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Cyrus the Younger

Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general, Satrap of Lydia and Ionia from 408 to 401 BC. His birth date is unknown, but he died in 401 BC after a failed battle to oust his elder brother, Artaxerxes II, from the Persian throne; the history of Cyrus and of the retreat of his Greek mercenaries is told by Xenophon in his Anabasis. Another account from Sophaenetus of Stymphalus, was used by Ephorus. Further information is contained in the excerpts from Artaxerxes II's physician, Ctesias, by Photius; these are the only early sources of information on Cyrus the Younger. According to Xenophon, Cyrus the Younger was born after the accession of his father in 424 BC, he had an elder brother and two younger brothers named Ostanes and Oxathres. About Cyrus' childhood, Plutarch wrote, "Cyrus, from his earliest youth, showed something of a headstrong and vehement character. Xenophon spoke more of Cyrus' excellence as a child: In this courtly training Cyrus earned a double reputation.

Nor less in matters of war, in the use of the bow and the javelin, was he held by men in general to be at once the aptest of learners and the most eager practiser. As soon as his age permitted, the same pre-eminence showed itself in his fondness for the chase, not without a certain appetite for perilous adventure in facing the wild beasts themselves. Once a bear made a furious rush at him, without wincing he grappled with her, was pulled from his horse, receiving wounds the scars of which were visible through life. In 408 BC, after the victories of Alcibiades leading to an Athenian resurgence, Darius II decided to continue the war against Athens and give strong support to the Spartans, he sent Cyrus the Younger into Asia Minor as satrap of Lydia and Phrygia Major with Cappadocia, commander of the Persian troops, "which gather into the field of Castolos", i.e. of the army of the district of Asia Minor. There, Cyrus met the Spartan general Lysander. In him, Cyrus found a man, willing to help him become king, just as Lysander himself hoped to become absolute ruler of Greece by the aid of the Persian prince.

Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. When Cyrus was recalled to Susa by his father Darius, he gave Lysander the revenues from all of his cities of Asia Minor. Around that time, Darius called his son to his deathbed. Plutarch wrote that Cyrus's mother, favored him and wanted him on the throne, "And therefore, his father Darius now lying ill, he, being sent for from the sea to the court, set out thence with full hopes that by her means he was to be declared the successor to the kingdom. For Parysatis had the specious plea in his behalf, which Xerxes on the advice of Demaratus had of old made use of, that she had borne him Arsicas when he was a subject, but Cyrus when a king. Notwithstanding, she prevailed not with Darius, but the eldest son Arsicas was proclaimed king, his name being changed into Artaxerxes. According to Plutarch, "his resentment for made him more eagerly desirous of the kingdom than before."In 405 BC, Lysander won the battle of Aegospotami, Sparta became more influential in the Greek world.

Cyrus managed to gather a large army by beginning a quarrel with Tissaphernes, satrap of Caria, about the Ionian towns. In the spring of 401 BC, Cyrus united all his forces into an army now including Xenophon's "Ten Thousand", advanced from Sardis without announcing the object of his expedition. By dexterous management and large promises, he overcame the misgivings of the Greek troops over the length and danger of the war. Cyrus the Younger had obtained the support of the Spartans after having asked them "to show themselves as good friend to him, as he had been to them during their war against Athens", in reference to the support he had given the Spartan in the Peloponnesian War against Athens a few years earlier; the king had only been gathered an army in haste. In October 401 BC, the battle of Cunaxa ensued. Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites, 2,500 peltasts, an Asiatic army of 10,000 under the command of Ariaeus. Cyrus saw.

Allegiance (Firewind album)

Allegiance is the fourth full-length studio album by Firewind, first released on 10 July 2006. Vocalist Chitral Somapala was replaced by Apollo Papathanasio and Stian L. Kristoffersen made way for Mark Cross on drums, ending the previous tradition of changing line-up between albums, it was recorded at JM Studio, Mölnlycke, Sweden, in February 2006, mixed by Fredrik Nordström with Patrik J. Sten in Studio Fredman, Göteborg, Sweden, in March 2006 mastered by Peter In de Betou at Tailor Maid productions in Stockholm. Allegiance was released in Greece on 10 July 2006 a fortnight before the rest of the world, it was released in Benelux, Austria and Italy on 21 July 2006, three days on 24 July 2006, in the UK, Spain, Denmark and most of the rest of Europe and in Finland and Hungary a further two days on 26 July 2006. A month before the album's release, on 13 June 2006, the "Falling to Pieces" maxi single was released to the Greek market, with a music video directed by Patric Ullaeus, peaked at #11 in the Greek Singles Charts.

