Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c
The Clementinum is a historic complex of buildings in Prague. Until the complex hosted the National and Technical libraries. In 2009, the Technical library and the Municipal library moved to the Prague National Technical Library at Technická 6, it is in use as the National Library of the Czech Republic. In 2005, the Czech National Library received the UNESCO Jikji prize, its history dates from the existence of a chapel dedicated to Saint Clement in the 11th century. A Dominican monastery was founded in the medieval period, transformed in 1556 to a Jesuit college. In 1622 the Jesuits transferred the library of Charles University to the Klementinum, the college was merged with the University in 1654; the Jesuits remained until 1773, when the Klementinum was established as an observatory and university by the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. The National Library was founded in 1781 and from 1782 the Clementinum was a legal deposit library. In 1918 the newly established Czecho-Slovak state took over the library.
Since 1990, it has been the National Library. It contains a collection of Mozartiana, material pertaining to Tycho Brahe and Comenius, as well as historic examples of Czech literature; the architecture is a notable example of Baroque architecture and Clementinum, covering 20,000 square metres, is the second largest complex of buildings in Prague after the Prague Castle. For several years before 2006, there was an ongoing debate on the possibilities of expanding the space for future library collections, as space in the current Clementinum buildings was expected to reach its limit by 2010. On Jan 10, 2006, the Prague authorities decided to sell the city-owned property located in the area of Letná near the Prague center, to the National Library. In Spring 2006, an international architectural design competition for the new building was put up. An architect who won the competition is Jan Kaplický, but his winning was infirmed, so the Czech National Library is still waiting for its final project. At one time the Clementinum was known as the third largest Jesuit college in the world.
The oldest weather recording in the area of the Czech lands started in Clementinum in the year 1775. The recording continues through the present day; the Clementinum is mentioned in "The Secret Miracle" by Jorge Luis Borges. The main character has a dream of the library of Clementinum where the librarians look for God in the books of the library. One of the librarians says: God is in one of the letters of one of the pages of one of the four hundred thousand books of Clementinum. My fathers and the fathers of my fathers have looked for this letter. So, a reader delivers an atlas for the main character, saying that this atlas is useless; the main character opens the book at random, find a map of India, touching one of its minimum letters and finds God. The Baroque library hall inside Clementinum is known for its beautiful interior, including ceiling artwork by Jan Hiebl. List of early modern universities in Europe Strahov Monastery National Library of the Czech Republic The History of Clementinum
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
The Vltava is the longest river within the Czech Republic, running southeast along the Bohemian Forest and north across Bohemia, through Český Krumlov, České Budějovice and Prague, merging with the Elbe at Mělník. It is referred to as the "Bohemian sea" and the "Czech national river"; the Vltava river is 430.3 kilometres long and drains an area 28,090 square kilometres in size, over half of Bohemia and about a third of the Czech Republic's entire territory. As it runs through Prague, the river is crossed by 18 bridges and covers 31 kilometres within the city; the water from the river was used for drinking until 1912, when the Vinohrady Water Tower ceased pumping operations. It is, the source of drinking water in case of failures/repairs to the water supply from the Želivka and Kárané sources; the Podolí water processing plant is on standby for such cases with the long section of the river upstream of the Podolí plant under the stricter, second degree of pollution prevention regulations. Several dams were built on it in the 1950s.
The Orlík Dam supports the largest reservoir on the Vltava by volume, while the Lipno Dam in the Bohemian Forest retains the largest reservoir by area. South of Prague the Štěchovice Reservoir has been built over the site of the St John's Rapids; the river features numerous locks and weirs that help mitigate its flow from 1,172 metres in elevation at its source near the German border to 155 metres at its mouth in Mělník. The height difference from source to mouth is about 1,016 metres and the largest stream at the source is named Černý Potok; the Vltava itself originates by a confluence of two streams, the Warm Vltava, longer, the Cold Vltava, sourcing in Bavaria. Along its course, Vltava receives many tributaries, the biggest being Otava and Berounka from the left and Lužnice and Sázava from the right side, its section around Český Krumlov is a popular destination of water tourism. Both the Czech name Vltava and the German name Moldau are believed to originate from the old Germanic words *wilt ahwa.
In the Annales Fuldenses it is called Fuldaha. In the Chronica Boemorum it is attested for the first time in its Bohemian form as Wlitaua; the Vltava basin has flooded multiple times throughout recorded history. Markers have been created along the banks denoting the water line for notable floods in 1784, 1845, 1890, 1940, the highest of all in 2002. In August of that year, the basin was affected by the 2002 European floods when the flooded river killed several people and caused massive damage and disruption along its length, including in Prague, it left the oldest bridge in Prague, Charles Bridge weakened, requiring years of work to repair. Prague was again flooded in 2013. Many locations within the Vltava and Elbe basins were left under water, including the Prague Zoo, but metal barriers were erected along the banks of the Vltava to help protect the historic city centre. Nine hydroelectric dams have been built on the Vltava to regulate the water flow and generate hydroelectric power. Beginning at the headwaters, these are: Lipno, Lipno II, Hněvkovice, Kořensko, Orlík, Kamýk, Slapy, Štěchovice and Vrané.
