Cycling, called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, exercise or sport. Persons engaged in cycling are referred to as cyclists, bikers, or less commonly, apart from two-wheeled bicycles, cycling includes the riding of unicycles, quadracycles and similar human-powered vehicles. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now approximately one billion worldwide. They are the means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is widely regarded as an effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Cycling offers a reduced consumption of fuels, less air or noise pollution. These lead to financial cost to the user as well as to society at large. By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can significantly increase the areas they can serve, in many countries, the most commonly used vehicle for road transport is a utility bicycle. These have frames with relaxed geometry, protecting the rider from shocks of the road, utility bicycles tend to be equipped with accessories such as mudguards, pannier racks and lights, which extends their usefulness on a daily basis.
As the bicycle is so effective as a means of various companies have developed methods of carrying anything from the weekly shop to children on bicycles. Certain countries rely heavily on bicycles and their culture has developed around the bicycle as a form of transport. In Europe and the Netherlands have the most bicycles per capita, road bikes tend to have a more upright shape and a shorter wheelbase, which make the bike more mobile but harder to ride slowly. The design, coupled with low or dropped handlebars, requires the rider to bend forward more, making use of stronger muscles, the price of a new bicycle can range from US$50 to more than US$20,000, depending on quality and weight. However, UCI regulations stipulate a legal race bike cannot weigh less than 6.8 kg, being measured for a bike and taking it for a test ride are recommended before buying. The drivetrain components of the bike should be considered, a middle grade dérailleur is sufficient for a beginner, although many utility bikes are equipped with hub gears.
If the rider plans a significant amount of hillclimbing a triple-chainrings crankset gear system may be preferred, the relatively lighter and less expensive double chainring may be better. Much simpler fixed wheel bikes are available, many road bikes, along with mountain bikes, include clipless pedals to which special shoes attach, via a cleat, enabling the rider to pull on the pedals as well as push. For basic maintenance and repairs cyclists can carry a pump, a repair kit, a spare inner tube, and tire levers
Surrey is a county in the south east of England. It shares borders with Kent to the east, East Sussex to the south-east, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west and south-west, Surrey County Council sits extraterritorially at Kingston upon Thames, administered as part of Greater London since 1965. With a resident population of 1.1 million, Surrey is the most densely populated and third most populated county in the South East region, after Kent, the London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889. The boroughs of Croydon, Kingston upon Thames, Merton and Richmond upon Thames south of the River Thames were part of Surrey until 1965, when they too were absorbed into Greater London. In the same year, the county was extended north of the Thames by the addition of Spelthorne, due to this expansion, modern Surrey borders on the London boroughs of Hounslow and Hillingdon. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs, running east-west.
To the north of the Downs the land is mostly flat, the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt and it contains a good deal of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22. 4% coverage compared to an average of 11. 8%. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of woodland in the UK. Surrey contains Englands principal concentration of lowland heath, on soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with a network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way. Accordingly, Surrey provides much in the way of leisure activities. The highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking and it is either 293,294 or 295 metres above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill 297 metres in West Berkshire.
Surrey has a population of approximately 1.1 million people and its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 66,773, Woking comes a close second with 62,796. They are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155, towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer. The benefits of such a service are held to be demonstrated by the willingness to make the exchange. Public services are those that society as a whole pays for, using resources, skill and experience, service providers benefit service consumers. Services can be described in terms of their key characteristics, sometimes called the Five Is of Services and they are not manufactured, transported or stocked. Services cannot be stored for a future use and they are produced and consumed simultaneously. Services are perishable in two regards, Service-relevant resources and systems are assigned for delivery during a specific period in time. If the service consumer does not request and consume the service during this period, from the perspective of the service provider, this is a lost business opportunity if no other use for those resources is available. Examples, A hairdresser serves another client, an empty seat on an airplane cannot be filled after departure.
