International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Fiberglass or fibreglass is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be flattened into a sheet, or woven into a fabric; the plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix—most based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester—or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, pipes, orthopedic casts and external door skins. GRP covers are widely used in the water-treatment industry to help control odors. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic, glass-fiber reinforced plastic or GFK; because glass fiber itself is sometimes referred to as "fiberglass", the composite is called "fiberglass reinforced plastic". This article will adopt the convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fiber reinforced composite material, rather than only to the glass fiber within it.
Glass fibers have been produced for centuries, but the earliest patent was awarded to the Prussian inventor Hermann Hammesfahr in the U. S. in 1880. Mass production of glass strands was accidentally discovered in 1932 when Games Slayter, a researcher at Owens-Illinois, directed a jet of compressed air at a stream of molten glass and produced fibers. A patent for this method of producing glass wool was first applied for in 1933. Owens joined with the Corning company in 1935 and the method was adapted by Owens Corning to produce its patented "Fiberglas" in 1936. Fiberglas was a glass wool with fibers entrapping a great deal of gas, making it useful as an insulator at high temperatures. A suitable resin for combining the fiberglass with a plastic to produce a composite material was developed in 1936 by du Pont; the first ancestor of modern polyester resins is Cyanamid's resin of 1942. Peroxide curing systems were used by then. With the combination of fiberglass and resin the gas content of the material was replaced by plastic.
This reduced the insulation properties to values typical of the plastic, but now for the first time the composite showed great strength and promise as a structural and building material. Confusingly, many glass fiber composites continued to be called "fiberglass" and the name was used for the low-density glass wool product containing gas instead of plastic. Ray Greene of Owens Corning is credited with producing the first composite boat in 1937, but did not proceed further at the time due to the brittle nature of the plastic used. In 1939 Russia was reported to have constructed a passenger boat of plastic materials, the United States a fuselage and wings of an aircraft; the first car to have a fiber-glass body was a 1946 prototype of the Stout Scarab, but the model did not enter production. Unlike glass fibers used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fiber's surfaces must be entirely free of defects, as this permits the fibers to reach gigapascal tensile strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be as strong as glass fibers.
The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for glass fibers suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to melt the silica sand, kaolin clay, colemanite and other minerals until a liquid forms, it is extruded through bushings, which are bundles of small orifices. These filaments are sized with a chemical solution; the individual filaments are now bundled in large numbers to provide a roving. The diameter of the filaments, the number of filaments in the roving, determine its weight expressed in one of two measurement systems: yield, or yards per pound. Examples of standard yields are 450yield, 675yield. Tex, or grams per km. Examples of standard tex are 1100tex, 2200tex; these rovings are either used directly in a composite application such as pultrusion, filament winding, gun roving, or in an intermediary step, to manufacture fabrics such as chopped strand mat, woven fabrics, knit fabrics or uni-directional fabrics. Chopped strand mat or CSM is a form of reinforcement used in fiberglass.
It consists of glass fibers held together by a binder. It is processed using the hand lay-up technique, where sheets of material are placed on a mold and brushed with resin; because the binder dissolves in resin, the material conforms to different shapes when wetted out. After the resin cures, the hardened product finished. Using chopped strand mat gives a fiberglass with isotropic in-plane material properties. A coating or primer is applied to the roving to: help protect the glass filaments for processing and manipulation. Ensure proper bonding to the resin matrix, thus allowing for transfer of shear loads from the glass fiber
Mécanique Aviation Traction or Matra was a French company covering a wide range of activities related to automobiles, bicycles and weaponry. In 1994, it now operates under that name. Matra was owned by the Floirat family; the name Matra became famous in the 1960s when it went into car production by buying Automobiles René Bonnet. Matra Automobiles produced successful racing sports cars. By merging with various companies, Matra's CEO, Jean-Luc Lagardère, built a group around Matra diversified in media, state of the art technology, aeronautics and in automobiles and records production and distribution. Matra was privatized in 1988, with Lagardère holding 6% of the stock and by 1992, 25%. In 1992 the Lagardère Group was radically restructured. Lagardère merged Matra and Hachette to form Matra Hachette, of which Lagardère Group held 37.6%. Following a share swap in 1994 Lagardère held 93.3% of Matra Hachette's stock. In 1996 Matra Hachette was formally merged into Lagardère. Matra Hautes Technologies was the defence arm of Matra.