Five weeks the album was released and peaked at the same position in the Greek Album Charts. Following the Inhuman Rampage tour with DragonForce and their own World Allegiance tour, they released their second single off the album, "Breaking the Silence" a year on 2 July 2007, again only physically to Greece with a video directed by Patric Ullaeus guest starring Tara Teresa, this time peaking at #16 in the Greek Singles Charts. Apollo Papathanasio – vocals Gus G. – guitars Babis Katsioniskeyboards Petros Christodoylidisbass Mark Cross – drums, backing vocals on "Allegiance" Tara Teresa – vocals on "Breaking the Silence" Markus Palsson – backing vocals on "Allegiance" and "The Essence" Fredrik Nordström – engineering, mixing Patrik J. Sten – mixing assistant Martin Kronlund – additional engineering Rickard Bengtsson – vocal coach, additional engineering on "Insanity" and "Falling to Pieces" Peter In de Betou – mastering Patric Ullaeus – photography and director of the video clip for "Falling to Pieces" Carsten Drescher – artwork Firewind's official website

Toto, Peppino, and the Hussy

Toto and the Hussy is an Italian comedy film directed by Camillo Mastrocinque in 1956. It stars the comedy duo of Peppino De Filippo; the film stars the popular singer Teddy Reno, features Reno singing some of his songs as well as Malafemmena, Totò's most famous work as a songwriter. It was the top-grossing movie of the year in Italy with a 1,751,000,000 Italian lire revenue; the brothers Antonio and Peppino Caponi are boorish landowners living in southern Italy. Antonio steals his stingy brother's money. Gianni, their sister Lucia's son, is studying medicine in Naples, when he falls in love with Marisa, a revue dancer, follows her to Milan; the news is broken to the family with an anonymous letter, the three brothers travel to Milan in an attempt to stop the relationship, which they consider dangerous. Antonio and Peppino try to bribe Marisa away from Gianni but he woos her back by moving her to tears with the song "Malafemmina", Lucia realizes that she is a good girl. In the end, she moves to their village and marries Gianni.

Memorable in the history of comedy films is the scene in the movie where Toto and Peppino have to write a simple letter to be sent to his grandson. For two uneducated peasants and how they use this is impossible. In fact, everything that the two brothers should write to his girlfriend's nephew concerns a notice to him to let the boy alone in order to continue his studies. Mistaking it for a prostitute, the two brothers write that with 700,000 lire the girl can reward yourself for lost time with their grandson, yet Toto, believed that most awake, does not realize the severity of grammatical errors that creates the dictate of simple sentences that are anything but pure Italian. The text of the letter says: « Signorina veniamo noi con questa mia addirvi una parola che che che scusate se sono poche ma sette cento mila lire. Totò: Antonio Caponi Peppino De Filippo: Peppino Caponi Dorian Gray: Marisa Florian Teddy Reno: Gianni Vittoria Crispo: Lucia Caponi Mario Castellani: Mezzacapa Nino Manfredi: Raffaele Luisa Ciampi: Giulietta Edoardo Toniolo: Remo Linda Sini: Gabriella Toto and the Hussy on IMDb Toto and the Hussy is available for free download at the Internet Archive

Aliso Village

Aliso Village was a housing project in Los Angeles, California. It was built in 1942 and demolished 1999; the 29-acre parcel was replaced by Pueblo del Sol. The complex was managed by the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles. Aliso Village was one of the most impoverished areas of the city, by the 1930s was considered one of the last remaining slums in the United States. Reformer Jacob Riis had visited The Flats in 1905 and 1908 and reported that the slums are worst in country and rents are higher. A survey conducted by the city in the 1937 deemed 20% of the city's dwellings "unfit for human habitation," including most of The Flats. During World War II, the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles razed The Flats and built Aliso Village projects in their place; the landscaping was by the firm of Barlow. Like most of HACLA's 1940s projects, the Aliso Village projects were hailed at the time of their construction as some of the finest examples of the principles espoused by the garden city movement, were racially integrated to boot.

Soon after the end the war, Aliso Village lost most of their non-Latino populations, were populated by Mexican immigrants. With the river on one side and a massive rail yard on another, the construction of the East Los Angeles Interchange further isolated them from the rest of the city, the closure of the Pacific Electric Railway reduced the mobility of many of the projects' residents. By the 1970s, overcrowding had eliminated much of Aliso Village's once-vaunted green spaces, physical deterioration had become rampant, gangs were an increasing problem. In the 1980s the residents of Aliso Village began to organize with the support of Dolores Mission Church and its community organization, UNO, began to address these problems. By the late eighties the residents of the two housing projects had developed a network of community groups that pushed for better services and began negotiating truces between the different gangs, thus reducing the level of violence. In 1996, HACLA wrote off the projects, against the residents desires'.