When the service has been rendered to the consumer, this particular service irreversibly vanishes. Example, a passenger has been transported to the destination and the flight is over, the service provider must deliver the service at the time of service consumption. The service is not manifested in an object that is independent of the provider. The service consumer is inseparable from service delivery, The service consumer must sit in the hairdressers chair, or in the airplane seat. Correspondingly, the hairdresser or the pilot must be in the shop or plane, many services are regarded as heterogeneous and are typically modified for each service consumer or each service context. Another and more common term for this is heterogeneity, both service provider and service consumer participate in the service provision. Mass generation and delivery of services must be mastered for a provider to expand. This can be seen as a problem of service quality, both inputs and outputs to the processes involved providing services are highly variable, as are the relationships between these processes, making it difficult to maintain consistent service quality.
Many services involve variable human activity, rather than a precisely determined process, the human factor is often the key success factor in service provision. Demand can vary by season, time of day, business cycle, consistency is necessary to create enduring business relationships
Greenford is a large suburb in the London Borough of Ealing in west London, UK. It was an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex. It is 11 miles from Charing Cross in Central London, Greenford is served by London Undergrounds Central Line and terminus for a branch of the GWR. The town is served by another station South Greenford, which is on the Greenford branch of the GWR. Nearby places include Yeading, Perivale, Northolt, Sudbury and Wembley. The most prominent landmarks in the suburb are Horsenden Hill,279 feet above sea level, the small Parish Church of Holy Cross, the name is first recorded in 848 as Grenan forda. It is formed from the Old English grēne and ford and means place at the green ford, Greenford was known as Great Greenford in order to distinguish it from Little Greenford, which is now known as Perivale. The affixes Magna and Parva have used to denote the difference. Perkin called his amazing discovery mauveine, today there is a blue plaque marking the spot in Oldfield Lane North, just south of the Black Horse public house.
Until 2013/14, Greenford was the home to the Hovis factory, the former Rockware glassworks on the canal is commemorated by Rockware Avenue. Greenford formed part of Greenford Urban District from 1894 to 1926 and was absorbed by the Municipal Borough of Ealing. Post First World War, tea blender and food manufacturer J. Lyons and Co. were looking for a site on which to expand production beyond Cadby Hall. The factory officially opened in July 1921, with the first single-storey buildings known as Zig-Zag due to their northern light-aligned windows allowing maximum light into the production area. There were steam and electrical power plants on site, which powered both the plant as well as the canteen and medical facilities, accessible to all plant employees. Transport docks and a canal basin had been developed, allowing shipment of tea, the extensive onsite railway infrastructure allowed precise positioning of heavy raw goods into the factory, as well as the extraction of finished product. Lyons bought their own steam shunters to move wagons between the GWR exchange sidings and the factory system, Lyons quickly became Greenfords biggest employer.
In the 1950s, the developed the breakfast cereal Ready Brek. Areas of the site not initially developed for use were landscaped
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory, Yorkshire has sometimes been nicknamed Gods Own County or Gods Own Country. Yorkshire Day, held on 1 August, is a celebration of the culture of Yorkshire. Yorkshire is now divided between different official regions, most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber. The extreme northern part of the county falls within North East England, Small areas in the west of the historic county now form part of North West England, following boundary changes in 1974. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of the city of York local /ˈjɔːk/ or Yorks Shire, York comes from the Viking name for the city, Jórvík. Shire is from Old English, scir meaning care or official charge, the shire suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ shuh, or occasionally /-ʃiə/, a homophone of sheer.
Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi. The Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire, the tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England. That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county, the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber estuary, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his bearer, Vellocatus. Cartimandua, due to her relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, the fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint-capital of all Roman Britain. During the two years before the death of Emperor Septimius Severus, the Roman Empire was run from Eboracum by him, another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Yorkshire during a visit in 306 AD. This saw his son Constantine the Great proclaimed emperor in the city, in the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops
A brand is a name, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. Brands are used in business and advertising, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company from competitors, the key components that form a brands toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding strategies. Brand equity is the totality of a brands worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. To reach such an invaluable brand prestige requires a commitment to a way of doing business. A corporation who exhibits a strong brand culture is dedicated on producing intangible outputs such as customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity and customer loyalty. A brand is in essence a promise to its customers that they can expect long-term security, when a customer is familiar with a brand or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity.