The company was involved in aerospace and telecommunications. In February 1999 MHT merged with Aérospatiale to form Aérospatiale-Matra. On July 10, 2000 Aérospatiale-Matra became part of EADS. Matra Défense Matra Systèmes & Information Matra BAe Dynamics, formed in 1996, Matra BAe Dynamics brought together the missile business of BAe and half of the missile business of Matra Défense.. Matra Marconi Space, was the space division of Matra which merged with the space operations of GEC in 1989 to form Matra Marconi Space. In 2000, it was merged with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG to form Astrium; this was renamed to EADS Astrium. Matra Nortel Communications R.511 air to air missiles R.530 air to air missiles Super 530 air to air missiles R.550 Magic air to air missiles MICA air to air missiles R.422 surface to air missiles Mistral anti-aircraft missiles Martel anti-radar and anti-shipping missiles in association with Hawker Siddeley ARMAT anti-radar missiles Otomat anti-shipping missiles in association with Oto Melara BLG 66 Belouga cluster bombs Durandal anti-runway bombs Pods for the SNEB unguided rocket The company was created following the acquisition of the brand Automobiles René Bonnet in 1964 by Jean-Luc Lagardere and disappeared in 2003 The Matra name was first used for road cars with the Renault-powered Matra Djet, an update of the Bonnet Jet, the Djet was replaced with the Matra 530, the Murena and the Rancho, an early type of sport utility vehicle.
In 1984 Renault launched the Matra built Espace minivan, the car was a success. After the discontinuation of the Renault Avantime, on February 27, 2003, Matra announced its intention to close its automobile factory in Romorantin-Lanthenay a month later. In September 2003, Pininfarina SpA acquired Matra Automobile's engineering and prototype businesses; the company was subsequently named Matra Automobile Engineering. On January 13, 2009, Pininfarina sold its share in Matra Automobile Engineering to Segula Technologies. Matra Djet Matra 530 Matra Bagheera Matra Murena Matra Rancho Renault Espace Renault Avantime In the mid-1960s Matra enjoyed considerable success in Formula 3 and Formula 2 racing with its MS5 monocoque-based car, winning the French and European championships. Matra competed as a constructor in Formula One from 1967 to 1972 and as an engine supplier between 1975 to 1982, winning the drivers' and constructors' championships in 1969. Matra competed in sports car racing from 1966 to 1974 winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1972, 1973 and 1974 and the World Championship for Makes in 1973 and 1974.
Matra sponsored Racing Club de France in 1987~1989 Matra produced a home computer, the Matra Alice Matra produced a fiberglass 14 ft sailing dinghy with an innovative double bottom, self-bailing hull called the Capricorne. Though several hundred were sold and a class association existed, it never caught on against the better established International 420. Matra created an automatic light rubber-tyred metro, the Véhicule Automatique Léger Matra attempted, failed, to produce a personal rapid transit system, Aramis Matra makes electric bicycles and electric scooters Matra i-step Runner and Force as well as Matra i-flow in Romorantin. Official website matraclub.com matra-automobile.com History of Renault Espace includes opinions about demise of Matra
Champigny-sur-Marne is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.5 km from the centre of Paris. Champigny-sur-Marne was called Champigny; the name Champigny comes from Medieval Latin Campaniacum, meaning "estate of Campanius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. In 1897 the name of the commune became Champigny-sur-Marne, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Champigny. Champigny-sur-Marne is served by Les Boullereaux – Champigny station on Paris RER line E. Champigny-sur-Marne is served by Champigny station on Paris RER line A; this station, although administratively located on the territory of the neighboring commune of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, lies across the Marne River from the town center of Champigny-sur-Marne and is thus used by people in Champigny. The Paris Métro will soon serve the center of Champigny. Primary schools: Preschools: Nine for the 9e circonscription and 7 for the 18e circonscription Elementary schools: Seven for the 9e circonscription and 6 for the 18e circonscriptionSecondary schools: Junior high schools: Collège Willy-Ronis and Collège Paul-Vaillant-Couturier Senior high schools: Lycée Louise Michel, Lycée Marx-Dormoy, Lycée Langevin-Wallon, Lycée professionnel Gabriel-PériIn addition Lycée professionnel et technologique Samuel-de-Champlain is in nearby Chennevières-sur-Marne Djamel Belmadi is a retired Algerian footballer and is the current manager of Lekhwiya.
