People Places
History Art

Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences

Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences was an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. The Cyclopaedia was one of the first general encyclopedias to be produced in English; the 1728 subtitle gives a summary of the aims of the author: Cyclopædia, or, an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Containing the Definitions of the Terms, Accounts of the Things Signify'd Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, the Several Sciences and Divine: the Figures, Properties, Productions and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial. The first edition included numerous cross-references meant to connect articles scattered by the use of alphabetical order, a dedication to the King, George II, a philosophical preface at the beginning of Volume 1. Among other things, the preface gives an analysis of forty-seven divisions of knowledge, with classed lists of the articles belonging to each, intended to serve as a table of contents and as a directory indicating the order in which the articles should be read.

A second edition appeared in 1738 with 2,466 pages. This edition was retouched and amended in a thousand places, with a few added articles and some enlarged articles. Chambers was prevented from doing more because the booksellers were alarmed by a bill in Parliament containing a clause to oblige the publishers of all improved editions of books to print their improvements separately; the bill, after passing the House of Commons, was unexpectedly thrown out by the House of Lords. Five other editions were published in London from 1739 to 1751–1752. An edition was published in Dublin in 1742. An Italian translation appearing in Venice, 1748–1749, 4to, 9 vols. was the first complete Italian encyclopaedia. When Chambers was in France in 1739, he rejected favorable proposals to publish an edition there dedicated to Louis XV. Chambers' work was done, popular. However, it had omissions, as he was well aware. George Lewis Scott was employed by the booksellers to select articles for the press and to supply others, but he left before the job was finished.

The job was given to Dr. John Hill; the Supplement was published in London in 1753 in two folio volumes with 12 plates. Hill was a botanist, the botanical part, weak in the Cyclopaedia, was the best. Abraham Rees, a nonconformist minister, published a revised and enlarged edition in 1778–1788, with the supplement and improvements incorporated, it was published as a folio of 5 vols. 5010 pages, 159 plates. It was published in 418 numbers at 6d. Each. Rees claimed to have added more than 4,400 new articles. At the end, he gave an index of articles, classed under 100.heads, numbering about 57,000 and filling 80 pages. The heads, with 39 cross references, were arranged alphabetically. Among the precursors of Chambers's Cyclopaedia was John Harris's Lexicon Technicum, of 1704. By its title and content, it was "An Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves." While Harris's work is classified as a technical dictionary, it took material from Newton and Halley, among others.

Chambers's Cyclopaedia in turn became the inspiration for the landmark Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, which owed its inception to a proposed French translation of Chambers' work begun in 1744 by John Mills, assisted by Gottfried Sellius The Chambers's Encyclopaedia had no connection to Ephraim Chambers’s work, but was the product of Robert Chambers and his brother William. Chambers' Cyclopaedia, 1728, 2 volumes, with the 1753 supplement, 2 volumes. Search the Cyclopaedia Index of entries Chambers' Cyclopaedia, 1728, 2 volumes, articles are categorized. Cyclopaedia, or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Containing an Explication of the Terms, an Account of the Things Signified Thereby, in the Several Arts, Both Liberal and Mechanical, the Several Sciences and Divine sixth edition, 2 volumes.

Gaddi Vasquez

Gaddi Holguin Vasquez was the 8th United States Ambassador to the United Nations Agencies for Food and Agriculture, in Rome, Italy. He was nominated by President George W. Bush and unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate on June 29, 2006. Vasquez was sworn into office on September 7, 2006, by U. S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, served in the position until 2009. Prior to that, he was the first person of Hispanic ancestry to head the Peace Corps. Born in Carrizo Springs, Vasquez is a Mexican American and the son of migrant workers. Vasquez grew up in poverty, he kept his father on his desk at the Peace Corps. "I have this here as a reminder every day," said Vasquez. "I lived in Third World conditions without having to go overseas." Vasquez's family lived in a trailer in Watsonville and worked as migrant workers until Vasquez went to first grade. "I remember that when I was young, people who were homeless - they were called hobos - would come up and bang on the door and ask for a meal.

My mother would tell them to wait on the porch or wait outside and she |would cook them a burrito, notwithstanding our own limitations. I watched this over and over again," he said, so much so that it became known, "If you needed a meal, go down to the Vasquez house." The family moved to Orange County, where his father went to work in a furniture factory in Los Angeles and to the Apostolic Church in Orange, where he served as Pastor until his passing. Vasquez went to school in Orange, to Santa Ana College and on to the University of Redlands. "I was the first one to graduate college," Vasquez said. Vasquez has been awarded five honorary doctorate degrees and has served as a Trustee/Professor at Chapman University, California, he has served as commencement speaker at Chapman University, Vanguard University, University of Wisconsin at Madison, James Madison University, University of La Verne, University of San Diego, California State University, California State University San Marcos, Walsh University, Houghton College, University of Redlands, Concordia University and Chaminade University in Hawaii.

