Péter Pázmány, S. J. was a Hungarian Jesuit, a noted philosopher, cardinal, pulpit orator and statesman. He was an important figure in the Counter-Reformation in Royal Hungary. Pázmány's most important legacy was his creation of the Hungarian literary language; as an orator he was dubbed "the Hungarian Cicero in the purple". In 1867, a street in Vienna, the Pazmanitengasse, was named after him. Pázmány was born in 1570 in Nagyvárad, in the Principality of Transylvania, the son of Miklós Pázmány, vice-ispán of Bihar County; as a young he was educated there and, under the Jesuits, in Kolozsvár, where he converted from the Calvinist Reformed Church of Hungary to Roman Catholicism in 1583 under the influence of his stepmother, a Catholic. In 1587 he entered the Society of Jesus. Upon entering the Jesuit Order, Pázmány went through his novitiate at Kraków, after which he studied philosophy in University of Vienna, theology at the Collegio Romano in Rome under St. Robert Bellarmine, S. J. after which he was ordained to the priesthood there.
He was made a Doctor of Theology in 1597. After his studies, Pázmány was sent to Graz, first serving on the staff of the Jesuit college there for a year lecturing in theology at the University of Graz. In 1601 he was sent to the Society's establishment at Sellye, where his eloquence and dialectic won hundreds to Catholicism, including many of the noblest families. Count Miklós Esterházy and Pál Rákóczi were among his converts. In 1607 Pázmány entered the court of Archbishop Ferenc Forgách of Esztergom; the following year he attracted attention in the Diet of Hungary by his denunciation of the 8th point of the Peace of Vienna, which prohibited the Jesuits from acquiring landed property in Hungary. Remarkable from this period is Pázmány's Guide to Truth, which appeared in 1613; this manual was judged to have united all the advantages of scientific depth, methodical arrangement and popular style. At the initiative of the archbishop and the request of King Matthias II of Hungary, Pope Paul V, by an apostolic brief dated 5 March 1616, granted Pázmány permission to leave the Society of Jesus and to enter the Somascan Clerics Regular.
On 25 April 1616 Pázmány was appointed the Provost of Turóc, on 28 September he was appointed by the Holy See as Archbishop of Esztergom, the Primate of Hungary. Pázmány was to become the soul of the Catholic Counter-Reformation in Hungary; as the chief pastor of the Catholic Church in Hungary, Pázmány used every means in his power, short of absolute contravention of the laws, to obstruct and weaken Protestantism, which had risen during the 16th century. In 1619 he founded a seminary for theological candidates at Nagyszombat, in 1623 laid the foundations of a similar institution at Vienna, the still famous Pázmáneum, at a cost of 200,000 florins. In 1635 he contributed 100,000 florins towards the foundation of the University in Nagyszombat; the Faculty of Theology was turned into Pázmány Péter Catholic University, the rest of the university became what is now known as Eötvös Loránd University, which from 1921-1950 was known as Péter Pázmány University. Its theological faculty became Catholic Péter Pázmány University, Budapest/Piliscsaba, in 1992.
Pázmány built Jesuit colleges and schools at Pressburg, Franciscan monasteries at Érsekújvár and Körmöcbánya. Pázmány played a considerable part in the politics of his day, it was chiefly due to him that the Diet of 1618 elected Archduke Ferdinand to succeed the childless Matthias. He repeatedly thwarted the martial ambitions of Gabriel Bethlen, prevented George I Rákóczi, over whom he had a great influence, from allying with the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants. Pázmány was created a Cardinal Priest by Pope Urban VIII in the consistory of 19 November 1629, he received the red hat of a cardinal from the pope on 31 May 1629 at which time he was assigned for his titular church to Saint Jerome of the Croats. Pázmány died in Pozsony in 1637 and was buried underneath the floor of St. Martin's Cathedral, at the foot of the ancient tomb of St. John the Almsgiver, which he had embellished during his reign. Pázmány's grave was discovered during reconstruction on 12 September 1859 by the Rev. Ferdinand Knauz and others.
