Good Design: Community Service through Architecture." Bryan Bell, 2003 Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crises.
Kate Stohr and Cameron Sinclair, ed. 2006 Expanding Architecture, Design as Activism." Bryan Bell and Katie Wakeford, ed. 2008 Design Revolution: 100 Products that Empower People. Emily Pilloton, 2009 The Power of Pro Bono: 40 Stories about Design for the Public Good by Architects and Their Clients. John Cary, 2010 Design Like You Give a Damn 2: Building Change from the Ground Up." Kate Stohr and Cameron Sinclair, ed. 2012 The annual Structures for Inclusion conference showcases public interest design projects from around the world. The first conference, held in 2000, was called “Design for the 98% Without Architects." Speaking at the conference, Rural Studio co-founder Samuel Mockbee challenged attendees to serve a greater segment of the population: “I believe most of us would agree that American architecture today exists within a thin band of elite social and economic conditions...in creating architecture, community, it should make no difference which economic or social type is served, as long as the status quo of the actual world is transformed by an imagination that creates a proper harmony for both the affluent and the disadvantaged."
In 2007, the Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum held an exhibition, titled “Design for the Other 90%,” curated by Cynthia Smith. Following the success of this exhibit, Smith developed the "Design Other 90" initiative into an ongoing series, the second of, titled “Design for the Other 90%: CITIES”, hel
Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer. It is used together with fluorouracil and folinic acid in advanced cancer, it is given by injection into a vein. Common side effects include numbness, feeling tired, nausea and low blood cell counts. Other serious side effects include allergic reactions. Use in pregnancy is known to harm the baby. Oxaliplatin is in the platinum-based antineoplastic family of medications, it is believed to work by blocking the duplication of DNA. Oxaliplatin was patented in 1976 and approved for medical use in 1996, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is 8.74 to 125.43. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS 299.50 pounds per 100 mg dose. Oxaliplatin is used for treatment of colorectal cancer along with folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil in a combination known as FOLFOX. Oxaliplatin has been compared with other platinum compounds used for advanced cancers, such as cisplatin and carboplatin.
Oxaliplatin by itself has modest activity against advanced colorectal cancer. When compared with just 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid administered according to the de Gramont regimen, a FOLFOX4 regime produced no significant increase in overall survival, but did produce an improvement in progression-free survival, the primary end-point of the phase III randomized trial. After and/or before the curative resection of colorectal cancer, chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid reduces the risk of relapse; the benefit is clinically relevant when cancer has spread to locoregional lymph nodes or penetrated through the wall of the rectum or colon. The addition of oxaliplatin improves relapse-free survival, but data on overall survival have not yet been published in extenso. Side-effects of oxaliplatin treatment can include: Neurotoxicity leading to chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, a progressive and irreversible tingling numbness, intense pain and hypersensitivity to cold, beginning in the hands and feet and sometimes involving the arms and legs with deficits in proprioception.
This chronic neuropathy may be preceded by a transient acute neuropathy occurring at the time of infusion and associated with excitation of voltage-gated Na+ channels. Fatigue Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea Neutropenia Ototoxicity Extravasation if oxaliplatin leaks from the infusion vein it may cause severe damage to the connective tissues. Hypokalemia, more common in women than men Persistent hiccups RhabdomyolysisIn addition, some patients may experience an allergic reaction to platinum-containing drugs; this is more common in women. Oxaliplatin has less nephrotoxicity than cisplatin and carboplatin; the compound features a square planar platinum center. In contrast to cisplatin and carboplatin, oxaliplatin features the bidentate ligand 1,2-diaminocyclohexane in place of the two monodentate ammine ligands, it features a bidentate oxalate group. The three-dimensional structure of the molecule has been elucidated by X-ray crystallography, although the presence of pseudosymmetry in the crystal structure has caused confusion in its interpretation.
According to in vivo studies, oxaliplatin fights carcinoma of the colon through non-targeted cytotoxic effects. Like other platinum compounds, its cytotoxicity is thought to result from inhibition of DNA synthesis in cells. In particular, oxaliplatin forms both inter- and intra-strand cross links in DNA, which prevent DNA replication and transcription, causing cell death. Oxaliplatin was discovered in 1976 at Nagoya City University by Professor Yoshinori Kidani, granted U. S. Patent 4,169,846 in 1979. Oxaliplatin was subsequently in-licensed by Debiopharm and developed as an advanced colorectal cancer treatment. Debiopharm licensed the drug to Sanofi-Aventis in 1994, it gained European approval in 1996 and approval by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration in 2002. Generic oxaliplatin was first approved in the United States in August 2009. Patent disputes caused generic production to stop in 2010, but it restarted in 2012. Eloxatin is covered by patent numbers 5338874, 5420319, 5716988 and 5290961.
