The koruna is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown or Czech krone. The koruna is one of European Union's 11 currencies, Czechia is bound to adopt the euro currency in the future; the official name in Czech is koruna česká. The ISO 4217 code is CZK and the local acronym is Kč, placed after the numeric value or sometimes before it. One koruna equals 100 haléřů, but haléře have been withdrawn, the smallest unit of physical currency is 1 Kč. In 1892, the Austro-Hungarian krone replaced the gulden, at the rate of one gulden equaling two kronen; the name "krone" was invented by Franz Joseph I of Austria. After Austria-Hungary dissolved in 1918, the only successor state that kept the name of the currency, the koruna, was Czechoslovakia. In the late 1920s, the Czechoslovak koruna was the hardest currency in Europe. During the Second World War, the currency on the occupied Czech territory was artificially weakened; the Czechoslovak koruna was restored after the war.
It underwent a controversial monetary reform in 1953. The Czech koruna replaced the Czechoslovak koruna when it was introduced in 1993 after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, it first consisted of overstamped 20-, 50-, 100-, 500-, 1000-Czechoslovak koruna banknotes, but a new series was properly introduced in 1993. In November 2013, the Czech National Bank intervened to weaken the exchange rate of the koruna through a monetary stimulus to stop the currency from excessive strengthening; this was meant to support the Czech economy focused on export, but people were unhappy about this step because it was set up before Christmas, which led to raising the prices of imported goods. In late 2016, the ČNB stated that the return to conventional monetary policy was planned for mid-2017. After higher-than-expected inflation and other figures, the national bank removed the cap at a special monetary meeting on April 6, 2017; the koruna avoided significant volatility and City Index Group stated: "If you want to drop a currency peg the ČNB can show you how to do it".
The Czech Republic planned to adopt the euro in 2010, but its government suspended that plan indefinitely in 2005. Although the country is economically well positioned to adopt the euro, there is considerable opposition to the move within the Czech Republic. According to a survey conducted in April 2014, only 16% of the Czech population was in favour of replacing the koruna with the euro; as reported by an April 2018 survey by CVVM, this value has remained at nearly identical levels over the past four years, with only 20% of the Czech population above 15 years old supporting euro adoption. The coins of the Czech koruna increase in weight with value. In 1993, coins were introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 haléřů, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 korun; the 10- and 20-haléřů coins were taken out of circulation by 31 October 2003 and the 50-haléřů coins by 31 August 2008 due to their diminishing purchasing power and circulation. However, financial amounts are still written with the accuracy of 1-haléř.
When transactions are made, the amount is rounded to the nearest integer. In 2000, the 10- and 20-korun coins were minted with different obverses to commemorate the millennium. In 1993 and 1994, coins were minted in Winnipeg and Hamburg in the Czech Republic; the 10- and 50-korun coins were designed by Ladislav Kozák. Since 1997, sets for collectors are issued yearly with proof-quality coins. A tradition exists of issuing commemorative coins – including silver and gold coins – for numismatic purposes. For a complete listing, see Commemorative coins of the Czech Republic; the first Czech banknotes were issued on 8 February 1993 and consisted of Czechoslovak notes with adhesive stamps affixed to them. Only the 100-, 500- and 1,000-korun notes were overstamped, the lower denominations circulated unchanged during this transitional period; each stamp bears a Roman and Arabic numeral identifying the denomination of the banknote to which it is affixed. Subsequent issues of the 1,000-korun note replaced the adhesive stamp with a printed image of same.