One of the best-known works of classical music by a Czech composer is Bedřich Smetana's Vltava called The Moldau in English. It is from the Romantic era of classical music and is a musical description of the river's course through Bohemia. A minor planet 2123 Vltava discovered in 1973 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh is named after the river. Smetana's symphonic poem inspired a song of the same name by Bertolt Brecht. An English version of it, by John Willett, features the lyrics Deep down in the Moldau the pebbles are shifting / In Prague three dead emperors moulder away. Moldavite Geographic data related to Vltava at OpenStreetMap
Technical University of Munich
The Technical University of Munich is a research university with campuses in Munich and Freising-Weihenstephan. It is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology. TUM is ranked 4th overall in Reuters 2017 European Most Innovative University ranking. TUM's alumni include 18 Leibniz Prize winners and 22 IEEE Fellow Members. Timeline1868 - the University was founded by King Ludwig II. 1877 - Awarded the designation Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München. 1901 Granted the right to award doctorates. 1902 Approval of the election of the Principal by the teaching staff. 1930 Integration of the College of Agriculture and Brewing in Weihenstephan. 1949–1954: Reconstruction of the main building of the Technische Universität by Robert Vorhoelzer after WWII. Construction of a new administrational building and library. 1957 Given the status of a ‘public legal body’. 1958 Research Reactor Munich, Garching assigned to the TH München. 1967 Establishment of a faculty of medicine 1970 Renamed to ‘Technische Universität München’.
1993 Establishment of a faculty of informatics 2000 Establishment of Weihenstephan Science Centre for Life & Food Sciences, Land Use and Environment belonging to the TUM. 2002 - The German Institute of Science and Technology was founded in Singapore. 2004 - the official opening of Forschungsreaktor München II, a leading neutron source, on March 2. 2005 - TUM Institute for Advanced Study founded 2006 - TUM one of three successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative 2009 - TUM School of Education established 2012 - TUM again one of now 11 successful universities in Germany's excellence initiative In its capacity as an academic stronghold of technology and science, the Technical University of Munich has played a vital role in Bavaria's transition from an agricultural state to an industrial state and Hi-Tech centre. To the present day, it is still the only state university dedicated to technology. Numerous excellent TUM professors have secured their place in the history of technology, many important scientists, architects and entrepreneurs studied there.
Such names as Karl Max von Bauernfeind, Rudolf Diesel, Claude Dornier, Walther von Dyck, Hans Fischer, Ernst Otto Fischer, August Föppl, Robert Huber, Carl von Linde, Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Walther Meissner, Rudolf Mössbauer, Willy Messerschmitt, Wilhelm Nusselt, Hans Piloty, Friedrich von Thiersch, Franz von Soxhlet are connected with the TUM. The prerequisites for an academic training in engineering were created at the start of the 19th century when the advancement of technology on the basis of exact sciences commenced. There were calls for a'university for all technical studies' in Bavaria. The'polytechnic schools' set up in Augsburg and Nuremberg, which bridged the gap between middle schools and higher education colleges in their capacity as'lyceums', were the first approach. For further qualification purposes, a'technical college' was set up in 1833 as part of the Faculty of State Finance of the Ludwig Maximilian University, transferred from Landshut to Munich seven years previously; the experiment failed.
Instead, an advanced'engineering course' was established at the Polytechnic School Munich in 1840, the forerunner of what was to become the'Technische Hochschule München'. In 1868, King Ludwig II founded the newly structured Polytechnische Schule München, which had the status of a university, in Munich, it was allowed to call itself Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule München as from the academic year 1877–78. The first Principal was the former Head of Karl Max von Bauernfeind. In the year of its foundation, the college took up residence in the new building in Arcisstrasse, designed by Gottfried v. Neureuther. In those days, more than 350 students were taught by 21 lecturers; the college was divided into five sections: I. General Department, II. Engineering Department, III. Department of Architecture, IV. Mechanical/Technical Department, V. Chemical/Technical Department. Department VI. was added in 1872. Two of the university's long-standing requests were met by the state after the beginning of the 20th century: it was granted the right to award doctorates in 1901, in 1902 the election of the principal by the teaching staff was approved.