Many companies are beginning to understand there is often little to differentiate between products in the 21st century. Branding remains the last bastion for differentiation, in accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. The word ‘brand’ is often used as a referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, a concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a associated with a commodity. The word, derives from Dutch brand meaning to burn and this product was developed at Dhosi Hill, an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent, the Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind Stamps and silver-makers marks are all types of brand, industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories.
When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red-triangle brand as the worlds first trademark. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, which has stamped or carved its bricks with the same proto-logo since 1731, cattle-branding has been used since Ancient Egypt. The term, originally meaning an un-branded calf, came from a Texas pioneer rancher, Sam Maverick, use of the word maverick spread among cowboys and came to apply to unbranded calves found wandering alone
Sustrans is a UK charity making it easier for people to walk and cycle. Sustrans works with schools to encourage active travel among students and it works with employers and local authorities. A decade earlier, the Beeching Axe closed many British railways that the government considered underused, one such railway was the former Midland Railway line between central Bristol and Bath, closed in favour of the more direct, former Great Western Railway between the cities. Sustrans leased part of the old route with the help of Avon County Council and turned it into its first route, in the early 1980s, when unemployment rose, the organisation took advantage of government schemes to provide temporary employment to build similar green routes. British Waterways collaborated with Sustrans to improve towpaths along some canals, in 1983, the charity Sustrans was founded. It had 11 directors chosen by the existing board, the executive board was composed of the chief executive, John Grimshaw, and one of the two company secretaries.
By the early 1990s, Sustrans had a number of supporters. In 1995, it was granted £43, the organisation is working to introduce Safe Routes to Stations and Home Zones among other projects. In 2015, Sustrans ran the Campaign for Safer Streets, which encouraged people to write to David Cameron to encourage him to commit to funding safer walking and cycling routes to schools, the National Cycle Network was the first project to receive Millennium Commission funding in 1995. Additional funding comes from grants and trusts, local government and income from the sales of maps. In October 2015, Sustrans released its first Bike Life report and it was a survey of residents in seven UK cities, undertaken in conjunction with local councils and transport authorities, attempting to assess the current state of cycling in the UK. It covered areas such as safety, provision of cycling infrastructure, the National Cycle Network was officially opened in June 2000, when 5,000 miles had been completed, although some routes had been open for over a decade.
In 2005 the network reached 10,000 miles, in urban areas, almost 20% of the network is free from motor traffic, though these sections can account for up to 80% of use. The more rural parts of the network see less traffic and are used primarily for leisure cycling. Sustrans estimated that in 2005, the network carried 232,000,000 journeys by all classes of non-motorised users, in 2010, the figure had risen to over 420,000,000 journeys. The data collected by Sustrans to compile monitoring reports, from traffic counters and user surveys, showed that National Cycle Network usage is predominantly urban, surveys show that only 35% of usage on urban sections of the NCN is for leisure purposes. Sustrans has opponents within organisations that wish to reduce road haulage, furthermore, it has received criticism from members of the heritage railway movement. It has been accused of being uncompromising on route sharing, for example, an example is the planned section of the Bodmin and Wenford Railway between Boscarne Junction & Wadebridge
The penny-farthing, known as a high wheel, high wheeler and ordinary, is a type of bicycle with a large front wheel and a much smaller rear wheel. It was popular after the boneshaker until the development of the safety bicycle in the 1880s and it was the first machine to be called a bicycle. Although the name penny-farthing is now the most common, it was not used until the machines were nearly outdated. It comes from the British penny and farthing coins, one larger than the other. For most of their reign, they were known as bicycles. In the late 1890s, the name began to be used, to distinguish them from the emerging safety bicycles. In 1869, Eugène Meyer, a Frenchman, invented the bicycle design and fashioned the wire-spoke tension wheel.5 m in diameter. In 1878, Albert Pope began manufacturing the Columbia bicycle outside of Boston, although the trend was short-lived, the penny-farthing became a symbol of the late Victorian era. Its popularity coincided with the birth of cycling as a sport, Eugène Meyer of Paris, France is now regarded as the father of the high bicycle by the International Cycling History Conference in place of James Starley.