A newly designed series of banknotes in denominations of 20-, 50-, 100-, 200-, 500-, 1,000 and 5,000-korun were introduced in 1993 and are still in use at present – except for 20, 50 and the first versions of 1,000 and 5,000 korun notes, since the security features of 1,000 and 5,000 notes were upgraded in the subsequent issues. These banknotes feature renowned Czech persons on the obverse and abstract compositions on the reverse. Modern protective elements can be found on all banknotes; the Greater coat of arms of the Czech Republic can be found on the reverse side of all denominations. For the 100th anniversary of the Czechoslovak koruna, a new banknote will be created, featuring the face of Czech politician Alois Rašín. There is an overprint on the normal 100 Korun note as second commemorative note
Andrew Jenks is an American filmmaker. When he was nine, his family moved to Belgium for two years. Jenks attended Hendrick Hudson High School in New York; when Jenks was 16 he founded the Hendrick Hudson Film Festival, featuring James Earl Jones as its keynote speaker. His father is Assistant Secretary General for the United Nations, his mother is Nancy Piper Jenks, a family nurse practitioner, site director in internal medicine at Hudson River HealthCare in Peekskill, NY. Jenks attended New York University Tisch School of the Arts before dropping out after his sophomore year. During a 2008 interview, he was asked about his reported IQ of 155, in the top.1%, but he declined to answer. At 19 years old, Jenks moved into an assisted living facility, starring and producing the feature film Andrew Jenks, Room 335. While a sophomore at New York University, HBO bought the rights to the film and released the documentary on January 15, 2008; the film premiered in Europe. The film received positive reviews, Variety calling it'a lovely and genuine account of generational understanding'.
Andrew Jenks, Room 335 is an example of a participatory documentary. Jenks' connection to his subjects makes an impact on him as well as them; when he was 21 years old, ESPN Films financed Andrew's second film, The Zen of Bobby V. The film received good reviews after premiering at the TriBeca Film Festival. Jenks said of the pitch process'It was me and my two friends - 21 years old, telling ESPN, the'Worldwide Leader in Sports' that this was a story that had to be told -that it was their duty. I think we left every meeting unsure if we were acting our age, or just showcasing our passion'. Due to a dispute between ESPN and the Nippon Professional Baseball Organization over rights of baseball footage the film was removed from United States availability until 2020. At the International Documentary Film Festival at Amsterdam, Jenks was acclaimed as one of the next great American filmmakers, compared to filmmaker Woody Allen. In a review for Jenks' first film, The New York Post said "It's impossible to believe that a kid could produce a documentary like this.
It's a gorgeous, sad, unblinking look at the joy of life - at the end of it... Bravo Andrew Jenks. Brilliant." In January 2010, MTV signed Jenks to do a documentary-series titled World of Jenks. Jenks claimed his inspiration behind World of Jenks was that "I want to tell the stories of my generation. I want to be a filmmaker, able to capture what my generation thinks, how they act and what they stand for." In each episode, Andrew will move in with a new stranger to experience a week in their life, from random people, such as a homeless woman, a man with autism, a rapper, MMA fighter, a professional poker player, an NFL cheerleader, a female-fronted band, etc. The series premiered September 12, 2010, on MTV. Kid Cudi allowed this show to use his song'Soundtrack 2 My Life' as its theme song. Season 2 of "World of Jenks" continued to be a ratings hit. MSN remarked, "’Jenks -- like Chad, Kaylin and D-Real -- has overcome the odds and triumphed in its timeslot.” The award-winning show was dubbed as a show unlike any other on MTV.
U. S. News & World Report said, "The only way to understand. That's the premise behind documentary filmmaker Andrew Jenks's World of Jenks… The result: a raw, intimate look at daily struggles and victories, what it means to be a young person today.” USA Today said, “MTV's World of Jenks is one of the few unscripted shows that's snark-free and helpful to people … I do like how this series gives a voice to all kinds of teens, not just the pretty ones in fashionable clothes.” Jenks was both producing and hosting. He interviewed or asked questions to nearly all of the candidates, including Governor Mitt Romney and President Barack Obama. Jenks left the show after 3 years because of a new film about Ryan Ferguson. Jenks is the creator of It's About a Girl, a magic realism YouTube web series premiered July 9, 2013, he plays a man. Tubefilter praised the series for seeking a connection between dreams and reality and preferring symbolism and emotions over dialogue. In May 2014, ESPN released the 30 for 30 short "Posterized", a look into former NBA center Shawn Bradley.