Vasquez worked in the public sector for 22 years before his Peace Corps nomination, starting as a police officer for the city of Orange, California. He worked as deputy appointments secretary for Governor George Deukmejian, followed by service as Chairman of the Orange County Board of Supervisors. Vasquez resigned this position in 1994 after the county's bankruptcy; the Orange County bankruptcy changed the course of his political ambitions leading Vasquez to reach out to his Republican colleagues for help in re-creating his career. In 1988 Vasquez addressed the Republican national convention and said that Hispanics shouldn't support Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis for President just because Dukakis spoke Spanish; the Democratic nominee spoke Spanish, Vasquez said, but because of his liberal policies, "he doesn't speak our language." Appointed as Director of Peace Corps under George W. Bush, Vasquez had donated $100,000 to Bush's campaign and was criticized by former Volunteers for lacking experience with, or previous membership in, Peace Corps.

Los Angeles Times, Boston Globe, Washington Post and New York Times editorialized against Vasquez's nomination and returned Peace Corps volunteers signed a petition opposing his nomination. However Vasquez cleared the United States Senate Foreign Relations committee by a vote of 14-4, was accepted in the full Senate on a voice vote. Vasquez's major initiatives and accomplishments as Peace Corps Director include: an agreement with Mexico in 2003 to host volunteers, emphasis on recruitment of minorities and of community college graduates, upgrading Peace Corps' infrastructure IT upgrades in the online application tracking process, the Volunteer Delivery System, an emphasis on safety and security of volunteers, modifying Peace Corps' "Five Year Rule" for employment, the expansion of the Peace Corps to one of its highest levels in 30 years. Vasquez visited 60 countries during his tenure as Director, meeting with volunteers in the field to advance the agency’s mission and goals of promoting world peace and friendship.

Vasquez placed a high priority on recruitment of minorities. During his confirmation hearings Vasquez said "We all recognize that the face of America looks vastly different today than 40 years ago - or 10 years ago. In step with those changes, I consider it a high priority to expand the diversity of the Peace Corps so that it becomes a true reflection of America. Diversity of ethnic backgrounds, life experiences and beliefs has strengthened our country in countless ways, and in doing so we achieve an opportunity to engage a broader segment of the American population in one of our nation's greatest programs." Vasquez had a personal experience when he was visiting Morocco as Peace Corps Director that brought home to him the importance of his diversity initiatives. A young man stopped Vasquez and said, "You don't look like an American." And Vasquez answered, "What do you mean, I don't look like an American? Why do you say I don't look like an American?" He said. You don't look like an American." And I said, "Well, my grandparents came from Mexico to the United States, pursuing dreams and opportunities."

By the end of Vasquez's tenure, 16 percent of the 7,810 volunteers were minorities — the highest percentage since the agency began collecting data on volunteer diversity. Portions of the sometimes controversial expansion were challenged by the Returned Peace Corps Volunteer community when former volunteers and the National Peace Corps Association rai

Mid-Sea Road

The Mid-Sea Road is a road in Uruma, Japan. 4.7 kilometres long, it runs across the sea. The road consists of a causeway with a bridge. There are two rivers or water lanes for preventing seawater contamination. An area of shoal extended between the Yakena area of the Katsuren Henza Island. At low tide, it was shallow enough for people to walk across on the sea bed. Since 1956, amphibious vehicles, or used trucks of United States origin, drove to and from the island. In 1960, islanders started a campaign for the construction of a road connecting the island and the peninsula. Construction began. In 1970, Gulf Oil started constructing port facilities for petroleum storage and reshipment on Henza Island. Gulf funded the construction of The Mid-Sea road. Construction was completed April 22, 1972 as a two-lane road; the completed Mid-Sea Road was presented to the Yonashiro Village free of charge in 1974 and became a village road. In 1991, it was made a prefectural road. In 1999, the road was expanded to 4-lanes.

On the Katsuren Peninsula is Katsuren Castle. Connected by the Mid-Sea Road are the Katsuren Peninsula, Henza Island, Miyagi Island, Ikei Island, Hamahiga Island. Seven Mile Bridge Overseas Highway Henza Jichikai,Furukiwo Tazunete 1985, p. 22. Pp.166-170, pp.329-332