They found the body dry yet intact. His face was missing the nose and lips but was still bearded, he still had his biretta on his head with some hair underneath, he had simple leather shoes on his feet. The Four Books of Thomas à Kempis on the imitation of Christ, of which there are many editions Diatribe theologica de visible Christi in terris ecclesia Vindiciae ecclesiasticae. Pázmány Péter és kora, ed. Emil Hargittay, Piliscsaba 2001. Péter Pázmány is revered by Hungary by issuing six postage stamps on 25 September 1935
Gáspár Heltai was a Transylvanian Saxon writer and printer. His name derives from the village Heltau. Despite being a German native speaker he published many books in Hungarian from his print-shop; the brother of his son-in-law was Ferenc Dávid and Unitarian preacher and the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania.. He studied at Wittenberg University and he established the first print shop in Kolozsvár, he founded a public bath, a paper mill and the first brewery in the town. He was at the same time a pastor, printer, publisher and businessman, he is considered the first religious reformer of Kolozsvár. He was a great spirit of Hungarian Unitarian Reformation. Together with a group of scholars he produced an complete translation of the New Testament into Hungarian, his work marked the first buds of a secular literature in Hungary. Heltai's most voluminous work is his reworking and translation of Antonio Bonfini's Rerum Hungaricum Decades, which Heltai published in 1575 as Chronica az magyaroknak dolgairól.
The work was printed in Kolozsvár. Works by Gáspár Heltai at Post-Reformation Digital Library The text of the New Testament translation of Heltai in its original orthographic form is available and searchable in the Old Hungarian Corpus
Ferenc Kazinczy was a Hungarian author, translator, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Hungarian language and literature at the turn of the 19th century. Today his name is connected with the extensive Language Reform of the 19th century, when thousands of words were coined or revived, enabling the Hungarian language to keep up with scientific progress and become an official language of the nation in 1844. For his linguistic and literary works he is regarded as one of the cultural founders of the Hungarian Reform Era along with Dávid Baróti Szabó, Ferenc Verseghy, György Bessenyei, Mátyás Rát and János Kis. Ferenc Kazinczy was born in Érsemjén, Kingdom of Hungary, his father, József Kazinczy de Kazincz came from an old noble family and worked as a magistrate at Abaúj County. His mother was Zsuzsanna Bossányi de Nagybossány. Ferenc had four sisters; until the age of eight he was brought up by his maternal grandfather, Ferenc Bossányi, the notary of Bihar County and parliamentary ambassador, where he did not hear any foreign word during his first seven years.
He wrote his first letters in December 1764 to his parents. In 1766 his aunt got sick, therefore they moved to Debrecen for three months for the healing treatment. Kazinczy studied during that time at the College of Debrecen. After the death of his aunt he returned to his parents where he learnt Latin and German from a student of the College of Késmárk, his well educated and enlightened father, experiencing rare susceptibility, was delighted with his son, so he taught him and communicated with him in Latin and German. Kazinczy continued his language studies in Késmárk in 1768 in a preparatory class, his father, József Kazinczy wanted Ferenc to become a soldier, but Ferenc's resistance and the development of his other literary talents diverged him from his intent, he wanted to see his son as a writer. However the father, as a pietistic educator, understood under the profession of a writer a religious one, therefore ordered his fourteen-year-old son to translate Christian Fürchtegott Gellert's dissertations on religion from Latin to Hungarian.
Otherwise, the father provided his son advanced education: Ferenc was educated in foreign languages, could practice fine art and music, for seeing the world, he brought him to county assemblies and for the lunch of the emperor, Joseph II when the ruler visited Sárospatak. In 1774 the father urged his son to continue his translations, but Ferenc preferred to spend time reading György Bessenyei's Ágis tragédiája, Ignác Mészáros's Kártigám and other belles-lettres works, he broadened his knowledge with the idylls of Salomon Gessner and the poems of Vergilius, Anacreon. He did not neglect his theological studies, at home they debated over theological topics during lunch and dinner. After his father's death in 1774, he continued to pursue the translation of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert's De religione until his teacher of theology dismissed him to do it because he found Gellert's works too difficult to interpret. Ferenc turned from theological to more secular and national topics and prepared a short geographical description of the country.