Bradley is remembered for two things—being one of the tallest players to play in the NBA and for being on the wrong end of a lot of great dunks. Through interviews with Jeff Van Gundy and Shawn Bradley, the film shows the media attention he gained while a player and focuses on Bradley's life after basketball. In 2014, ESPN Films’ 30 for 30 Shorts series took home an Emmy for Outstanding Short-Format Nonfiction Program. Jenks had advocated on behalf of prisoners wrongfully incarcerated. In 2011, he called for the release of Ryan Ferguson, he advocated for the release of Kalvin Michael Smith, released after 20 years in prison. Jenks has teamed up with DKMS and DoSomething to promote teens and college students to join the bone marrow donor registry, he will be participating in college speaking tours where he will try to raise awareness and involvement. He did a PSA for Do Something with a five-year-old leukemia patient about the importance of "getting swabbed". Jenks directed a feature-length documentary titled "It's Not Over", an inspiring story of three courageous millennials from around the world who are living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.
The National Science Foundation supported Mobile Studio Project, or Mobile Studio, is developing pedagogy and hardware/software which, when connected to a PC, provides functionality similar to that of laboratory equipment associated with an instrumented studio classroom. The Mobile Studio IOBoard is a small, inexpensive hardware platform for use in a home, classroom or remote environment; when coupled with the Mobile Studio Desktop software, the system duplicates a large amount of the hardware used to teach Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Control Systems, Physics courses. With the support of several technology companies and the National Science Foundation, the Mobile Studio Project is now being utilized to enhance science, math and technology education around the world; the project's goal is to enable hands-on exploration of science and engineering principles and systems that have been restricted to expensive laboratory facilities. In 1999, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute professor Don Millard started thinking about a way to enable students to perform experiments whenever and wherever they desire — experiments that use an oscilloscope, function generator, digital control and some form of power supply.
The project started by looking at commercially available solutions. The Academy of Electronic Media Mobile Studio Project's inspiration was drawn from a generation of engineering students that has no tinkering background. Instead of taking apart devices and building things with erector sets, students now manipulate computer software. Additionally, the level of integration is so sophisticated in today’s electronics that if students did crack them open, it’s not clear how much they would garner from it. Simple circuit boards that stimulated the imagination with their discrete components and space for soldering and tinkering - have since given way to multilayered boards with complex ICs and circuitry too small to see; the hardware component of the system is a small printed circuit board, referred to as the IOBoard, developed by Jason Coutermarsh and Dr. Don Lewis Millard; the IOBoard is populated with the components required to implement an oscilloscope, function generator, spectrum analyzer and digital input/output control.
The hardware connects to a PC via USB, is powered by the user's PC, eliminating the need for a bulky AC transformer. The Mobile Studio Desktop software, designed by Jason Coutermarsh, provides the user with "benchtop equivalent" displays that mimic their physical counterparts. In addition to providing standard instrumentation options, the software takes advantage of the processing power of the personal computer, giving the user access to features found on high-end equipment, along with the ability to save data and screen images; the Mobile Studio IOBoard is expandable using an on-board daughterboard connector. Nearly all the IOBoard resources can be accessed by a daughterboard, allowing a user to enhance current features or add new options; the Mobile Studio Desktop application software is easily expandable by way of a "Plug-in" system. The software automatically finds and loads both new hardware drivers and new features that can be installed at any time after the main application; this ensures that both software are never out of date.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Howard University Morgan State University Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology University at Albany, SUNY University of Wisconsin-Madison Analog Devices Hewlett-Packard Maxim Integrated Products Molex Connector Corporation National Science Foundation PCBExpress The Mobile Studio Project's Home Page Rensselaer's Original Mobile Studio Project Site Rensselaer's Academy of Electronic Media Electronic test equipment Oscilloscope