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Cyclopes

In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, the Cyclopes are giant one-eyed creatures. Three groups of Cyclopes can be distinguished. In Hesiod's Theogony, they are the brothers: Brontes and Arges, who provided Zeus with his weapon the thunderbolt. In Homer's Odyssey, they are an uncivilized group of shepherds, the brethren of Polyphemus encountered by Odysseus. Cyclopes were famous as the builders of the Cyclopean walls of Mycenae and Tiryns; the fifth-century BC playwright Euripides wrote a satyr play entitled Cyclops, about Odysseus' encounter with Polyphemus. Mentions of the Hesiodic and the wall-builder Cyclopes figure in his plays; the third-century BC poet Callimachus makes the Hesiodic Cyclopes the assistants of smith-god Hephaestus. So does Virgil in his Latin epic Aeneid, where he seems to equate the Hesiodic and Homeric Cyclopes. From at least the fifth-century BC, Cyclopes have been associated with the island of Sicily, the volcanic Aeolian Islands. Three groups of Cyclopes can be distinguished: the Homeric and the wall-builders.

In Hesiod's Theogony, the Cyclopes are the three brothers: Brontes and Arges, sons of Uranus and Gaia, who made for Zeus his characteristic weapon, the thunderbolt. In Homer's Odyssey, the Cyclopes are a uncivilized group of shepherds, one of whom, the son of Poseidon, is encountered by Odysseus. Cyclopes were said to have been the builders of the Cyclopean walls of Mycenae and Tiryns. A scholiast, quoting the fifth-century BC historian Hellanicus, tells us that, in addition to the Hesiodic Cyclopes, the Homeric Cyclopes, there was a third group of Cyclopes: the builders of the walls of Mycenae. Hesiod, in the Theogony, described three Cyclopes: Brontes and Arges, who were the sons of Uranus and Gaia, the brothers of the Titans and Hundred-Handers, who had a single eye set in the middle of their foreheads, they made for Zeus his all-powerful thunderbolt, in so doing, the Cyclopes played a key role in the Greek succession myth, which told how the Titan Cronus overthrew his father Uranus, how in turn Zeus overthrew Cronus and his fellow Titans, how Zeus was established as the final and permanent ruler of the cosmos.

The names that Hesiod gives them: Arges and Steropes, reflect their fundamental role as thunderbolt makers. As early as the late seventh-century BC, the Cyclopes could be used by the Spartan poet Tyrtaeus to epitomize extraodinary size and strength. According to the accounts of Hesiod and mythographer Apollodorus, the Cyclopes had been imprisoned by their father Uranus. Zeus freed the Cyclopes, they repaid him by giving him the thunderbolt; the Cyclopes provided for Hesiod, others theogony-writers, a convenient source of heavenly weaponry, since the smith-god Hephaestus—who would take over that role—had not yet been born. According to Apollodorus, the Cyclopes provided Poseidon with his trident and Hades with his cap of invisibility, the gods used these weapons to defeat the Titans. Although the primordial Cyclopes of the Theogony were immortal, the sixth-century BC Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, has them being killed by Apollo. Sources tell us why: Apollo's son Asclepius had been killed by Zeus' thunderbolt, Apollo killed the Cyclopes, the makers of the thunderbolt, in revenge.

According to a scholiast on Euripides' Alcestis, the fifth-century BC mythographer Pherecydes supplied the same motive, but said that Apollo, rather than killing the Cyclopes, killed their sons instead. No other source mentions any offspring of the Cyclopes. A Pindar fragment suggests that Zeus himself killed the Cyclopes to prevent them from making thunderbolts for anyone else; the Cyclopes' prowess as craftsmen is stressed by Hesiod who says "strength and force and contrivances were in their works." Being such skilled craftsmen of great size and strength poets, beginning with the third-century BC poet Callimachus, imagine these Cyclopes, the primordial makers of Zeus' thunderbolt, becoming the assistants of the smith-god Hephaestus, at his forge in Sicily, underneath Mount Etna, or the nearby Aeolian Islands. In his Hymn to Artemis, Callimachus has the Cyclopes on the Aeolian island of Lipari, working "at the anvils of Hephaestus", make the bows and arrows used by Apollo and Artemis; the first-century BC Latin poet Virgil in his epic Aeneid, has the Cyclopes: "Brontes and Steropes and bare-limbed Pyracmon" toil under the direction of Vulcan, in caves underneath Mount Etna and the Aeolian islands.