István Losonczi Hányoki's Three Small Mirrors served as an example for his work. It was a childish compilation with the title Geography of Hungary... which he described as "suddenly scribbled" and was published in Kassa, Hungary at his mother's expense in 1775. On September 11, 1769, he became a student at the College of Sárospatak where he taught himself Ancient Greek, he studied law during his first years. In 1773 he started to learn rhetoric. In the same year December he greeted General Count Miklós Beleznay as a member of the thanksgiving delegation of the college in Bugyi on a special reception for donating money toward the construction of the college. Kazinczy saw Pest for the first time; until 1775 he attended the theology courses at the college and from a French soldier who came to Sárospatak learnt French. He translated György Bessenyei's short story written in German, Die Amerikaner, to Hungarian and published it in 1776 in Kassa with the title Az amerikai Podoc és Kazimir keresztyén vallásra való megtérése.
He recommended his translation to his mother. This work informed him about the principle of religious tolerance. In his translation Kazinczy used the word világosság the first time in the history of the Hungarian language. Bessenyei welcomed it and his response was inspirational for Kazinczy. Kazinczy understood Bessenyei's response as a liberating letter for the profession of an author, he was happy finding the contact with one of the most prominent authors in Hungarian literature of that time. But Kazinczy did not become a follower of Bessenyei, because Bessenyei as a culture politician and philosopher did not mature his works so much so that he could create a literary school. Ferenc's uncle was a member of the delegation of Zemplén County in Vienna at the royal court and he took the young Kazinczy along; this travel made a huge impact on him. It was the first time that Kazinczy saw the emperor's city, whose magnificent collections his pictures enthralled him. At that time Kazinczy followed the thoughts of Salomon Gessner, Christoph Martin Wieland and Dávid Baróti Szabó.
He got Sándor Báróczi's translation of Jean-François Marmontel's Contes Moraux from the librarian of Sárospatak, which became
Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art and taste and with the creation or appreciation of beauty. In its more technical epistemological perspective, it is defined as the study of subjective and sensori-emotional values, or sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. Aesthetics studies how artists imagine and perform works of art, it studies how they feel about art—why they like some works and not others, how art can affect their moods and attitude toward life. The phrase was coined in English in the 18th century. More broadly, scholars in the field define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art and nature". In modern English, the term aesthetic can refer to a set of principles underlying the works of a particular art movement or theory: one speaks, for example, of the Cubist aesthetic; the word aesthetic is derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός, which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai, meaning "I perceive, sense" and related to αἴσθησις. Aesthetics in this central sense has been said to start with the series of articles on “The Pleasures of the Imagination” which the journalist Joseph Addison wrote in the early issues of the magazine The Spectator in 1712.
The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new meaning by the German philosopher Alexander Baumgarten in his dissertation Meditationes philosophicae de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus in 1735. Aesthetics, a not tidy intellectual discipline, is a heterogeneous collection of problems that concern the arts but relate to nature. Even though his definition in the fragment Aesthetica is more referred to as the first definition of modern aesthetics. Aesthetics is for the artist; some separate aesthetics and philosophy of art, claiming that the former is the study of beauty while the latter is the study of works of art. However, most Aesthetics encompasses both questions around beauty as well as questions about art, it examines topics such as aesthetic objects, aesthetic experience, aesthetic judgments. For some, aesthetics is considered a synonym for the philosophy of art since Hegel, while others insist that there is a significant distinction between these related fields. In practice, aesthetic judgement refers to the sensory contemplation or appreciation of an object, while artistic judgement refers to the recognition, appreciation or criticism of art or an art work.
Philosophical aesthetics has not only to speak about art and to produce judgments about art works, but has to give a definition of what art is. Art is an autonomous entity for philosophy, because art deals with the senses and art is as such free of any moral or political purpose. Hence, there are two different conceptions of art in aesthetics: art as knowledge or art as action, but aesthetics is neither epistemology nor ethics. Aestheticians compare historical developments with theoretical approaches to the arts of many periods, they study the varieties of art in relation to their physical and culture environments. Aestheticians use psychology to understand how people see, imagine, think and act in relation to the materials and problems of art. Aesthetic psychology studies the creative process and the aesthetic experience. Aesthetics examines our affective domain response to an object or phenomenon Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level. However, aesthetic judgments go beyond sensory discrimination.