With an average of about 2,600 to 2,800 students, the TH München ranked ahead of the TH Berlin as the largest German technical college for a while. The first female undergraduate matriculated in architecture in 1905, after the Bavarian government allowed women to study at a technical college in the German Reich. However, the proportion of female students remained negligible. During the Weimar Republic, the TH München was obliged to make do with low funds and was drawn into radical political struggles in 1918–19 and again between 1928 and 1933. In the winter term of 1930–31, the National Socialist German Student Union became the strongest group within the AStA general student organisation of the THM for the first time; the TH München was able to broaden its spectrum of subjects by taking over several smaller colleges that were no longer viable. In 1922, the former commercial college'Handelshochschule München' became the VII Department of Economics; the forme
Nanyang Technological University
The Nanyang Technological University is the second oldest public autonomous research university in Singapore. With a population of 33,500 students and 10,000 faculty and staff, NTU is the second largest university in Singapore; the University is organised into eight colleges and schools, including the College of Engineering, College of Science, Nanyang Business School, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, College of Humanities and Social Sciences. NTU is home to several autonomous institutions such as Singapore's National Institute of Education, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Earth Observatory of Singapore, Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Institute on Asian Consumer Insight, the launched NTU Institute of Science and Technology for Humanity. NTU's main campus covers 200 hectares of land; the primary campus grounds are located in the western part of Singapore, along 50 Nanyang Avenue. It has two other campuses in Singapore's healthcare and start-up districts and one-north respectively.
In 1955, prior to Singapore's independence from the British, Nanyang University was established south of the current Nanyang Technological University campus, with the centre of the present Yunnan Garden as its heart. Its administration building houses the Chinese Heritage Centre, a national monument. In 1980, Nanyang University merged with the University of Singapore to form the current National University of Singapore. In complement, Nanyang Technological Institute, a tertiary institution affiliated to the National University of Singapore, was formed to take over Nanyang University's campus in 1981. Nanyang Technological Institute was set up on 1 August 1981 with a charter to train three-quarters of Singapore’s engineers; when NTI started in 1982, it had a total student population of 582 in three engineering disciplines – civil and structural and electronic, mechanical and production engineering. By 1990, the institute’s undergraduate student population had grown to 6,832; the first two graduate students were admitted in 1986.
Three engineering schools were added, the School of Accountancy from the National University of Singapore was transferred to NTI in 1987. A school of applied science was started. In 1990, the government announced that the Institute of Education would be merged with the College of Physical Education to form the National Institute of Education and that it would be part of the new NTU upon its establishment in 1991. In 1991, NTI merged with the National Institute of Education to form the Nanyang Technological University; the alumni rolls of the former Nanyang University were transferred to NTU in 1996. Nanyang Technological University admitted students jointly with the affiliated National University of Singapore and charged the same fees. Students made only one application and they would be accepted by either university; this arrangement ended in 2004 as both universities began to distinguish themselves with an end of its official affiliation. Students apply separately to both universities. NTU became autonomous in 2006 and stands as one of the two largest public universities in Singapore today.
The main campus of Nanyang Technological University is the 200-hectare Yunnan Garden Campus, situated adjacent to the town of Jurong West. It is the largest university campus on the island of Singapore, housing Singapore's largest on-campus residence infrastructure including 24 halls of residence for undergraduates and two graduate halls; the campus grounds were donated by the Singapore Hokkien Association to Nanyang University. In 1981, the Nanyang University grounds were granted to the Nanyang Technological Institute, a newly formed English-medium engineering college. With the formation of the NTU through NTI's merger with the National Institute of Education, the grounds were presented to the university; the former Nanyang University administration building was restored into the Chinese Heritage Centre and was gazetted as a national monument in 1998 - now overlooking the Yunnan Garden. As of 2019, the Yunnan Garden is undergoing major renovations that will be completed in 2021; the Nanyang University Memorial and original Nanyang University Arch were declared national monuments of Singapore in 1998.
The NTU Art & Heritage Museum is an approved public museum under the National Heritage Board’s Approved Museum Scheme. There is a small lake between the Chinese Heritage Centre and Hall of Residence 4 called Nanyang Lake. Only members of NTU Anglers' Club permit holder, the fishing club at NTU, are allowed to fish in this lake; the campus served as the Youth Olympic Village for the inaugural Youth Olympic Games in 2010. A third campus, Novena Campus, is situated close to LKCMedicine’s partner teaching hospital, Tan Tock Seng Hospital in downtown Novena for medical teaching and research at the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine; the new 20-storey Clinical Sciences Building was completed in 2016. The CSB is home to LKCMedicine researchers, with the laboratories interconnected through collaborative spaces. NTU has 24 Halls of Residence for undergraduates, each with a capacity of between 500 and 659 residents, they accommodate 14,000 local and international students, with every freshman guaranteed a hostel room.
All halls offer single and double occupancy rooms. Double rooms are shared by residents of the same gender; every hall has communal facilities like lounges, air-conditioned reading rooms and laundry rooms with washing machines and dryers. Presently, freshmen stud