Virgil describes the Cyclopes, in Vulcan's smithy forging iron, making a thunderbolt, a chariot for Mars, Pallas's Aegis, with Vulcan interrupting their work to command the Cyclopes to fashion arms for Aeneas. The Latin poet Ovid has the Hesiodic Cyclopes Brontes and Steropes, work at forges in Sicilian caves. According to a Hellenistic astral myth, the Cyclopes were the builders of the first altar; the myth was a catasterism, which explained how the constellation the Altar came to be in the heavens. According to the myth, the Cyclopes built an altar upon which Zeus and the other gods swore alliance before their war with the Titans. After their victory, "the gods placed the altar in the sky in commemoration", thus began the practice, according to the myth, of men swearing oaths upon altars "as a guarantee of their good faith". According to the second-century geographer Pausanias, there was a sanctuary called th

Moscow Higher Military Command School

The Moscow Higher Combined Arms Command School is a higher military educational of the Russian Armed Forces. The school was formed in December 15, 1917, by order of Vladimir Lenin as the 1st Moscow revolutionary machine gun officers school, it became the 1st Moscow Machine Gunners' Officers Course and as "WPRA 1st Soviet Higher Military School All-Russian Central Executive Committee". It received the first of its 3 order medals, the Order of the Red Banner in 1938 as a result of its Corps of Cadets and some alumni of the school who fought the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, the Second World War's Eastern Front it contributed to the defense of the Moscow Region and the city itself, many of its cadets and alumni receiving state medals and decorations. In October 1941, the school was granted the honorary title "Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR". In October 1945, 5 months after the allied victory in Europe and its participation in the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945, it moved to Kuzminki District in Moscow, where it remains to this day.

In June 1958 the school was transformed into the Moscow Higher Combined Arms Command School. The school had a training period of four years. On May 7, 1965, the school was awarded the Order of Lenin. On February 21, 1978, the school was awarded the Order of the October Revolution. In 1995, the 4-year training period was replaced with a training period of 5 years. In August 2004, the university was renamed the Higher Professional Education Institution of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. In 2010, the school was integrated into the Combined Arms Academy of the Russian Armed Forces. In 2017, the Military Institute was removed from the Combined Arms Academy and was renamed again as the Moscow Higher Military Command School; the school's cadets are known as the Kremlin Cadets or the Kremlovtsy, for in January 1919 after just a year of operations, the Red Army took over the school administration, with headquarters and campus at the Moscow Kremlin, it was that during that time, in 1922, when it awarded Vladimir Lenin with the honor of being the young institution's first honorary cadet and on its only honorary commandant.

The Kremlin was its campus until it moved in 1935 to Moscow's Lefortovo District, giving way to the Kremlin Regiment, nowadays the President of Russia's escort and historical regiment. Mikhail Frunze once told of these cadets during a 1918 visit that the 1st SMHS and its Corps of Cadets "serves as the fighting vanguard and unfading hope of the proletariat revolution in the Russian Republic". Alumni of the school have served with the Soviet Army and the Russian Ground Forces in many local and international deployments. To mark its centennial year, the Order of Zhukov was bestowed to the MHMCACS in 2017. In honor of its 1917 establishment as the oldest officer cadet school in Russia in the modern era, it has been since 1967 the last school and military unit to march past in military parades in Moscow's Red Square, it maintains its privilege granted in the 1920s to hold graduation and commissioning parades there. In addition to Lenin, individuals honored as honorary cadets by the school were Mikhail Kalinin, Mikhail Frunze, Kliment Voroshilov, Nikolai Podvoisky, Sergey Kamenev, Avel Yenukidze, Georgy Chicherin, David Petrovsky and Iona Yakir.

From 1924 to 1935 the Corps of Cadets mounted guards of honour at Lenin's Mausoleum by orders of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. Military academyMilitary academies in Russia

Alfonsín (football manager)

Alfonso González Fernández known as Alfonsín, is a Spanish football manager. Born in Cortegana, Andalusia, Alfonsín began working as a coach with UD Almería B, being promoted to Tercera División in 2002. On 26 January 2004, he was appointed at the helm of the main squad. However, Alfonsín only remained one game in charge, being replaced by Luis Ángel Duque. After the latter's resignment in April he returned, narrowly avoiding relegation despite finishing 13th. Alfonsín returned to the Rojiblancos on 29 January 2005. After being in charge for five matches, he became Fabri's assistant the following month. In November 2007, Alfonsín returned to Almería's reserves, still in the fourth level. A third spell befell in the 2010–11 season, he led them to a comfortable mid-table position in Segunda División B in their first experience. Alfonsín manager profile at BDFutbol