In 2000 Aliso Village was demolished and replaced with the New Urbanist, Pueblo del Sol "workforce housing" project. In the process two thirds of the residents of the housing projects were displaced in a situation reminiscent of the Chavez Ravine incident. Aliso Village had a high crime and poverty rate in the 80's and 90's. Utah Street Elementary school was located at the center of the Aliso Village projects. Utah Street school was attended by Aliso Village residents. Pico Aliso and Pico residents had to walk up the hill to Second Street Elementary School. Sam Balter - basketball, 1936 Summer Olympics Mike Garrett - football, won 1965 Heisman Trophy Paul Gonzales - boxer, 1984 Summer Olympics Daniel Ramos - Graffiti tagger, known for tagging "CHAKA" Sylvester - disco singer, most notable for "You Make Me Feel" and "Dance". Utah Street Elementary Home Page Second Street Elementary Home Page David Miranda Photography Home Page Photograph of site for Aliso Village housing project, Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles, 1941 September 5

English writing style

An English writing style is a way of using the English language. The style of a piece of writing is the way in which features of the language are used to convey meaning but not always within the constraints of more accepted conventions of usage and spelling. An individual's writing style may be a personal thing. Organizations that employ writers or commission written work from individuals may require that writers conform to a standardized style defined by the organization; this allows a consistent readability of composite works produced by many authors, promotes usability of, for example, references to other cited works. In many kinds of professional writing aiming for effective transfer of information, adherence to a standardised style of writing helps readers make sense of what the writer is presenting. Many standardised styles are documented in style guides; some styles are more used, others restricted to a particular journal. Adherence to no particular style is a style in its own right. All writing has some style if the author is not thinking about a personal style.

It is important to understand. For instance, if a writer wants to express a sense of euphoria, he or she might write in a style overflowing with expressive modifiers; some writers use styles that are specific, for example in pursuit of an artistic effect. Stylistic rule-breaking is exemplified by the poet. An example is E. E. Cummings, whose writing consists of only lower case letters, uses unconventional typography and punctuation. In non-artistic writing, every person who writes has his or her own personal style. Many large publications define a house style to be used throughout the publication, a practice universal among newspapers and well-known magazines; these styles can cover the means of expression and sentence structures, such as those adopted by Time. They may include features peculiar to a publication. General characteristics have been prescribed for different categories of writing, such as in journalism, the use of SI units, or questionnaire construction. University students graduate students, are encouraged to write papers in an approved style.

This practice promotes readability and ensures that references to cited works are noted in a uniform way. Students are encouraged to use a style adopted by journals publishing articles in the field of study; the list of Style Manuals & Guides, from the University of Memphis Libraries, includes thirty academic style manuals that are in print, twelve that are available on-line. Citation of referenced works is a key element in academic style; the requirements for writing and citing articles accessed on-line may sometimes differ from those for writing and citing printed works. Some of the details are covered in The Columbia Guide to Online Style. Grammar List of style guides Style guides Usage The Elements of Style, by William Strunk Jr. and E. B. White, a well-known guide to American usage Fowler's Modern English Usage, a well-known guide to British English usage List of misused English words APA style, American Psychological Association style - accepted for research papers MLA style manual, Modern Language Association's style - most used in English studies, literary criticism Sentence spacing in language and style guides Manuals & Writing Guides at University Library, California State University, Los Angeles English Grammar Style Guide by Jennifer Frost

Bash Back!

Bash Back! was a network of queer, insurrectionary anarchist cells active in the United States between 2007 and 2011. Formed in Chicago in 2007 to facilitate a convergence of radical trans and gay activists from around the country, Bash Back! Sought to critique the ideology of the mainstream LGBT movement, which the group saw as assimilation into the dominant institutions of a heteronormative society. Bash Back! was noticeably influenced by the anarchist movement and radical queer groups, such as ACT UP, took inspiration from the Stonewall and San Francisco's White Night riots. The group arose out of anti–Republican National Convention and anti–Democratic National Convention organizing, continued up to 2011. Chapters sprang up including in Philadelphia and Seattle; the organization’s model was a nonhierarchical autonomous network based on agreed-upon points of unity, such as fighting for "queer liberation" rather than "heteronormative assimilation", accepting a diversity of tactics, "including an individual’s autonomy to participate in actions deemed illegal by the government".

Bash Back! Chicago carried out a number of actions during their city's Pride Weekend in 2008; the first was participation in the annual Chicago Dyke March in Chicago's Pilsen neighborhood. Bash Back!'s contingent in the march focused on resistance to gentrification in the Pilsen community. In addition, members of Bash Back! took part in Chicago's larger Chicago Pride Parade. Bash Back! Chicago wheeled a cage through the parade containing a member dressed as Chicago's Mayor Richard M. Daley, whom the group charged was responsible for cutting AIDS funding, turning a blind eye to police torture and brutality, supporting gentrification. Members of the group distributed barf bags with slogans written on them such as "Corporate Pride Makes Me Sick," a statement about the commercial and assimilative intentions of mainstream gay culture