Ostrava is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region. It is 15 km from the border with Poland, at the meeting point of four rivers: the Odra, Ostravice and Lučina. In terms of both population and area Ostrava is the third largest city in the Czech Republic, the second largest city in Moravia, the largest city in Czech Silesia, it straddles the border of the two historic provinces of Silesia. The population was around 300,000 in 2013; the wider conurbation – which includes the towns of Bohumín, Havířov, Karviná, Orlová, Petřvald and Rychvald – is home to about 500,000 people, making it the largest urban area in the Czech Republic apart from the capital, Prague. Ostrava grew in importance due to its position at the heart of a major coalfield, becoming an important industrial centre, it was known as the country's "steel heart" thanks to its status as a coal-mining and metallurgical centre, but since the Velvet Revolution it has undergone radical and far-reaching changes to its economic base.
Industries have been restructured, the last coal was mined in the city in 1994. However, remnants of the city's industrial past are visible in the Lower Vítkovice area, a former coal-mining, coke production and ironworks complex in the city centre which retains its historic industrial architecture. Lower Vítkovice has applied for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the 1990s Ostrava has been transformed into a modern cultural city, with numerous theatres and other cultural facilities. Various cultural and sporting events take place in Ostrava throughout the year, including the Colours of Ostrava music festival, the Janáček May classical music festival, the Summer Shakespeare Festival and NATO Days. Ostrava is home to two public universities: the VŠB-Technical University and the University of Ostrava. In 2014 Ostrava was a European City of Sport; the city co-hosted the IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship in 2004 and 2015. The city's coat of arms features a blue shield with a rearing silver horse standing on a green lawn.
The horse wears a red coverlet. At the top right of the shield there is a golden rose with a red core; the horse in the coat-of-arms wears no bridle. The oldest known depiction of this coat-of-arms is on a seal dating from 1426; the first coloured version dates from 1728. The horse is interpreted as a symbol of Ostrava's position on a major trade route, or as a figure taken from the coat-of-arms of Ostrava's first vogt, while the golden rose comes from the family coat-of-arms of the bishop of Olomouc Stanislav Thurzo; this explanation is supported by most modern literature. Another theory suggests that the Bishop granted Ostrava the right to use the horse in its coat-of-arms out of gratitude for the assistance that the town provided to the people of the Bishop's estate in Hukvaldy when the estate was being looted and pillaged; the help came so that the pillagers did not have time to attach bridles to their horses before making their escape. There is a legend which tells of a siege of Ostrava during which the besieged townspeople released unbridled horses to run in circles around the town.
This is said to have confused the attacking armies so much. In 2008, Ostrava's new marketing logo was unveiled. Designed by Studio Najbrt, the logo "OSTRAVA!!!" is used in public presentations of the city both in the Czech Republic and abroad. The three exclamation marks are meant to symbolise the dynamism and self-confidence of Ostrava and its people; the light blue colour of the city's name is based on the heraldic tradition, while the exclamation marks are a contrasting darker blue. The first written mention of Slezská Ostrava dates from 1229; the first mention of Moravian Ostrava describes it as a township. Ostrava grew up from which it took its name; this river still divides the city into two main parts: Silesian Ostrava. The settlement occupied a strategic position on the border between the two historical provinces of Moravia and Silesia, on the ancient trade route from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic known as the Amber Road; this location helped the town to flourish. However, Ostrava began to decline in importance after the Thirty Years’ War, when it was occupied by Swedish forces from 1621–1645.
A turning point in Ostrava's history came in 1763 with the discovery of extensive deposits of high-quality bituminous coal on the Silesian bank of the Ostravice River. In 1828 the owner of the local estates, Archbishop Rudolf Jan of Olomouc, established an ironworks, named after him as the Rudolfshütte; the ironworks passed into the ownership of the Rothschild family, became known as the Vítkovice Ironworks. This company became the driving force behind Ostrava's industrial boom. By the second half of the 20th century the city was nicknamed the country's "steel heart". After the Second World War and the liberation of Ostrava by the Red Army, the city entered its greatest period of expansion; the new housing projects were on a small scale, focused on the Poruba district and featuring architecture in the Socialist realist style. The authorities built larger-scale developments of prefabricated apartment blocks in Poruba and created a series of satellite estates to the south of the city; the city centre was depopulated and people were moved out to the suburbs.