Jeff Reine-Adélaïde is a professional footballer for Arsenal FC. Champigny-sur-Marne is twinned with: Musselburgh, United Kingdom Rosignano Marittimo, Italy Alpiarça, Portugal Bernau, Germany Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Champigny-sur-Marne official website Champigny Blog Historic D. B.racing cars of Champigny/Marne
Paris Motor Show
The Paris Motor Show is a biennial auto show in Paris. Held during October, it is one of the most important auto shows with many new production automobile and concept car debuts; the show presently takes place in Paris expo Porte de Versailles. The Mondial is scheduled by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, which considers it a major international auto show. In 2016, the Paris Motor Show welcomed 1,253,513 visitors, making it the most visited auto show in the world, ahead of Tokyo and Frankfurt; the key figures of the show are: 125 000 m2 of exhibition, 8 pavilions, 260 brands from 18 countries, 65 world premieres, more than 10 000 test drives for electric and hybrid cars, more than 10 000 journalists from 103 countries. Until 1986, it was called the Salon de l'Automobile; the show was held annually through 1976. The show was the first motor show in the world, started in 1898 by industry pioneer, Albert de Dion. After 1910 it was held at the Grand Palais in the Champs-Élysées.
During the First World War motor shows were suspended, meaning that the show of October 1919 was only the 15th "Salon". There was again no Paris Motor Show in 1925, the venue having been booked instead for an Exhibition of Decorative Arts. In October 1926 the Motor Show returned; the outbreak of war again intervened in 1939 when the 33rd Salon de l'Automobile was cancelled at short notice. Normality of a sorts returned some six years and the 33rd "Salon" opened in October 1946. In January 1977, it was announced that no Paris Motor Show would take place that year, because of the "current economic situation": at the same time the organisers confirmed that a 1978 Auto Salon for Paris was planned; the 65th Salon de Paris duly opened on 15 October 1978 in the modern buildings of the Parc des Expositions on the south-western edge of central Paris at the Porte de Versailles, where the show had been held since 1962. 1898 1st 1913 14th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1919 15th "Salon de l'Automobile" The first "Salon" since 1913.9 October 1919 65 French automobile makers exhibited.
At least 118 exhibitors in total. There was no "Salon de l'Automobile" in 1920 1921 16th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1922 17th "Salon de l'Automobile" 4 October 1922 81 French automobile makers exhibited 113 exhibitors in total.1923 18th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1924 19th "Salon de l'Automobile" 2 October 1924 78 French automobile makers exhibited 116 exhibitors in total. There was no "Salon de l'Automobile" in 1925 due to the venue having been allocated to an Exhibition of Decorative Arts 1926 20th "Salon de l'Automobile" 7 October 1926 81 French automobile makers exhibited and 42 non French automobile industry businesses exhibited. 126 exhibitors in total1927 21st "Salon de l'Automobile" 1928 22nd "Salon de l'Automobile" 1929 23rd "Salon de l'Automobile" 1930 24th "Salon de l'Automobile" 2 October 1930 46 French automobile makers and 46 non French automobile makers exhibited. 92 exhibitors in total.1931 25th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1 October 1931 39 French automobile makers and 37 non French automobile makers exhibited.
