Cyrus II of Persia known as Cyrus the Great, called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and conquered most of Western Asia and much of Central Asia. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Under his successors, the empire stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, his regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the Four Corners of the World. The Nabonidus Chronicle notes the change in his title from "King of Anshan," a city, to "King of Persia." Assyriologist François Vallat wrote that "When Astyages marched against Cyrus, Cyrus is called'King of Anshan," but when Cyrus crosses the Tigris on his way to Lydia, he is'King of Persia.'
The coup therefore took place between these two events."The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted c. 30 years. Cyrus built his empire by first conquering the Median Empire the Lydian Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire, he led an expedition into Central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception." Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, was alleged to have died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to conquer Egypt and Cyrenaica during his short rule. Cyrus the Great respected the religions of the lands he conquered; this became a successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects. In fact, the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus. What is sometimes referred to as the Edict of Restoration described in the Bible as being made by Cyrus the Great left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion.
According to Isaiah 45:1 of the Hebrew Bible, God anointed Cyrus for this task referring to him as a messiah and he is the only non-Jewish figure in the Bible to be called so. Cyrus the Great is well recognized for his achievements in human rights and military strategy, as well as his influence on both Eastern and Western civilizations. Having originated from Persis corresponding to the modern Iranian province of Fars, Cyrus has played a crucial role in defining the national identity of modern Iran; the Achaemenid influence in the ancient world would extend as far as Athens, where upper-class Athenians adopted aspects of the culture of the ruling class of Achaemenid Persia as their own. Cyrus is a cult figure amongst modern Iranians, with his tomb serving as a spot of reverence for millions of people. In the 1970s, the last Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi identified his famous proclamation inscribed onto the Cyrus Cylinder as the oldest known declaration of human rights, the Cylinder has since been popularized as such.
This view has been criticized by some historians as a misunderstanding of the Cylinder's generic nature as a traditional statement that new monarchs make at the beginning of their reign. The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from the Greek Κῦρος, Kỹros, itself from the Old Persian Kūruš; the name and its meaning have been recorded in ancient inscriptions in different languages. The ancient Greek historians Ctesias and Plutarch stated that Cyrus was named from Kuros, the Sun, a concept, interpreted as meaning "like the Sun" by noting its relation to the Persian noun for sun, while using -vash as a suffix of likeness. Karl Hoffmann has suggested a translation based on the meaning of an Indo-European root "to humiliate" and accordingly "Cyrus" means "humiliator of the enemy in verbal contest." In the Persian language and in Iran, Cyrus's name is spelled as کوروش. In the Bible, he is known as Koresh; some scholars, on the other hand, believe that neither Cyrus nor Cambyses were Iranian names, proposing that Cyrus was Elamite in origin and that it meant "He who bestows care."
The Persian domination and kingdom in the Iranian plateau started by an extension of the Achaemenid dynasty, who expanded their earlier domination from the 9th century BC onward. The eponymous founder of this dynasty was Achaemenes. Achaemenids are "descendants of Achaemenes" as Darius the Great, the ninth king of the dynasty, traces his genealogy to him and declares "for this reason we are called Achaemenids." Achaemenes built the state Parsumash in the southwest of Iran and was succeeded by Teispes, who took the title "King of Anshan" after seizing Anshan city and enlarging his kingdom further to include Pars proper. Ancient documents mention that Teispes had a son called Cyrus I, who succeeded his father as "king of Anshan." Cyrus I had a full brother. In 600 BC, Cyrus I was succeeded by his son, Cambyses I, who reigned until 559 BC. Cyrus II "the Great" was a son of Cambyses I, who had named his son after his father, Cyrus I. There are several inscriptions of Cyrus the Great and kings that refer to Cambyses I as the "great king" and "king of Anshan."
Among these are some passages in the Cyrus
20 Years Queer is a concert tour by American-Scottish alternative rock group Garbage, to mark the twentieth anniversary of their debut album Garbage. The title references the band's early single "Queer", the promotional poster is redolent of the self-titled album's pink feather artwork; the tour was preceded by a special 20-year edition of the record, re-mastered and featured remixes and unreleased versions of album tracks. Garbage performed the album in its entirety as well as all the B-sides recorded during that period; the commemorative tour was announced in March with shows confirmed in Paris and London, was expected to travel to a number of cities worldwide. Further European dates, including a "homecoming" concert in Edinburgh, were announced over the following three months; the entire itinerary of North American dates were announced in June 2015. Upon the announcement of the tour, Shirley Manson stated: "This is the album that started everything for us and we look back on it with great fondness.
It’s been great to revisit these songs whilst working on new material – interesting to see how the essence of the band remains strong as we evolve". Guitarist Steve Marker commented: "We're just as surprised to be here now, intact, so many years enthusiastically preparing to get back on the road with that album... A big piece of our lives remains caught up in the making of that record, we know it holds a special place for the fans that have kept us going for so long". Garbage was supported on North American shows by singer/songwriter Torres. Support on all European shows, except Moscow, was provided by indie pop band Dutch Uncles. Around 15 minutes before showtime, a large white curtain dropped down in front of the stage; the live show was preceded by an introductory video compiled from footage of Garbage on their first tour and pop cultural moments of the era, sound-tracked by the bands largely-instrumental B-side "Alien Sex Fiend". The video was projected onto the curtain, which the band performed "Subhuman" behind, lit up in silhouette.