This was part of a long-term plan to
Český Těšín is a town in the Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. The town is known in the region as just Těšín, it lies on the west bank of the Olza river, in the heart of the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. Until the 1920 division of the region between Poland and Czechoslovakia it was just a western suburb of the town of Teschen, which after the division fell to Poland as Cieszyn; the combined population of the Czech and Polish parts of the city is around 60,000. Until 1918 the area was called Sachsenberg meaning Saxon Hill, was a small western suburb of the town of Teschen in the Duchy of Teschen, within Cieszyn Silesia of Austria-Hungary. Following the fall of Austria-Hungary and Polish local governments were established. Both of them claimed that the whole of Cieszyn Silesia belonged to Czechoslovakia or Poland respectively. To calm down the friction which developed, the local governments concluded an interim agreement on division of the area running along ethnic lines.
The division line imposed by the interim agreement was seen as unacceptable by the central Czechoslovak government because the crucial railway connecting the Czech lands with eastern Slovakia was controlled by Poland, access to that railway was vital for Czechoslovakia at that time. Despite the division being only interim, Poland decided to organize elections to the Sejm in the area. Czechoslovakia claimed that no sovereign rule should be executed in the disputed area before a final solution was found, requested that the polls not be held in the area; the Czechoslovak request was rejected by Poland and Czechoslovakia attacked the Polish part of the region on 23 January 1919 and forced Poland, at that time at war with the West Ukrainian National Republic, to withdraw from the larger part of the area. After a ceasefire, both sides agreed to hold a plebiscite, which never took place, as the atmosphere in the region remained heated and turned violent; the entire area was divided by the decision of the Spa Conference from July 1920, thus in practice creating a Zaolzie area, leaving a sizable Polish minority on the Czech side and dividing the town of Cieszyn between the two states.
The town Český Těšín was the center of Český Těšín District, existing in the years 1920–1938 and 1945–1960. In 1938, following the Munich Agreement allowing the German annexation of the Sudetenland as signed by the United Kingdom and France in accordance with their policy of appeasement, Poland coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the region of Zaolzie, by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on 30 September, accepted by Czechoslovakia on 1 October. Following negotiations with Czech authorities, who were given an additional 24 hours to evacuate the area, Polish troops and authorities entered it on 2 October 1938, the territory was annexed by Poland as Cieszyn Zachodni. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the entire territory was annexed by Nazi Germany. During World War II it was a part of Nazi Germany. In 1941, Nazi Germany established the camp Stalag VIII-D here. After the war, the 1920 borders were restored. In 1849, the western part of Teschen was home to only 14.9% of the town's total population: in 1880 24% and in 1910 33.4%.
Teschen was known for its national and cultural diversity, consisting of German, Polish and Czech communities. There was a small but lively Hungarian community in the town officers and administrative workers. According to the Austrian census of 1910, Teschen had 22,489 inhabitants, 21,550 of whom had permanent residence there; the census asked people for their native language, 13,254 were German-speaking, 6,832 were Polish-speaking and 1,437 were Czech-speaking. The most populous religious groups were Roman Catholics with 15,138 followed by Protestants with 5,174 and the Jews with 2,112. In 1938, there was a sizeable Jewish minority in the town, about 1,500 in Cieszyn and 1,300 in Český Těšín. Nearly all of them were killed by Nazi Germany in concentration camps. Most of the synagogues were destroyed. Today, only one synagogue still stands in the town, used as a Polish cultural centre; the Jewish cemetery in Český Těšín is abandoned. The sizeable German community were expelled, to Germany after the war.
There are no German communities left in the town today. Today the Poles comprise a minority in Český Těšín, as 16.1% of the town's population, although the number of people with Polish heritage is higher. The town is an important educational center of the Polish minority in Zaolzie; the number of Poles is however decreasing as a result of continuing assimilation. Although a border town, there is no longer any real ethnic tension between Poles. Alongside several Czech primary schools and one gymnasium the town has both a Polish primary school and a gymnasium. Těšín Theatre has Czech and Polish ensembles, where plays are presented in both the Czech and Polish languages. Together with ensembles in Vilnius and Lviv it is one of the few theatres outside Poland which has a professional Polish ensemble; the town is a centre including the paper industry. The diversity of the town is not only ethnic, but religious. Many Christian denominations are present in the town. In the past a large Jewish community lived there.
