EA Digital Illusions CE AB is a Swedish video game developer based in Stockholm. The company was founded in 1992 and has been a subsidiary of Electronic Arts since 2006, its releases include Mirror's Edge and Star Wars Battlefront series. Through their Frostbite Labs division, the company develops the Frostbite game engine. Digital Illusions was founded in May 1992 by Olof "Olle" Gustafsson, Markus Nyström, Fredrik Liljegren and Andreas Axelsson, four friends and former members of The Silents, a demogroup that developed for Amiga systems; the four studied at Växjö University, thus DICE was established in Växjö. In 2000, DICE acquired developer Refraction Games. From the acquisition, DICE inherited the in-development Battlefield 1942. Patrick Söderlund, who had founded Refraction Games in 1997, subsequently joined DICE as chief executive officer; this was followed with the merger of Sandbox Studios April 2001. Sandbox Studios added 50 employees to DICE's staff. In September 2004, DICE merged with Trauma Studios in New York City.
Trauma Studios employed nine people at the time. In November 2004, Electronic Arts announced their intent to purchase all outstanding shares in DICE at a price of 61 kr per share, with the deal's closing deadline scheduled for 27 December. At the time, EA owned 18.9% in DICE. The offer was rejected by shareholders representing 28% of DICE's ownership on 15 December, after which EA adjusted its offer on 20 December, intending to only purchase 44.5% at the same price per share, extending the offer deadline to 20 January 2005. On 25 January 2005, shareholders agreed to the acquisition, EA raised their ownership in DICE to 59.8%. In March 2006, EA announced a new plan to acquire all outstanding shares in DICE for 67.75 kr per share. The acquisition was completed on 2 October, with 2.6 million shares in DICE transferred to EA in exchange for a total of 175.5 million kr. Shortly following the acquisition, on 5 October, EA closed Digital Illusions Canada, DICE's Ontario-based studio; the 25 employees working at the studio at the time were given the option to transfer to DICE's headquarters in Stockholm or any other EA studio.
DICE co-founder Liljegren announced on 16 October that he established RedJade as a successor to Digital Illusions Canada. In May 2013, EA opened a new Los Angeles-based division for DICE known as DICE LA, helmed by former senior staff of EA's closed studio Danger Close Games. DICE LA had been involved with support of DICE and other EA games and had not generated any title on their own. Vince Zampella of Respawn Entertainment was named as the studio's new lead in January 2020. Official website DICE at Curlie
The Western Wall Tunnel is a tunnel exposing the Western Wall from where the traditional, open-air prayer site ends and up to the Wall's northern end. Most of the tunnel is in continuation of the open-air Western Wall and is located under buildings of the Muslim Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. While the open-air portion of the Western Wall is 60 metres long, the majority of its original length of 488 metres is hidden underground; the tunnel allows access to the remainder of the Wall in a northerly direction. In 19 BCE, King Herod undertook a project to double the area of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem by incorporating part of the hill on the Northwest. In order to do so, four retaining walls were constructed, the Temple Mount was expanded on top of them; these retaining walls remained standing, along with the platform itself, after the Temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE. Since much of the area next to the walls became covered and built upon. Part of the Western Wall remained exposed after the destruction of the Temple.
Since it was the closest area to the Temple’s Holy of Holies that remained accessible, it became a place of Jewish prayer for millennia. British researchers started excavating the Western Wall in the mid 19th century. Charles Wilson began the excavations in 1864 and was followed by Charles Warren in 1867–70. Wilson discovered an arch now named for him, "Wilson's Arch", 12.8 metres wide and is above present-day ground level. It is believed that the arch supported a bridge which connected the Temple Mount to the city during the Second Temple Period. Warren dug shafts through Wilson's Arch. After the Six-Day War, the Ministry of Religious Affairs of Israel began the excavations aimed at exposing the continuation of the Western Wall; the excavations lasted twenty years and revealed many unknown facts about the history and geography of the Temple Mount. The excavations were difficult to conduct, as the tunnels ran below residential neighborhoods constructed on top of ancient structures from the Second Temple Period.
The excavations were conducted with the supervision of rabbinic experts. This was to ensure both the stability of the structures above and to prevent damaging the historic artifacts. In 1988 the Western Wall Heritage Foundation was formed, it took over the excavation and renovations of the Western Wall and Western Wall Plaza; the tunnel exposes 300 m of the wall's total 445 m, revealing the construction methods and the various activities in the vicinity of the Temple Mount. The excavations included many archaeological finds along the way, including discoveries from the Herodian period, sections of a reconstruction of the Western Wall dating to the Umayyad period, various structures dating to the Ayyubid and Hasmonean periods constructed to support buildings in the vicinity of the Temple Mount. "Warren's Gate" lies about 150 feet into the tunnel. This sealed-off entrance was for hundreds of years a small synagogue called "The Cave", where the early Muslims allowed the Jews to pray in close proximity to the ruins of the Temple.
Rabbi Yehuda Getz built a synagogue just outside the gate, since today it is the closest point a Jew can pray near to the Holy of Holies, assuming it was located at the traditional site under the Dome of the Rock. Beyond the northern end of the Western Wall, remains were found of a water channel that supplied water to the Temple Mount; the exact source of the channel is unknown, though it passes through an underground pool known as the "Struthion Pool". The water channel was dated to the Hasmonean period and was accordingly dubbed the "Hasmonean Channel"; the biggest stone in the Western Wall called the Western Stone, is revealed within the tunnel, ranks as one of the heaviest objects lifted by human beings without powered machinery. The stone has a length of 13.6 metres, height of 3 metres, an estimated width of between 3.5 metres and 4.5 metres. Adjacent to the tunnel are the remains of Second Temple period and Mamluk structures. In the restored rooms, the Western Wall Foundation has created the Chain of Generations Center, a Jewish history museum designed by Eliav Nahlieli that includes an audiovisual show and nine glass sculptures created by glass artist Jeremy Langford.