Exclusivity code I-441, which expired on Nov 04, 2007, is for use combination with infusional 5-FU/LV for adjuvant treatment stage III colon cancer patients who have undergone complete resection primary tumor-based on improvement in disease free survival with no demonstrated benefit overall survival after 4 years. Exclusivity code NCE, New Chemical Entity, expired on Aug 09, 2007. Oxaliplatin – Official web site of manufacturer. Oxaliplatin Prescribing Information – Official prescribing information. NCI Drug Information Summary on Oxaliplatin Graham J, Mushin M, Kirkpatrick P. "Oxaliplatin". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 3: 11–2. Doi:10.1038/nrd1287. PMID 14756144
The 1992 Paris-Cape Town Rally was the 14th running of the Dakar Rally event with a unique routing. The rally had a 7,722-mile long route, starting from Paris, France, on 23 December 1991 and finishing at Cape Town, South Africa, on 16 January 1992; the route passed through Libya, Chad, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo and Namibia. Participants used maritime transport to get from Pointe-Noire to Lobito, so they did not cross the territory of Zaire. Hubert Auriol won the car category to go with his two victories in the motorcycle category. Stephane Peterhansel won the motorcycle category for the second year in succession; the fastest truck in common car-truck classification was Francesco Perlini´s Perlini on 16th place
Risskov is the name of both a neighbourhood and a district in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The district of Risskov is sometimes referred to as Vejlby-Risskov, as it is a merger of the neighbourhood of Risskov and the neighbourhood of Vejlby; the old neighbourhood of Risskov at the seaside of the Aarhus Bay, is one of the most affluent areas in Denmark. The name of Risskov means The Forest of Riis, as described on the memorial stone marking the entrance to the area and derives from the small local forest of Riis Skov; the southern parts of the forest was granted to the city of Aarhus by Margaret I of Denmark as the first, Danish public forest. In 1542, Christian III of Denmark granted the northern part of the forest to Aarhus as well. From early on, the forest was used for leisurely activities, during the 1800s, entertainment parks and musical pavilions sprung up in different parts of the woodland. Today the forest is known for its sharp smell of its abundance of anemones, it is still a popular destination for couples.
The ramson was brought to Denmark by Spanish soldiers, who brought it to the forest of Riis Skov in 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars. In October 1951, a meteorite exploded in the atmosphere over Denmark and the largest piece of it, about the size of a clenched fist, was recovered in Riis Skov, where a memorial stone now commemorates the event. Today the neighbourhood of Risskov is an affluent suburban area, with many large mansions and detached houses in connectivity with the sandy beaches of Bellevue and the woodland park of Riis Skov in the south. Notable sights in Risskov include: the first public forest in Denmark. Den Permanente, a public seabath. Bellevue Beach, one of four beach parks in Risskov. Åkrogen beach park. A beach and recreational nature site, north of Bellevue at Egå Marina; the southern section belongs to Risskov. The beaches at Risskov, presents a beautiful panoramic view of the Bay of Aarhus, with Samsø, Helgenæs and Mols visible on the horizon on most days. Writer Svend Aage Madsen has written many stories about Aarhus and Risskov, where he resides himself.
Writer and performer Jens Blendstrup grew up in Risskov and some of his stories are set in this particular neighbourhood. Blendstrups childhood memoirs from Risskov appears in his novel "Gud taler ud", turned into a screenplay and movie by the same name in 2017
The Mühldorf–Pilsting railway runs through the province of Lower Bavaria in Germany, but part of the line crosses into Upper Bavaria as well. It was opened in 1875 by the Bavarian Eastern Railway Company as part of the route between Mühldorf and Plattling, was taken over by the Royal Bavarian State Railways on 1 January 1876. Whilst the southern section of the route from Mühldorf to Neumarkt-Sankt Veit became an important regional transport link as a result of the branches to Landshut and Passau at Neumarkt-Sankt Veit, the remaining section of the line never achieved its expected significance. Since 1970 only goods trains have worked between Neumarkt-Sankt Veit and Frontenhausen-Marklkofen, the adjoining section to Pilsting was closed in 1969. Leaving the railway hub of Mühldorf, the railway to Pilsting runs northwards for about 2 kilometres through the plain between the Inn Canal and the river Isen, before entering the hill country, typical of the area, at Rohrbach. On the 16 kilometres or so of line from Mühldorf to Neumarkt-Sankt Veit there are no large towns en route, so that, apart from Rohrbach railway station, there is just one intermediate station on the heights of the Taibrechting hamlet near Niederbergkirchen.