According to the 2001 census there are 14,860 believers in the town, out of whom 8,916 are Roman Catholics, 737 Czech Brethren, 356 (
The Sudetes are a mountain range in Central Europe. They are the highest part of Bohemian Massif. Stretches from the Saxon capital of Dresden in the northwest, to the Głubczyce plateau in Poland and to the Ostrava Basin and Moravian Gate in the Czech Republic in the east. Geographically the Sudetes are a Mittelgebirge with a some characteristics proper of high mountains, its plateaus and subtle summit relief makes the Sudetes more akin to mountains of Northern Europe than to the Alps. In the west, Sudetes border with the Elbe Sandstone Mountains; the westernmost point of the Sudetes lies in the Dresden Heath, the westernmost part of the West Lusatian Hill Country and Uplands, in Dresden. In the east of the Sudetes, the Moravian Gate and Ostrava Basin separates from the Carpathian Mountains; the Sudetes' highest mountain is Mount Sněžka/Śnieżka, the highest mountain of the Czech Republic and Silesia, in the Krkonoše/Karkonosze Mountains, lying on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland.
Mount Praděd in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains is the highest mountain of Moravia. Lusatia's highest point lies on Mount Smrk/Smrek in the Jizera Mountains, the Sudetes' highest mountain in Germany, the country's highest mountain east of the River Elbe, is Mount Lausche/Luž in the Zittau Mountains, the highest part of the Lusatian Mountains; the most notable rivers rising in the Sudetes are Elbe, Spree, Morava, Bóbr, Lusatian Neisse, Eastern Neisse and Kwisa. The highest parts of the Sudetes are protected by national parks; the Sudeten Germans as well as the Sudetenland are named after the Sudetes. The name Sudetes is derived from Sudeti montes, a Latinization of the name Soudeta ore used in the Geographia by the Greco-Roman writer Ptolemy c. AD 150 for a range of mountains in Germania in the general region of the modern Czech republic. There is no consensus about which mountains he meant, he could for example have intended the Ore Mountains, joining the modern Sudetes to their west, or the Bohemian Forest (although this is considered to be equivalent to Ptolemy's Gabreta forest.
The modern Sudetes are Ptolemy's Askiburgion mountains. Ptolemy wrote "Σούδητα" in Greek, a neuter plural. Latin mons, however, is a masculine, hence Sudeti; the Latin version, the modern geographical identification, is to be a scholastic innovation, as it is not attested in classical Latin literature. The meaning of the name is not known. In one hypothetical derivation, it means Mountains of Wild Boars, relying on Indo-European *su-, "pig". A better etymology is from Latin sudis, plural sudes, "spines", which can be used of spiny fish or spiny terrain; the Sudetes are divided into: Eastern Sudetes in the Czech Republic and Poland Oderské vrchy Hrubý Jeseník Mountains with Mt. Praděd, 1,491 m Opawskie Mountains Golden Mountains Śnieżnik Mountains Hanušovická vrchovina Central Sudetes, in the Czech Republic and Poland Orlické Mountains with Mt. Velká Deštná, 1,115 m Bystrzyckie Mountains Bardzkie Mountains Table Mountains Owl Mountains Krucze Mountains Stone Mountains Waldenburg Mountains Ślęża massif Western Sudetes, in Germany, the Czech Republic and Poland Ještěd-Kozákov Ridge Jizera Mountains Kaczawskie Mountains Krkonoše with Mt. Sněžka, 1,603 m Lusatian Mountains Rudawy Janowickie Lusatian Highlands Sudeten ForelandHigh Sudetes is together name for the Krkonoše, Hrubý Jeseník and Śnieżnik mountain ranges.
The Sudetes comprise larger basins like the Jelenia Góra and the Kłodzko Valley. The highest mountains, those located along the Czech-Polish border have annual precipitations around 1500 mm; the Stołowe Mountains that reach 919 m have precipitations ranging from 750 mm at lower locations to 920 mm in the upper parts with July being the rainiest month. Snow cover at the Stołowe Mountains last 70 to 95 days depending on altitude. Settlement and clearance has left forest pockets in the foothills with dense and continuous forest being found in the upper parts of the mountains. Due to logging in the last centuries little remains of the broad-leaf trees like beech, sycamore and littleleaf linden that were once common in the Sudetes. Instead Norway spruce was planted in their place in the early 19th century, in some places amounting to monocultures. To provide more space for spruce plantations various peatlands were drained in the 19th and 20th century; some spruce plantations have suffered severe damage as the seeds used came from lowland specimens that were not adapted to mountain conditions.
Silver fir grow in the Sudetes being more widespread in past times, before clearance since the Late Middle Ages and subsequent industrial pollution reduced the stands. Many arctic-alpine and alpine vascular plants have a disjunct distribution being notably absent from the central Sudetes despite suitable habitats; this is the result a warm period during the Holocene which wiped out cold-adapted vascular plants in the medium-sized mountains of the central Sudetes where there was no higher ground that could serve as
Slovakia the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres and is mountainous; the population is over 5.4 million and consists of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, the second largest city is Košice; the official language is Slovak. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra, conquered by the Principality of Moravia to establish Great Moravia. In the 10th century, after the dissolution of Great Moravia, the territory was integrated into the Principality of Hungary, which would become the Kingdom of Hungary in 1000. In 1241 and 1242, much of the territory was destroyed by the Mongols during their invasion of Central and Eastern Europe.