Meyer patented a wire-spoke tension wheel with individually adjustable spokes in 1869 and they were called spider wheels in Britain when introduced there. Meyer produced a high bicycle design during the 1880s. James Starley in Coventry added the tangent spokes and the step to his famous bicycle named Ariel. He is regarded as the father of the British cycling industry, ball bearings, solid rubber tires and hollow-section steel frames became standard, reducing weight and making the ride much smoother. Penny-farthing bicycles are dangerous due to the risk of headers and this prevented headers, but left the danger of being thrown backwards when riding uphill. Even so, bicycling remained the province of the urban well-to-do, and mainly men, until the 1890s, the penny-farthing used a larger wheel than the velocipede, thus giving higher speeds on all but the steepest hills. In addition, the large wheel gave a ride, important before the invention of pneumatic tires. Although the high riding position seems daunting to some, mounting can be learned on a lower velocipede, once the technique is mastered, a high wheeler can be mounted and dismounted easily on flat ground and some hills.
An attribute of the penny-farthing is that the rider sits high, when the wheel strikes rocks and ruts, or under hard braking, the rider can be pitched forward off the bicycle head-first
Victorian dress reform
Dress reformists were largely middle class women involved in the first wave of feminism in the United States and in Britain, from the 1850s through the 1890s. The movement emerged in the Progressive Era along with calls for temperance, womens education, dress reform called for emancipation from the dictates of fashion, expressed a desire to “cover the limbs as well as the torso adequately, ” and promoted rational dress. The movement had its greatest success in the reform of womens undergarments, dress reformers were influential in persuading women to adopt simplified garments for athletic activities such as bicycling or swimming. The movement was less concerned with mens clothing, although it initiated the widespread adoption of knitted wool union suits or long johns. Some proponents of the movement established dress reform parlors, or storefronts, fashions in the 1850s through 1880s accented large crinolines, cumbersome bustles and padded busts with tiny waists laced into ‘steam-moulded corsetry’.
The obvious health risks, including damaged and rearranged internal organs, compromised fertility, eventually, the reformers critique of the corset joined a throng of voices clamoring against tightlacing, which became gradually more common and extreme as the 19th century progressed. American women active in the anti-slavery and temperance movements, with experience in public speaking, despite these protests, little changed in restrictive fashion and undergarments by 1900. The Edwardian Era featured a decadence of fashion following the shape of the Gibson Girl. Skirts weighed from the hips, high collars chaffed the neck, the ideal image of feminine attractiveness that a Victorian woman saw around her was of a wasp-waisted, firmly-corseted lady. Dress reformers promoted the emancipation waist, or liberty bodice, as a replacement for the corset, the emancipation bodice was a tight sleeveless vest, buttoning up the front, with rows of buttons along the bottom to which could be attached petticoats and a skirt.
