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Częstochowa

Częstochowa is a city in southern Poland on the Warta River with 222,292 inhabitants, making it the thirteenth-largest city in Poland. It is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship since 1999, was the capital of the Częstochowa Voivodeship. However, Częstochowa is part of Lesser Poland, not of Silesia, before 1795, it belonged to the Kraków Voivodeship. Częstochowa is located in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, it is the 13th most populous city in Poland. It is the largest economic and administrative hub in the northern part of the Silesian Voivodeship; the city is known for the famous Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra, the home of the Black Madonna painting, a shrine to the Virgin Mary. Every year, millions of pilgrims from all over the world come to Częstochowa to see it; the city was home to the Frankism movement in the late 18th and the 19th century. There is a Lusatian culture excavation site and museum in the city, ruins of a medieval castle in Olsztyn 25 kilometres from the city centre; the name of Częstochowa means Częstoch's place and comes from a personal name of Częstoch mentioned in the medieval documents as Częstobor and Częstomir.

Variations of the name include Czanstochowa used in 1220, Częstochow used in 1382 and 1558. A part of today's city called Częstochówka was a separate municipality mentioned in the 14th century as the Old Częstochowa and Częstochówka in 1470-80; the city was known in German as Tschenstochau and in Russian as Ченстохов. According to archaeological findings, the first Slavic settlement in the location of Częstochowa was established in the late 11th century, it was first mentioned in historical documents from 1220, when Bishop of Kraków Iwo Odrowąż made a list of properties of the Mstów monastery. Two villages, Częstochowa and Częstochówka were mentioned in the document. Both of them belonged with its capital at Mstów. Częstochówka was located on a hill on which the Jasna Góra Monastery was built. In the late 13th century Częstochowa became the seat of a Roman Catholic parish church, subjected to the Lelów deanery; the village was located in northwestern corner of Kraków Land, Lesser Poland, near the Royal Castle at Olsztyn.

Częstochowa lay along a busy merchant road from Lesser Poland to Greater Poland. The village was ruled by a starosta, it is not known when Częstochowa was granted town charter. It happened some time between 1356 - 1377. In 1502, King Alexander Jagiellon granted a new charter, based on Magdeburg rights to Częstochowa. In 1382 the Paulist monastery of Jasna Góra was founded by Vladislaus II of Opole - the Polish Piast prince of Upper Silesia. Two years the monastery received its famous Black Madonna icon of the Virgin Mary and in subsequent years became a centre of pilgrimage, contributing to the growth of the adjacent town. Częstochowa prospered in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, due to efforts of Sigismund I the Old, the future king of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. At that time, Sigismund ruled the Duchy of Głogów, visited Częstochowa on his way to the Duchies of Silesia. In 1504, Częstochowa was granted the right to collect tolls on the Warta river bridge. In 1508, Częstochowa was allowed to organize one fair a year.

In the year 1631, Częstochowa had 399 houses, but at the same time, several residents died in a plague, after which 78 houses were abandoned. In the first half of the 17th century, kings of the House of Vasa turned the Jasna Góra Monastery into a modern Dutch-style fortress, one of the pockets of Polish resistance against the Swedish armies during Swedish invasion of Poland in 1655; the town of Częstochowa itself was completely destroyed by Swedish soldiers. It has been estimated that the town lost 50% of population, 60% of houses; the destruction was less severe than at other towns in the area. It took several years for Częstochowa to recover from extensive losses; as late as in the 1680s there still were ruined houses in the town. At the same time, the Jasna Góra Monastery prospered. On February 27, 1670, the wedding of king Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki with princess Eleanor of Austria took place here. Furthermore, in 1682 the celebration of 300 anniversary of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa brought thousands of pilgrims from both Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Silesia.

The Jewish community in Częstochowa came into existence by about 1700. During the Great Northern War, Częstochowa was captured by Swedish army on August 11, 1702. In February 1703 Swedes failed to seize it. In April 1705 the Swedes returned, appeared at the monastery again in September 1709. Unable to capture the fortified stronghold, they looted villages in the area, set Częstochowa on fire and left towards Wieluń. At that time, a village of Częstochówk existed next to Częstochowa; the village belonged to the monastery and developed. In 1717 it was granted town charter, its name was changed into Nowa Częstochowa; the town was destroyed during the Bar Confederation. On February 8, 1769, the monastery was seized by rebels of the Bar Confederation, comm

Chester the Molester

Chester the Molester was a comic strip by Dwaine B. Tinsley, Hustler magazine's cartoon editor. Tinsley produced the strip for 13 years; the premise of the strip was a tongue-in-cheek take on a man, interested in sexually molesting women and prepubescent girls. The Chester cartoon showed many scenes in which the main character—and on his girlfriend Hester—tricked or attempted to trick women and prepubescent girls into sexually compromising positions. Tinsley's work was criticized by the National Institute of Health. In 1984, Tinsley was accused of molesting his 13-year-old daughter, over a period of five years, he was convicted and served 23 months of a six-year prison sentence before his conviction was overturned on the grounds that his conviction violated the First Amendment because it was based, in part, on his comic strip. During his incarceration, he continued dispatching new strips to Hustler from his cell to be edited by Edward Kuhnel. Levin, Bob. Most Outrageous: The Trials and Trespasses of Dwaine Tinsley and Chester the Molester.