The area was recovered thanks to Béla IV of Hungary who settled Germans which became an important ethnic group in the area in what are today parts of central and eastern Slovakia. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Czechoslovak National Council established Czechoslovakia. A separate Slovak Republic existed during World War II as a totalitarian, clero-fascist one-party client state of Nazi Germany. At the end of World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established as an independent country. A coup in 1948 ushered in a totalitarian one-party state under the Communist regime during whose rule the country existed as a satellite of the Soviet Union. Attempts for liberalization of communism in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Prague Spring, crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce.
Slovakia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy and a high Human Development Index, a high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of market economy with a comprehensive social security system. Citizens of Slovakia are provided with universal health care, free education and one of the longest paid parental leave in the OECD; the country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2009. Slovakia is a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes. In 2018, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 179 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 10th in the world; as part of Eurozone, Slovak legal tender is the world's 2nd-most-traded currency.
Slovakia is the world's largest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone and the 7th largest car producer in the European Union. The car industry represents 43% of Slovakia's industrial output, a quarter of its exports; the first written mention of name Slovakia is in 1586. It derives from the Czech word Slováky; the native name Slovensko derives from an older name of Slovaks Sloven what may indicate its origin before the 15th century. The original meaning was geographic, since Slovakia was a part of the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary and did not form a separate administrative unit in this period. Radiocarbon dating puts the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia – found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BCE, in the Early Paleolithic era; these ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia. Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era come from the Prévôt cave in Bojnice and from other nearby sites.
The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium, discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Ipeľ, Váh and as far as the city of Žilina, near the foot of the Vihorlat and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains; the most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone, the famous Venus of Moravany. The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice and Radošina; these findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and central Europe. The Bronze Age in the geographical territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BCE.
Major cultural and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper in central Slovakia and northwe
County of Kladsko
The County of Kladsko was a historical administrative unit within Bohemia as a part of the Kingdom of Bohemia and in the Kingdom of Prussia with its capital at Kłodzko on the Nysa river. The territory comprises the Kłodzko Land with the Kłodzko Valley in center within the Sudetes mountain range and corresponds with the present-day Kłodzko County in the Polish Lower Silesian Voivodeship; the area has been populated at least since the 1st century BC. The earliest mention of the town itself is in the 12th century Chronica Boëmorum by Cosmas of Prague, he mentions the town of Cladzco as belonging to the Bohemian nobleman Slavník in 981, father of Bishop Adalbert of Prague and progenitor of the Slavník dynasty. Held by the Přemyslid dukes of Bohemia, the town was claimed by the Polish kings, which led to a series of armed conflicts: King Bolesław I Chrobry campaigned Kladsko in 1003, but soon after was expelled by Emperor Henry II. In 1080 the Polish duke Władysław I Herman married Judith Přemyslid, daughter of the Bohemian duke Bretislav I and their son, the warlike Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth claimed Kladsko as the dowry of his mother.
In turn the Bohemian prince Soběslav I campaigned Kladsko and burnt the town to the ground, but rebuilt it shortly afterwards. He rebuilt and strengthened the castle located on a high rock overlooking the town. In 1137 by the agency of Emperor Lothair III of Supplinburg the rivals concluded a peace treaty by which Bolesław ceded all claims to the land of Kladsko to Soběslav; the area thereafter remained an integral part of Bohemia, though the fief was at times held by Silesian dukes: About 1280 German king Rudolph I of Habsburg, having defeated King Ottokar II of Bohemia, gave Kladsko to his ally Duke Henry IV Probus of the Silesian Piasts, it returned to Bohemia after Henry's death in 1290. In 1310 Count John the Blind from the House of Luxembourg by marriage inherited Bohemia and again granted Kladsko for life to the Piast dukes Henry VI the Good from 1327 to 1335 and Bolko II of Ziębice from 1336 to 1341. In 1348 the Provincia Glacensis became – still as a region within the Bohemia proper – part of the Crown of Bohemia.