The entire torso would support the weight of the petticoats and skirt, the bodices had to be fitted by a dressmaker, patterns could be ordered through the mail. Physician Alice Bunker Stockham railed against the corset and said of the pregnancy corset, the emancipation union under flannel was first sold in America in 1868. It combined a waist and drawers in the form we now know as the union suit, while first designed for women, the union suit was adopted by men. Indeed, it is sold and worn today, by both men and women, as winter underclothing. In 1878, a German professor named Gustav Jaeger published a book claiming that only clothing made of hair, such as wool. A British accountant named Lewis Tomalin translated the book, opened a shop selling Dr Jaeger’s Sanitary Woollen System and these were soon called Jaegers, they were widely popular. It is not clear how many women, in either the Americas or on the Continent, most famous product of the dress reform era is the bloomers suit. She displayed her new clothing to temperance activist and suffragist Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who found it sensible and becoming, in this garb, she visited yet another activist, Amelia Bloomer, the editor of the temperance magazine The Lily
Vitreous enamel, called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 °C. The powder melts and hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal, so in technical terms fired enamelware is an integrated layered composite of glass and metal. Enamelling is an old and widely adopted technology, for most of its history mainly used in jewelry and enamelling are the preferred spellings in British English, while enameled and enameling are preferred in American English. The term enamel is most often restricted to work on metal, enamelled glass is called painted, and overglaze decoration to pottery is often called enamelling. The word enamel comes from the Old High German word smelzan via the Old French esmail, or from a Latin word smaltum, used as a noun, an enamel is usually a small decorative object coated with enamel. Since the 19th century the term to industrial materials and many metal consumer objects, such as some cooking vessels, laundry machines, sinks.
The ancient Egyptians applied enamels to stone objects and sometimes jewellery, the ancient Greeks, Celts and Chinese used enamel on metal objects. Enamel powder could be produced in two ways, either by powdering coloured glass, or by mixing colourless glass powder with pigments such as a metallic oxide, designs were either painted freehand or over the top of outline incisions, and the technique probably originated in metalworking. Once painted, enamelled glass vessels needed to be fired at a high enough to melt the applied powder. Ancient Persians used this method for colouring and ornamenting the surface of metals by fusing over it brilliant colours that are decorated in an intricate design and called it Meenakari. Gold has been used traditionally for Meenakari Jewellery as it holds the enamel better, lasts longer, the work of Meenakari often went unnoticed as this art was traditionally used as a backing for the famous kundan or stone-studded jewellery. This allowed the wearer to reverse the jewellery as promised a special joy in the secret of the hidden design, the Byzantine enamel style was widely adopted by the barbarian peoples of Migration Period northern Europe.
The Byzantines began to use cloisonné more freely to create images, the champlevé technique was considerably easier and very widely practiced in the Romanesque period. In Gothic art the finest work is in basse-taille and ronde-bosse techniques, from either Byzantium or the Islamic world, the cloisonné technique reached China in the 13-14th centuries. The first written reference to cloisonné is in a book from 1388, cloisonné remained very popular in China until the 19th century and is still produced today. Starting from the century, the Japanese produced large quantities of very high technical quality. A resurgence in enamel-based art took place near the end of the 20th century in the Soviet Union, led by artists like Alexei Maximov, in Australia, abstract artist Bernard Hesling brought the style into prominence with his variously sized steel plates. Enamel was first applied commercially to sheet iron and steel in Austria, industrialization increased as the purity of raw materials increased and costs decreased
Ingleton, North Yorkshire
Ingleton is a village and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. The village is 19 miles from Kendal and 17 miles from Lancaster on the side of the Pennines. It is 9.3 miles from Settle, the River Doe and the River Twiss meet to form the source of the River Greta, a tributary of the River Lune. The village is on the A65 road and at the head of the A687, the B6255 takes the south bank of the River Doe to Ribblehead and Hawes. All that remains of the railway in the village is the landmark Ingleton Viaduct, Arthur Conan Doyle was a regular visitor to the area and was married locally, as his mother lived at Masongill from 1882 to 1917. There is growing evidence to support a claim that the inspiration for the name Sherlock Holmes came from here, Whernside,5.7 miles NNE of the village, one of the Yorkshire Three Peaks, is the highest point in the parish at 736 metres. There are major quarries within the parish, Ingleton Quarry is active Meal Bank Quarry no longer is, but extracted Carboniferous limestone and possesses an early Hoffman kiln.