Shortly before Neumarkt-Sankt Veit it crosses the river Rott and follows the valley for the next three kilometres. The town of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit has a centrally located railway station, from which the railways to Landshut and Passau branch off, giving the line its additional significance. Whilst the former leaves the route to Pilsting northeast of the railway station at Neumarkt-Sankt Veit, the branch off point onto the Rottalbahn is about 2 kilometres further east; the route to Pilsting continues uphill towards the north, in order to cross the watershed between the Rott and the Bina in a cutting, after passing the former halt at Thambach, runs down into the Bina valley. The market town of Gangkofen there has a railway station, well west of the main settlement. North of Gangkofen the route climbs again in order to cross the line of hills between the Bina and the Vils. Near the highest point of the railway lies the little village of Obertrennbach, in which there is a small through station called Trennbach.
Over the following eight kilometres the route falls again and reaches the Vils valley at Marklkofen via the valleys of the Trennbach and Schwimmbach. Here the trackbed follows the Vils for about 1.5 km in an east-west direction. In the village of Marklkofen is a railway station with the double-barrelled name of Frontenhausen-Marklkofen that forms the present-day northern terminus of the route, is named after the neighbouring village of Markt Frontenhausen. West of the railway station the route crossed the Vils on three bridge sections until the closure of the section of the line from Frontenhausen-Marklkofen to Pilsting in 1969. Via the little villages of Poxau and Steinberg, where at one time there were wayside halts, the track runs uphill to the north. At the hamlet of Wunder the line crossed the watershed between the Vils and the Isar in a long cutting. Around here is the intermediate station which lies about 1.5 km from the village of Griesbach, part of the town of Markt Reisbach. With steep inclines in places the route continues on to Mamming, where there is a railway station north of the Mamming brook, crossed on a large bridge.
The largest structure on the route is found on the next section where the river Isar is crossed on a steel truss bridge comprising five 36 m long section. Behind Goben the route reaches the railway station of Pilsting above two kilometres south of the market town which gives it its name; the following section from Pilsting–Plattling is today part of the Landshut–Plattling railway. As part of a programme of construction authorised on the 3 August 1869 by the Bavarian state government, the Bavarian Eastern Railway Company began work on a project that year for a railway link between Mühldorf and Plattling. Together with the Rosenheim–Mühldorf railway, owned by the Royal Bavarian State Railways, the Bavarian Forest railway planned by the Ostbahn and which would form a junction north of Plattling, this was to provide a trans-regional link between the Inn valley and Bohemia; the licence for the construction went to the Ostbahn on 25 November 1872, work beginning that same year. Under the direction of chief engineer, Ludwig Fromm, architect, Karl Zenger, the 80.8 km long link from Mühldorf to Plattling was able to be completed in just under three years.
The opening of the single-tracked main line, the trackbed of, laid for two tracks along certain stretches in expectation of the rise in demand for rail services, took place on 15 October 1875. Between Pilsting and Landau, today part of the route from Landshut to Plattling, a second track was laid from the outset. On 1 January 1876 the route was incorporated, along with the entire Ostbahn company, into the K. Bay. Sts. B. In the following years several branches were built: the Landshut–Pilsting link, which opened on 15 May 1880, the Neumarkt-Sankt Veit–Landshut railway, which went into service on 4 October 1883, the Rottalbahn finished on 1. September 1879 as far as Pocking and extended all the way through to Passau by 6 October 1888; the expected trans-regional significance of the railway link never materialised. The section from Pilsting to Plattling, gained significance as part of the Landshut–Plattling route and its operations were aligned to it; the route between Mühldorf and Neumarkt-Sankt Veit soon proved to be of regional importance for both pas