Fantagraphics Books. ISBN 978-1-56097-919-7. Aura Bogado. "Hustling the Left" zmag.org June 5, 2005

Emphasis, Stuttgart 1961

Emphasis, Stuttgart 1961 is an album by the Jimmy Giuffre 3 recorded live at the Liederhalle in Stuttgart, November 7, 1961, by the regional public broadcaster Sueddeutscher Rundfunk. It was first released in 1993 by hatArt and Harmonia Mundi. "Whirrrr" – 4:15 "Emphasis" – 7:48 "Sonic" – 5:17 "Venture" – 4:21 "Jesus Maria" – 6:14 "Stretching Out" – 11:20 "Carla" – 5:45 "Cry, Want" – 7:00All songs written by Jimmy Giuffre unless otherwise noted. Paul Bleypiano Jimmy Giuffre – clarinet Steve Swallow – double bass

Michel Descombey

Michel Descombey was a French ballet dancer and director. Descombay studied dancing in Paris, debuted as a professional dancer of the Ballet de l'Opéra National in 1947. In 1959 he became premier danseur ballet master, official choreographer and director of the company from 1962 to 1969, he established the training ballet group of the Opéra National de Paris. Afterwards he was ballet director of the Zürcher Ballett of the Zurich Opera from 1971 to 1973, was invited to Mexico by Orozco. In 1975 he settled down in Mexico, where he became chief choreographer and associate director of the Ballet Teatro del Espacio in 1977, he was a member of the Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte. Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres Chevaliers of the Légion d'honneur Order of the Aztec Eagle "Michel Descombey". Internet Dance Database

Osgood Ditch

The Osgood Ditch is a 9.2-mile section of mining ditch located in southern Josephine County and northern Del Norte County, California. The ditch supplied water from the East Fork of the Illinois River to the High Gravel and Cameron mines, two hydraulic mines that conducted placer gold mining operations in the Upper Illinois Valley; the ditch was dug at the same time that the High Gravel Mine was built. It took its name from F. H. Osgood, who purchased the mine shortly after its construction and expanded the ditch; when the Cameron Mine began hydraulic operations in the 1910s, the ditch brought water to that mine as well. The ditch was last used in 1942; the ditch was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 4, 2001. National Register of Historic Places listings in Josephine County, Oregon National Register of Historic Places listings in Del Norte County, California

Baudilio Palma

Baudilio Palma was acting President of Guatemala, in place of general Lázaro Chacón González, from 13 to 17 December 1930, when he was deposed and assassinated after coup d'état led by general Manuel María Orellana Contreras, who appointed himself as president. Several authors argue that he might not have been killed, but went into exile to El Salvador, where he would have died on 19 June 1944. Palma was born in the Jutiapa Department of Guatemala, he graduated high school in Guatemala City, in the Escuela Normal para Varones, part of the prestigious National Central Institute for boys, where he obtained both a teacher and a high school diplomas. In 1894 he started his Law degree in the College of Law of the National University, graduating in 1897, he practiced Law in Zacapa. He took a case that irritated president José María Reina Barrios, who sent him to prison for two months. Upon release, he worked with opposition candidates – José León Castillo -, but could not avoid that Reina Barrios extended his presidential term.

After Reina Barrios assassination in 1898, he went back to practice Law. He settled in San Pedro Sula, Honduras where he lived for fourteen year, going back to Guatemala after the events that brought down president Estrada Cabrera on April 1920. During the brief presidencies of both Carlos Herrera y Luna and José María Orellana he kept to himself and his personal business. Besides being the Secretary of Finance, Baudilio Palma was the second designated to the office of the Presidency in case general Lázaro Chacón González was to die; when Chacón suffered a stroke that kept him from performing his presidential duties, Palma in agreement with the rest of the cabinet, was appointed acting president though he was the second designated and not the first. According to the official communications at the time, the first designated to the office was general Mauro de León, but he had resigned in favor of Palma. However, on 16 December 1930 a coup de' etat led by general Orellana Contreras and Luis Leonardo forced Palma to resign after a short battle inside the Presidential Palace.

During the fight, that lasted no more than an hour, Mauro de León died. The Liberal Progresista party placed general Roderico Anzueto in the key position of Chief of Police. Once in power, Orellana Contreras reformed the Cabinet and worked on restructuring the Guatemalan military bases. However, given the large investments that American companies had in Guatemala -especially the United Fruit Company, the United States Secretary of State Henry Stimson publicly denounced Orellana as an unconstitutional leader and demanded his removal. Realizing that the Americans would not recognize his government, Orellana resigned on 29 December. Stimson sent Ambassador Sheltom Whitehouse to tell Orellana Contreras that his country would not be dealing with the new Guatemalan president whatsoever. Whitehouse pressed the National Assembly to force Orellana Contreras to resign, taking advantage of Orellana's lack of political experience, the American government needed a stable regime in Guatemala