SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

DFB-Pokal

The DFB-Pokal is a German knockout football cup competition held annually by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund. Sixty-four teams participate in the competition, including all clubs from the Bundesliga and the 2. Bundesliga, it is considered the second-most important club title in German football after the Bundesliga championship. Taking place from August until June, the winner qualifies for the DFL-Supercup and the UEFA Europa League unless the winner qualifies for the UEFA Champions League in the Bundesliga; the competition was founded in 1935 called the Tschammer-Pokal. The first titleholder were 1. FC Nürnberg. In 1937, Schalke 04 were the first team to win the double; the Tschammer-Pokal was suspended in 1944 due to World War II and disbanded following the demise of Nazi Germany. In 1952–53, the cup was reinstated in West Germany as the DFB-Pokal, named after the DFB, was won by Rot-Weiss Essen. Bayern Munich have won the most titles with 19 wins, while they are the current title holders. Fortuna Düsseldorf hold the record for most consecutive tournament game wins between 1978 and 1981, winning the cup in 1979 and 1980.

The competition format has varied since the inception of the Tschammer-Pokal in 1935. The DFB-Pokal begins with a round of 64 teams; the 36 teams of the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga, along with the top four finishers of the 3. Liga are automatically qualified for the tournament. Of the remaining slots 21 are given to the cup winners of the regional football associations, the Verbandspokale; the three remaining slots are given to the three regional associations with the most men's teams. They may assign the slot as they see fit but give it to the runner-up in the association cup; as every team taking part in the German football league system is entitled to participate in local tournaments which qualify for the association cups, every team can in principle compete in the DFB-Pokal. Reserve teams like Borussia Dortmund II are not permitted to enter. For the first round, the 64 teams are split into two pots of 32. One pot contains the 18 teams from the previous season of the Bundesliga and the top 14 teams from the previous season of the 2.

Bundesliga. The other pot contains the bottom 4 teams from the previous season of the 2. Bundesliga, the top 4 teams from the previous season of the 3. Liga and the 24 amateur teams that qualified through regional football tournaments. Teams from one pot are drawn against teams from the other pot. Since 1982, the teams from the pot containing amateur teams play the game at home. For the second round, the teams are again divided into two pots according to the same principles. Depending on the results of the first round, the pots might not be equal in terms of number. Teams from one pot are drawn against teams from the other pot; the remaining teams are drawn against each other with the team first drawn playing the game at home. For the remaining rounds, other than the final, the teams are drawn from one pot. Since 1985 the final has been held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin. Extra time will be played if the scores are level after 90 minutes with a penalty shootout following if needed; the number of participants in the main tournament has varied between four from 1956 until 1960 and 128 from 1973 through 1982 resulting in tournaments of two to seven rounds.

Since the inception of the Bundesliga in 1963 all clubs from the Bundesliga are automatically qualified for the DFB-Pokal as are all clubs from the 2. Bundesliga since its inception in 1974. Reserve sides for most of the time were allowed to participate in the DFB-Pokal but have been excluded since 2008; the final has been held at the Olympic Stadium in Berlin every season since 1985. Before 1985, the host of the final was determined on short notice. In the decision, the German Football Association took into consideration that, due to the political situation between Germany and East Germany, Berlin was not chosen to be a venue for the UEFA Euro 1988; the cup games were held over two 45 minute halves with two 15 minute overtime periods in case of a draw. If the score was still level after 120 minutes the game was replayed with the home field right reversed. In the 1939 Tschammer-Pokal the semi-final between Waldhof Mannheim and Wacker Wien was played to a draw three times before the game was decided by lot.

The German Football Association decided to hold a penalty shootout if the replay was another draw after a similar situation arose in the 1970 cup, when the match between Alemannia Aachen and Werder Bremen had to be decided by lot after two draws. In 1971–72 and 1972–73, the matches were held over two legs; the second leg was extended by two additional 15-minute overtime periods if the aggregate was a draw after both legs. In case the extension brought no decision, a penalty shootout was held. In 1977, the final 1. FC Köln vs. Hertha BSC had to be replayed. In the aftermath, the DFB opted not to replay cup finals in the future, instead holding a penalty shootout after extra time; this change was extended to all cup games in 1991. Since 1960, the winner of the DFB-Pokal qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup. If the cup winner had qualified for the European Club Champions Cup, the losing finalist moved into the Cup Winners' Cup instead. Following the abolition of the Cup Winners' Cup in 1999, the winner of the DFB-Pokal qualified for the UEFA Cup, known as the UEFA Europa League since 2009.

If the DFB-Pokal winner or both finalists qualify through the Bundesliga fo

Columbia Plateau Trail

The Columbia Plateau Trail is a 130-mile-long, 20-foot-wide corridor in eastern Washington state maintained as part of the Washington State Park system. The trail runs along the abandoned right-of-way of the former Spokane and Seattle Railway from Cheney to the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers at Pasco, passing through five counties in the southeastern part of the state; the trail's recreational uses include hiking, mountain biking, horseback riding, in-line skating on paved portions, wildlife viewing. The rail bed was constructed by the Spokane and Seattle Railway Company in the early 1900s; that line's successor, the Burlington Northern Company, abandoned the line in 1987, paving the way for the state to acquire 130 miles of right-of-way, from milepost 235.0 near East Pasco to milepost 365.0 near South Cheney, in 1991. State Park management began in 1992. Standing remnants of the trail's railroad past include the historic Burr Canyon trestle built in 1908; the northern portion of the trail passes through a habitat of ponderosa pine/grassland mixed with exposed basalt cliffs and areas of meadow and shrub-steppe.