In 2007, the Israel Antiquities Authority uncovered an ancient Roman street thought to be from the second to fourth centuries. It was a side street which connected two major roads, led up to the Temple Mount; the discovery of the road gave further evidence that Romans continued to use the Temple Mount after the destruction of the temple in 70 CE. Excavations at the site continued as late as 2014, led by archaeologists Peter Gendelman and Ortal Chalaf on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority; the Struthion Pool is a large cuboid cistern, which gathered the rainwater from guttering on the Forum buildings. Prior to Hadrian, this cistern had been an open-air pool, but Hadrian added arch vaulting to enable the pavement to be placed over it; the existence of the pool in the first century is attested by Josephus, who reports that it was called "Struthius". This Struthion Pool was built as part of an open-air water conduit by the Hasmoneans, which has since been enclosed; as a result of 1971 extensions to the original Western Wall Tunnel, the Hasmonean water system, which runs under Arab housing, became linked to the end of the Western Wall Tunnel, opened as a tourist attrac
Corporation Street is one of Manchester city centre's major streets. It runs from Dantzic Street to the junction of Market Street. Major buildings located on or adjacent to the street include the Manchester Arndale, Exchange Square, The Printworks and New Century Hall next to the CIS Tower; the street was bombed in 1996 by the Provisional IRA, since the vicinity has undergone large scale reconstruction. The area around Corporation Street has been a target for several planned terrorist attacks, most in 2009. To reduce this threat, the street is pedestrianised between Market Street and Withy Grove between 1100 and 1900 hours. A series of bollards have been installed that grant access only to authenticated emergency service vehicles and buses. Corporation Street was constructed in 1848 cutting through the former mediaeval streets giving access to Ducie Bridge and the north, it ran parallel to Deansgate from Cross Street to its junction with Dantzic Street. The Co-operative Wholesale Society, founded in 1863 as a logical extension of the 1844 Rochdale Pioneer Society and other local co-ops, established its headquarters in City Buildings, Corporation Street.
In 1867 it was joined by the newly formed Co-operative Insurance Company. City Buildings was the first home of The Clarion, the radical newspaper founded by Robert Blatchford, first published on 12 December 1891, which moved to Fleet Street in 1895. In the early 20th century, the scale of the architecture changed as the east side of Corporation Street attracted substantial broad based buildings; the neo-Baroque building designed by F. E. L. Harris for the Co-operative Wholesale Society was erected between 1905 and 1909, dated 1907, it was constructed in red brick with polished sandstone dressings. The façade has full height pilasters and Corinthian columns, the roof is concealed by parapet walls; the Mitchell Memorial Hall was lost in the Manchester Blitz, the 1907 building has been extended to fill the whole block. A further Classical sandstone building on Corporation Street to the north of Hanover Street is owned by the CWS; this was designed by W. A. Johnson in 1928 and opened in 1930, it is symmetrical in design, with further full height pilasters and a large central entrance arch, topped with a mansard roof with dormer windows.
By 1908 a new Chief Office for the Co-operative Insurance had been built at 109 Corporation Street, which served as their head office until 1962 when they moved to the CIS Tower on Miller Street 100 yards distant. Footage captured in 1901 shows the junction of Cross Street and Corporation Street with horse-drawn carriages; the junction with Withy Grove became the northern offices of a national newspaper. The centre's profile, the presence of several national chains, made it a target for terrorists. Arson attacks in April 1991 were followed by several firebombs in December 1991 which caused extensive damage to four stores; the Provisional Irish Republican Army was blamed for both incidents, in which the devices were placed in soft furnishings during shopping hours. After the second, Christmas shopping continued much as normal the following day in the unaffected stores. One unnamed fireman said, "What bugs me is if there's a big one planted there's a lot of glass around here, a lot of people will be killed".
On the morning of Saturday 15 June 1996, at about 9:20, two men parked a van containing a 1,500 kg bomb on Corporation Street between Marks & Spencer and the Arndale. At about 9:45, a coded warning was received by the local television station. About 80,000 people were cleared from the area by local police and store staff using procedures developed after another IRA bombing incident in 1992; the bomb exploded at 11:17, shortly after the army bomb squad arrived from Liverpool and began making it safe. Nobody was killed by the bomb, but over 200 people were injured, some mostly by flying glass and shrapnel; the bomb blast damaged much of the surroundings beyond repair, on financial grounds the decision was taken to reconstruct Manchester city centre from the ground up. Marks and Spencer's and the adjacent Longridge House were condemned as unsafe within days, were demolished; the frontage of the Arndale on Corporation Street and the footbridge were structurally damaged. The reinsurance company Swiss Re estimated that the final insurance payout was over £400M, making it, at the time, the most expensive man-made disaster ever.
About twelve buildings in the immediate vicinity of the explosion on Corporation Street were damaged. Overall, 530,000 square feet of retail space and 610,000 square feet of office space were put out of use. Insurers paid out £411 million in damages for what was at the time one of the most expensive man-made disasters and there was considerable under-insurance. Victims of the bombing received a total of £1,145,971 in compensation from the Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority. According to Home Office statistics, an estimated 400 businesses within half a mile of the blast were affected, 40% of which did not recover; the heaviest damage was sustained by the three buildings closest to the bomb: Michael House, comprising a Marks & Spencer store and a six-storey office block. Michael House was demolished. Marks & Spencer took the opportunity to acquire and demolish the adjacent Longridge House, using the enlarged s