For David Hume, delicacy of taste is not "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition", but our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind." Thus, the sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. For Immanuel Kant, "enjoyment" is the result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of reflective contemplation. Judgments of beauty are sensory and intellectual all at once. Kant observed of a man "If he says that canary wine is agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own taste"; the case of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something to be beautiful he requires the same liking from others. Roger Scruton has argued similarly. Viewer interpretations of beauty may on occasion be observed to possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste.
Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Taste is a result of an education process and awareness of elite cultural values learned through exposure to mass culture. Bourdieu examined how the elite in society define the aesthetic values like taste and how varying levels of exposure to these values can result in variations by class, cultural background, education. According to Kant, beauty is universal. In the opinion of Władysław Tatarkiewicz, there are
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. "Roman mythology" may refer to the modern study of these representations, to the subject matter as represented in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. The Romans treated their traditional narratives as historical when these have miraculous or supernatural elements; the stories are concerned with politics and morality, how an individual's personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. Heroism was an important theme; when the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are more concerned with ritual and institutions than with theology or cosmogony. The study of Roman religion and myth is complicated by the early influence of Greek religion on the Italian peninsula during Rome's protohistory, by the artistic imitation of Greek literary models by Roman authors.
In matters of theology, the Romans were curiously eager to identify their own gods with those of the Greeks, to reinterpret stories about Greek deities under the names of their Roman counterparts. Rome's early myths and legends have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than that of the Greeks. While Roman mythology may lack a body of divine narratives as extensive as that found in Greek literature and Remus suckling the she-wolf is as famous as any image from Greek mythology except for the Trojan Horse; because Latin literature was more known in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, the interpretations of Greek myths by the Romans had a greater influence on narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" than Greek sources. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovid's Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, came to be regarded as canonical; because ritual played the central role in Roman religion that myth did for the Greeks, it is sometimes doubted that the Romans had much of a native mythology.
This perception is a product of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the 19th century, which valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Roman myths were an inspiration for European painting. The Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city; these narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny. In Rome's earliest period and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship; as T. P. Wiseman notes: The Roman stories still matter, as they mattered to Dante in 1300 and Shakespeare in 1600 and the founding fathers of the United States in 1776. What does it take to be a free citizen? Can a superpower still be a republic? How does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny? Major sources for Roman myth include the Aeneid of Vergil and the first few books of Livy's history as well as Dionysius' s Roman Antiquities.
Other important sources are the Fasti of Ovid, a six-book poem structured by the Roman religious calendar, the fourth book of elegies by Propertius. Scenes from Roman myth appear in Roman wall painting and sculpture reliefs; the Aeneid and Livy's early history are the best extant sources for Rome's founding myths. Material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date; the Trojan prince Aeneas was cast as husband of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, patronymical ancestor of the Latini, therefore through a convoluted revisionist genealogy as forebear of Romulus and Remus. By extension, the Trojans were adopted as the mythical ancestors of the Roman people; the characteristic myths of Rome are political or moral, that is, they deal with the development of Roman government in accordance with divine law, as expressed by Roman religion, with demonstrations of the individual's adherence to moral expectations or failures to do so. Rape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of Roman culture, the growth of Rome through conflict and alliance.
Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and established many of Rome's legal and religious institutions. Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were mythologized and, said to have been the lover of the goddess Fortuna; the Tarpeian Rock, why it was used for the execution of traitors. Lucretia, whose self-sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy and led to the establishment of the Republic. Cloelia, A Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena, she escaped the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins. Horatius at the bridge, on the importance of individual valor. Mucius Scaevola, who thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to Rome. Caeculus and the founding of Praeneste. Manlius and the geese, about divine intervention at the Gallic siege of Rome. Stories pertaining to the Nonae Caprotinae and Poplifugia festivals. Coriolanus, a story of politics and morality; the Etruscan city of Corythus as the "cradle" of Trojan and Italian civilization.