It bisects the Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, an area of northeastern Washington on the eastern edge of the Columbia River Basin which encompasses 16,000 acres of the channeled scablands. The numerous erosion-created potholes have formed over 130 marshes and lakes which attract a wide range of waterfowl. Other wildlife inhabiting the reserve include elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, badgers, porcupines and beavers; as it crosses the Columbia River Plateau, the trail passes through the unique geological erosion features of the channeled scablands created by the cataclysmic Missoula Floods that swept periodically across this portion of eastern Washington as well as other parts of the Columbia River Plateau during the Pleistocene epoch. The trail follows one of the many paths taken by the Missoula Floods as they cut through the Columbia River Basalt. Notable geologic features which the trail passes include the Cow Creek scabland, the point at which the Palouse River departs its former course, Washtucna Coulee, Devil's Canyon, giant current-created ripples formed by the flood currents in the low lands along the Snake River, the Walker Bar, created by the outflow of the floods.

Proceeding from the northeast toward the southwest, major access points include: Fishlake trailhead – Milepost 365 Cheney Trailhead – Milepost 361.25 Amber Lake Trailhead – Milestone 349.25 Martin Road Trailhead – Milestone 342 Lamont Trailhead John Wayne Pioneer Trail intersection Benge Trailhead Washtucna Trailhead Kahlotus Trailhead & Visitor Center 46°38′41.77″N 118°33′17.67″W Snake River Junction Trailhead Ice Harbor Dam Trailhead 46°14′58″N 118°52′46″W Sacajawea State Park Pasco Columbia Plateau Trail State Park Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission Columbia Plateau Trail State Park North Map Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission Columbia Plateau Trail State Park South Map Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission

Edith M. Taylor

Dr. Edith M. Taylor was a Canadian biochemist known for her work in producing novel techniques in vaccine production her work on the production of diphtheria toxoid, while employed as a researcher by Connaught Laboratories in Toronto, Canada. Taylor was born in 1899 in Toronto to a family of 10 children, she attended the University of Toronto and graduated with a PhD in Chemistry in 1924. In 1925, Taylor began work with Connaught Laboratories, a public medical research group associated with the University of Toronto. One of her first projects at Connaught involved major contributions to the culturing process of diphtheria toxoid, a non-toxic form of diphtheria toxin safe for vaccination. Connaught had been producing tetanus toxoid since 1927 and, though their product was effective, it produced unwanted side effects. Taylor lead a research team dedicated to improving the production of the toxoid. Taylor's cultures were grown through a broth consisting of veal infusion and hog stomach treated with calcium chloride and nicotinic acid.

The toxin cultures produced through Taylor's method were more potent than those produced using commercially available broths. Taylor contributed to the development of a stabilized version of the Schick toxin made using borate-gelatin-saline; this stabilized toxin did not need to be diluted as as the destabilized variant, allowing a more effective administration of the toxin during Schick diphtheria tests. Taylor collaborated with Drs. Leone Farrell and Robert J. Wilson to develop an improved large-scale pertussis vaccine production technique using a liquid medium. Taylor and Farrell published a paper in the Canadian Journal of Public Health suggesting that constant agitation of the samples and the introduction of a small amount of formalin could promote continuous growth of the samples and reduce clumping, respectively. Taylor conducted a study examining the effectiveness of variants on the pertussis vaccine, she compared a concentrated, a heated, a control version of the vaccine using several tests.

She was not, able to find consistency among the results and reached no conclusion as to which vaccine was the most effective. Taylor applied in 1948 to patent a novel strategy for producing a form of anticoagulant; the patent was granted to the University of Toronto in 1952. Patents were granted in both Canada and Germany; the method involves mincing animal tissue, the lungs and pancreases of sheep and cows, mincing these samples with water to allow the proteins to coagulate over heat. This coagulated sample is digested using proteolytic enzyme to yield an extract from which pure heparin can be extracted; this mechanism proved more effective than the old method of extracting heparin by applying the digestive enzyme to the sample before separating the proteins, increasing the yield of heparin in each sample. In 1949, Taylor developed an apparatus and technique for using formalin vapor in the sterilization of plastic syringes that would melt in a steam-based sterilization system. Taylor contributed to Connaught Laboratories research on the polio vaccine.

In 1957, she developed a variant of the Nash colorimetric method for determining an estimation of the formaldehyde content in Polio vaccines. Taylor was awarded the title of Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1946 for her development of a mass-produced tetanus vaccine to distribute to soldiers during World War 2. After many more years of work at the through Connaught Laboratories at the University of Toronto, she retired in 1962