The initial North American shows featured the set split into blocks of six album tracks a batch of B-sides, followed by the remaining album tracks and again, B-sides, in running order on disc. Further into the tour, the set order was rejigged to flow better live; the end of each night featured two bonus tracks from other eras of the band's career. These were picked from a rotation of: "Push It", "I Think I'm Paranoid" or "When I Grow Up" from Version 2.0. Garbage official website
For the American gay activist and inventor, see John Burnside. John Burnside is a Scottish writer, born in Dunfermline, he is one of only three poets to have won both the T. S. Eliot Prize and the Forward Poetry Prize for the same book. Burnside studied English and European Thought and Literature at Cambridge College of Arts and Technology. A former computer software engineer, he has been a freelance writer since 1996, he is a former Writer in Residence at the University of Dundee and is now Professor in Creative Writing at St Andrews University. Where he teaches creative writing and ecology and American poetry, his first collection of poetry, The Hoop, was published in 1988 and won a Scottish Arts Council Book Award. Other poetry collections include Common Knowledge, Feast Days, winner of the Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize, The Asylum Dance, winner of the Whitbread Poetry Award and shortlisted for both the Forward Poetry Prize and the T. S. Eliot Prize; the Light Trap was shortlisted for the T. S. Eliot Prize.
His 2011 collection, Black Cat Bone, was awarded The Forward Prize and the T. S. Eliot Prize. Burnside is the author of two collections of short stories, Burning Elvis, Something Like Happy, as well as several novels, including The Dumb House, The Devil's Footprints, A Summer of Drowning, his multi-award winning memoir, A Lie About My Father, was published in 2006 and its successor Waking Up In Toytown, in 2010. A further memoir, I Put A Spell On You combined personal history with reflections on romantic love and popular music, his short stories and feature essays have appeared in numerous magazines and journals, including The New Yorker, The Guardian and The London Review of Books, among others. He writes an occasional nature column for New Statesman. In 2011 he received a major German international literary prize. Burnside's work is inspired by his engagement with nature and deep ecology, his collection of short stories, Something Like Happy, was published in 2013. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature and in March 2016 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland's National Academy for science and letters.
He lectures annually and oversees the judging of the writing prize at The Alpine Fellowship. 1988 Scottish Arts Council Book Award, for The Hoop 1991 Scottish Arts Council Book Award, for Common Knowledge 1994 Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize, for Feast Days 1999 Encore Award for The Mercy Boys 2000 Forward Poetry Prize, for The Asylum Dance 2000 T. S. Eliot Prize, for The Asylum Dance 2000 Whitbread Book Award, Poetry Award, for The Asylum Dance 2002 Saltire Society Scottish Book of the Year Award, for The Light Trap 2002 T. S. Eliot Prize, for The Light Trap 2005 Forward Poetry Prize, for The Good Neighbour 2006 Saltire Society Scottish Book of the Year Award for A Lie About My Father 2008 Cholmondeley Award 2011 Petrarca-Preis 2011 PEN/Ackerley prize for Waking Up in Toytown 2011 Corine Literature Prize for A Lie About My Father 2011 Forward Prize for Black Cat Bone 2011 Costa Book Awards, shortlist, A Summer of Drowning 2011 T. S. Eliot Prize for Black Cat Bone The Hoop Common Knowledge Feast Days The Myth of the Twin Swimming in the Flood Penguin Modern Poets A Normal Skin The Asylum Dance The Light Trap A Poet's Polemic The Good Neighbour Selected Poems Gift Songs The Hunt in the Forest Black Cat Bone All One Breath Still Life with Feeding Snake The Dumb House The Mercy Boys Burning Elvis The Locust Room Living Nowhere The Devil's Footprints Glister A Summer of Drowning Something Like Happy Ashland & Vine Havergey Wild Reckoning, joint editor with Maurice Riordan of this anthology of ecology-related poems A Lie About My Father Wallace Stevens: poems / selected by John Burnside Waking up in Toytown I Put a Spell on You On Henry Miller.
Princeton University Press. 2018. ISBN 9780691166872; the Music of Time: Poetry in the Twentieth Century Dice, a series for television, produced by Cité-Amérique, Canada'Dwelling Places: An Appreciation of John Burnside', special edition of Agenda Magazine, Vol 45 No 4/Vol 46 No 1, Spring/Summer 2011 Heptonstall, Geoffrey. "Independent metaphysics". The London Magazine: 132–136. Review of All one breath. Short essay in November 2011 issue of The New Humanist Article in the Spring 2007 issue of Tate etc. magazine John Burnside at The New Statesman Profile at the Poetry Archive Profile at the British Council Guardian profile and article listing Scottish Arts Council September 2004 Poem of the Month: "hommage to Kåre Kivijärvi" Biography on the Scottish Poetry Library website, with r