The arrival of the Great Mother in Rome. Narratives of divine activity played a more important role in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, for whom ritual and cult were primary. Although Roman religion did not have a basis in scriptures and exegesis, priestly literature was one of the earliest written forms of Latin prose; the books and commentaries of the College of Pontiffs and
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc
Hungarian literature is the body of written works produced in Hungarian, may include works written in other languages, either produced by Hungarians or having topics which are related to Hungarian culture. While it was less known in the English-speaking world for centuries, Hungary's literature gained renown in the 19th and 20th centuries, thanks to a new wave of internationally accessible writers like Mór Jókai, Antal Szerb, Sándor Márai, Imre Kertész and Magda Szabó; the beginning of the history of Hungarian language as such is set at 1000 BC, when — according to current scientific understanding — the language had become differentiated from its closest relatives, the Ob-Ugric languages. No written evidence remains of the earliest Hungarian literature, but through folktales and folk songs, elements have survived that can be traced back to pagan times. Extant, although only in Latin and dating from between the 11th and 14th centuries, are shortened versions of some Hungarian legends relating the origins of the Hungarian people and episodes from the conquest of Hungary and from campaigns of the 10th century.
In earliest times the Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script, although it was not used for literary purposes in the modern sense. The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I. There are no existing documents from the pre-11th century era; the Old Hungarian period is reckoned from 896 CE, when Hungarians conquered the Carpathian Basin, settled down and started to build their own state. Creation of the first extant written records followed soon after; the oldest written record in Hungarian is a fragment in the Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea. This text is to be read as Fehérü váru reá meneü hodu utu reá with today's spelling, it would read as a Fehérvárra menő had útra in today's Hungarian; the rest of the document was written in Latin. The oldest complete, continuous text in Hungarian is Halotti beszéd és könyörgés, a short funeral oration written in about 1192–1195, moving in its simplicity.
The oldest poem is Ómagyar Mária-siralom, a free translation from Latin of a poem by Godefroy de Breteuil. It is the oldest surviving Uralic poem. Both the funeral sermon and the Lamentations are hard to read and not quite comprehensible for modern-day Hungarians because the 26-letter Latin alphabet was not sufficient to represent all the sounds in Hungarian before diacritic marks and double letters were added. During the Middle Ages and well into the Renaissance, the language of writing was Latin. Important documents include the Admonitions of St. Stephen, which includes the king's admonitions to his son Prince Imre. Among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum, by an unknown author, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum by Simon Kézai. Both are in Latin; these chronicles mix history with legends, so they are not always authentic. Another chronicle is the Képes Krónika, written for Louis the Great. Further, Rogerius's 13th century work was published with János Thuróczy's chronicle in the late 15th century.
In Split Thomas of Spalato wrote on local history, with much information on Hungary in the 13th century. At that time Dalmatia and the city of Split were part of the Kingdom of Hungary; the 15th century saw the first translations from the Bible. Two Transylvanian preachers and Valentine, followers of the Bohemian religious reformer Jan Hus, were responsible for this work, of which the prophetic books, the Psalms, the Gospels have survived. A great part of the vocabulary created for the purpose is still in use. Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias. Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian humanist poet of the period; the first printing house was founded during Matthias's reign, by András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. In 1526 most of Hungary fell under Ottoman occupation, from which date the beginning of the Middle Hungarian period is set, in connection with various cultural changes.
The most important poets of the period were Bálint Balassi, Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos and Miklós Zrínyi. Balassi's poetry shows Mediaeval influences, his poems can be divided into three thematic categories: war poems and religious poems. Zrínyi's most significant work, Szigeti veszedelem is an epic written in the style of the Iliad, recounts the heroic Battle of Szigetvár, where his great-grandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár. Translation of Roman authors produced some works: János Baranyai Decsi translated Sallustius's Catalina and Jughurta's war in the late 16th century. A decade appeared the translation of Curtius Rufus's life of Alexander in Debrecen. Historical works were more numerous: the chronicle of Gáspár Heltai, published by him in Kolozsvár. Another category is