79 exhibitors in total.1932 26th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1933 27th "Salon de l'Automobile" 5 October 1933 26 French automobile makers exhibited.1934 28th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1935 29th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1936 30th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1937 31st "Salon de l'Automobile" 7 October 1937 22 French automobile makers exhibited.1938 32nd 1946 33rd 1947 34th "Salon de l'Automobile" 23 October 1947 27 French automobile makers exhibited.1948 35th 1949 36th 1950 37th 1951 38th "Salon de l'Automobile" 4 October 1951 23 French automobile makers exhibited.1952 39th 1953 40th 1954 41st 1955 42nd 1956 43rd 1957 44th "Salon de l'Automobile" 3 October 1957 24 French automobile makers exhibited.1958 45th 1959 46th 1960 47th 1961 48th "Salon de l'Automobile" 5 October 1961 9 French automobile makers exhibited. 1962 49th SalonThis was the first year the show was held at the Porte de Versailles on the outskirts of Paris.1963 50th 1964 51st 1965 52nd "Salon de l'Automobile" October 1965 9 French automobile makers exhibited.
1966 53rd 1967 54th "Salon de l'Automobile" 6 October 1967 8 French automobile makers exhibited, plus one coachbuilder Citroën Dyane world premiere1968 55th "Salon de l'Automobile" 1976 63rd "Salon de l'Automobile" known as a "Salon of Sobriété"Ferrari 400 world premiere1978 64th "Salon de l'Automobile" 15 October 19781998 Paris Motor Show 2000 Paris Motor Show 2002 Paris Motor Show 2004 Paris Motor Show 2006 Paris Motor Show 2008 Paris Motor Show 2010 Paris Motor Show 2012 Paris Motor Show 2014 Paris Motor Show 2016 Paris Motor Show 2018 Paris Motor Show Media related to Mondial de l’Automobile de Paris at Wikimedia Commons Official website Template:Paris Motor Show
DB Le Mans
The DB Le Mans is a fibreglass-bodied two-door sports car with front-wheel drive, built in France from 1959 until 1964. Equipped with Panhard two-cylinder boxers, the cars built by René Bonnet had Renault four-cylinder engines; the car, with pronounced tailfins and more comfortable than previous efforts by DB was aimed squarely at the US market. Having met with some sales success in the United States, DB decided to tailormake a car for the US market; the more comfortable Le Mans was the result, to underscore the intentions of the producers it had its world premiere at the 1959 Boston Motor Show. The European debut was shortly thereafter, at the 1959 Paris Motor Show; the car was a two-seater convertible built on the usual Panhard underpinnings, with the 848 cc flat-twin "Tigre" engine, capable of 60 PS SAE at 6000 rpm. The DIN claim is 52 PS; the promised top speed was 160 km/h, putting performance on par with that of a period Porsche 356 "Dame" or an MGA. The design, with its pronounced tailfins and low long nose, was the work of René Bonnet and his son Claude, as well as young designer Jacques Hubert.
Charles Deutsch took little interest in the Le Mans. Production was artisanal, with the expected resultant quality issues; as is expected, many parts from mass-produced vehicles were used, most notably a cut-down Citroën DS windshield. Sales were reasonably good. In an effort to target luxury car buyers and the Facel Vega Facellia, DB presented a luxurious hardtop coupé called the Le Mans Grand Luxe at the 1961 Paris Salon. While billed as a four-seater, the rear bench was best suited for luggage; the body was the same as the convertible, minus the folding roof and with a permanent hardtop installed. The hardtop's design was similar to the roof of the Facellia, the Marchal Mégalux double headlights were the same units as used on the Facel car. Leather interior and a wooden steering wheel were standard fitment, as were power windows - unusual for a specialist manufacturer at the time. For being of such limited utility, the car was rather expensive at the time of introduction - 18,500 francs, nearly twice the price of a Citroën ID19.
After the split between Deutsch and Bonnet, René Bonnet reintroduced the Missile and the Le Mans under his own name and with Renault engines. The more luxurious Le Mans was a convertible with Renault's 1108 cc type 688 R8 engine tuned to produce 70 CV; this engine was mounted ahead of the driving axle, whereas on the lower priced Missile it was mounted behind the front axle, in a front mid-engine location. The Missile, although with similar bodywork had single rather than the double headlights of the Le Mans; the Missile had a lesser engine, in the form of the 845 cc type 670. The Missile has 50 CV