The town developed until the start of the Hussite Wars in the 15th century, which left Kladsko depopulated by plagues burnt, demolished by several consecutive floods. It was not until the 16th century. In 1458 King George of Poděbrady with the consent of Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg elevated Kladsko to a county, held by his second son Viktorin, who thereby received the status of an Imperial count. Under his Poděbrad successors it still remained an integral part of Bohemia as an "outer region" south of the adjacent Silesian province; when in 1526 Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria from the House of Habsburg was enthroned as King of Bohemia, the County too became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. Since 1549 the County of Kladsko was under administration of the Wittelsbach until Albert V, Duke of Bavaria released it in 1567 for Emperor Maximilian II. In 1617 the first census was organised in the County; the city itself had 1,300 houses and over 7,000 inhabitants. However, two years after the census took place.
Kladsko had joined the Protestant Bohemian Estates and after the defeat at the Battle of White Mountain in 1620 rejected to submit to Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg. Between 1619 and 1649 the town was besieged by Imperial troops several times and although the fortress was never captured, over 900 out of 1,300 buildings were destroyed by fire and artillery and the population dropped by more than a half. After the war the Habsburg rulers put an end to all local self-government, the County existed in name only; when in 1740 King Frederick II of Prussia started the First Silesian War he occupied most of Silesia and the County of Kladsko, which the king considered to be a vital forward post at the border with the Austrian lands under Empress Maria Theresa. It was therefore occupied by Prussian troops and by the 1742 Treaty of Breslau annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, again confirmed after the Seven Years' War by the 1763 Treaty of Hubertusburg, it was not until 1818, when King Frederick William III incorporated the County into the Prussian Province of Silesia, although Czech and Austrian influence is still evident in the architecture and culture of the region.
The title of a "Count of Glatz" was part of the full title of the Prussian kings and German Emperors, but autonomy of the County was irretrievably lost. After World War I the Czechoslovak state laid claims to the region of Kladsko because of the Czech Corner where Czech language and culture were still prevalent; these territorial demands were flatly rejected however by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. With the implementation of the Oder-Neisse line at the Potsdam Conference in 1945, most of the territory of Prussian Silesia – including Kladsko – became part of the Republic of Poland, its native German and Czech population was expelled. According to canon law however, the area was part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague until 1972. Proposals by the Czechoslovak Delegation on incorporating Kłodzko Land into Czechoslovakia during the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 MUSIL, František. Kladsko. Praha: Libri, 2007. 190 s. ISBN 978-80-7277-340-4. A. Herzig, M. Ruchniewicz, Dzieje Ziemi Kłodzkiej, wyd.
Dobu Verlag/wyd. Oficyna Wydawnicza Atut, Hamburg/Wrocław 2006. Peter Güttler: Das Glatzer Land. Düsseldorf
Silesian, Silesian German or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia. It is part of the East Central German language area with some West Slavic influences. Silesian German emerged as the result of Late Medieval German immigration to Silesia, inhabited by Lechitic Slavic peoples in the Early Middle Ages. Variations of the dialect until 1945 were spoken by about seven million people. After World War II, local communist authorities forbade the use of the language, after the expulsion of the Germans the province of Silesia was incorporated into Poland, with small portions remaining in northeastern Czech Republic and in eastern Germany. Silesian German continued to be spoken only by individual families expelled to the remaining territory of Germany and in cultural gatherings in West Germany. Most descendants of the Silesian Germans expelled to West and East Germany no longer learned the dialect, the cultural gatherings were less and less frequented. In origin, Silesian German appears to derive from 12th-century dialects of Middle High German, including medieval forms of Upper Saxon German, East Franconian German and Thuringian.
The German-speaking inhabitants of Silesia are thought to be descendants of settlers from Upper Lusatia, Saxony and Franconia who first arrived in Silesia in the 13th century. After World War II, local communist authorities forbade the use of the language. After the forcible expulsion of the Germans from Silesia, German Silesian culture and language nearly died out when most of Silesia became part of Poland in 1945. Polish authorities banned the use of the German language. There are still unresolved feelings on the sides of both Poles and Germans because of Nazi Germany's war crimes on Poles and the forced expulsion and ethnic cleansing of native Germans from former German territories that were transferred to Poland in the wake of the Potsdam Agreement; the German Silesian dialect is not recognized by the Polish State in any way, although the status of the German minority in Poland has improved much since the 1991 communist collapse and Polish entry into the European Union. Silesian can be divided into gebirgsschlesische Dialektgruppe, südostschlesische Dialektgruppe, mittelschlesische Dialektgruppe, westschlesische Dialektgruppe and neiderländische Dialektgruppe.
The nordostböhmische Dialektgruppe belongs to Silesian, too. Silesian German was the language in which the poetry of Karl von Holtei and Gerhart Hauptmann was written, during the 19th century. Wymysorys language