Ingleton and the area was settled in the Iron Age by the Brigantes who built a hill fort on top of Ingleborough with walls a kilometer in circumference. The Romans defeated the Brigantes in battle and built a fort alongside the hill fort, the valley was crossed by Roman roads as Ingleton was a strategic river crossing. By the 12th century the Normans had built a church in the village, willian Lowther of Ingleton Hall was Lord of the Manor, Justice of the Peace for the West Riding and had seven children. His son Richard inherited the manor and two joined the church. His daughter Frances married John Walker who leased the Ingleton Colleries, Richard Lowther and his son Gerrard were on the losing Royalist side at the Civil War siege of Pontefract Castle in 1645, and at Newark. The war ended and his dead, Gerrard was fined by the new government for his delinquency. The Lord of Manor title had passed to Anthony Bouch by 1665, the Ingleton Coalfield was worked for 400 years. It is about 6 miles long by 4 mile wide and extends into the parishes of Burton in Lonsdale and Thornton-in-Lonsdale.
The coalfield terminates at the South Craven fault, the coal measures are shallow and represent the lowest layers in the Pennine coal measures sequence. The earliest coal mining occurred along the River Greta where Four Foot, most deep mining was at New Ingleton Pit sunk in 1913. Its sinking led to the discovery of the Ten Foot seam at 127 yards, beneath them are the Four Foot seam at 233 yards, the Three Foot seam at 236 yards and the Six Foot seam at 260 yards
Knickerbockers or knickers are a form of mens or boys baggy-kneed trousers particularly popular in the early 20th century United States. Golfers plus twos and plus fours are breeches of this type, before World War II, skiers often wore knickerbockers too, usually ankle-length. Until after World War I, in many English-speaking countries, boys wore short pants in summer. At the onset of puberty, they graduated to long trousers, in that era, the transition to long pants was a major rite of passage. See, for example, the classic song Blues in the Night by Johnny Mercer, My mammy done told me, when I was in knee-pants, my mammy done told me, son. Baseball players wear a form of knickerbockers, although the pants have become less baggy in recent decades. The white trousers worn by American football officials are knickerbockers, and while they have become less baggy, in recent years, the NFL has equipped its officials with long trousers rather than knickers in cold weather. In fact, Washington Irving had a friend named Herman Knickerbocker.
Herman Knickerbocker, in turn, was of the upstate Knickerbocker clan, Jansen van Wijhe invented the name upon arriving in New Amsterdam and signed a document with a variant of it in 1682. Knickerbocker became a byword for a New York patrician, comparable to a Boston Brahmin, the Knickerbocker name stayed with the team even after it moved its base of operations to Elysian Fields at Hoboken, N. J. in 1846. The baseball link may have prompted Casey Stengel to joyously exclaim, when he was named pilot of the newborn New York Mets in 1961. Hence the locally-brewed Knickerbocker Beer brewed by Jacob Ruppert, the first sponsors of the TV show Tonight, the Knickerbocker name was an integral part of the New York scene when the Basketball Association of America granted a charter franchise to the city in the summer of 1946. As can best be determined, the decision to call the team the Knickerbockers was made by the clubs founder. The team is now referred to as the Knicks. Knickerbockers have been popular in other sporting endeavors, particularly golf, rock climbing, invariably referred to as knickers in the US, where the British definition of that term is unknown, they lived on as a just-past-the-knee variant of racing tights reserved for colder-weather riding.
Knickers are still worn as part of the uniform in fencing. Knickerbockers are often worn in baseball as pants, a custom that has been practiced even since long pants became widely used in the U. S, the traditional knickerbockers of old were more like pants that had been folded back with long socks. However, by 1984 the style had waned as more top-heavy styles with snug pants rendered the style obsolete, in the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth nations, the term knickers is used for womens undergarments