Danish People's Party
The Danish Peoples Party is a political party in Denmark which is generally described as right-wing populist by academics and far-right by international media. It has described in academia and the media as a nativist. The party was founded in 1995 by Pia Kjærsgaard, who led the party until 2012, the DPP lent its support to the Liberal-Conservative government from the general election of 2001 until the 2011 election defeat. In comparison to its predecessor, the Progress Party, the DPP focus more on immigration, while overall considered part of the radical right, its policies on most economic issues would rather place the party in the centre to centre-left. The partys current leader, Kristian Thulesen Dahl, once declared DPP an anti-Muslim party, in 2014 the party won the European Parliament election in Denmark by a wide margin, securing 27% of the vote. After the election, it joined the European Conservatives and Reformists group alongside parties such as the United Kingdoms Conservative Party and Polands Law and Justice.
The Danish Peoples Party was founded on 6 October 1995, after Pia Kjærsgaard, Kristian Thulesen Dahl, Poul Nødgaard and its first national convention was held in Vissenbjerg on 1 June 1996, where Pia Kjærsgaard was unanimously elected as the partys chairman. The party was established in protest over the conditions of the Progress Party. It was initially seen by many as a clone of the Progress Party, the party saw a highly centralized party leadership as necessary, as it would not tolerate internal conflicts and disagreements with the official strategy. In 1997, the party won about 7% in the municipal elections, by 1998, the party had 2,500 registered members. The party made its debut in the 1998 Danish parliamentary election. The party was, left no influence in the formation of a government. In the 2001 election, the party won 12% of the vote and 22 seats in parliament and it became the third largest party in the parliament, giving them a key position, as they would have a parliamentary majority together with the Conservative Peoples Party and Venstre.
DPP was favoured by these parties, as it had supported the Venstre candidate for Prime Minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, during the election campaign. The party had a key role in writing the rules and conditions for immigration in the law that was established by the government in May 2002. In the 2005 election the party increased their vote. By young first-time voters the party showed even more popular, receiving one fifth of their votes, the party continued to support the government, and developed a broader policy base, as it made welfare policies its core issue, together with immigration policies. In 2006, the popularity rose dramatically in opinion polls following the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Conservative People's Party (Denmark)
The Conservative Peoples Party, known as the Conservatives is a conservative political party in Denmark. The party is a member of the European Peoples Party and International Democrat Union, the party was founded 1916 based mostly on its predecessor, Højre, but on the Free Conservatives and a moderate faction of the liberal party Venstre. The party has participated in coalition governments, but only one Prime Minister of Denmark, Poul Schlüter, has come from this party. The student branch is Conservative Students, likewise an independent organisation, from the 2001 parliament elections until 2011, the Conservative Peoples Party was the junior partner in a coalition government led by Venstre. The Conservative Peoples Party is currently led by Søren Pape Poulsen, In the 2004 European parliament elections, the member is currently Bendt Bendtsen, who is a member of the EPP Group in the European Parliament. In the 2014 European elections, the party garnered 9. 1% of the national vote, the Conservatives remain committed to a centre-right alliance, working most closely with the liberal Venstre and somewhat less closely with the right-wing populist Danish Peoples Party.
The Conservatives did cooperate with the Social Liberal Party during its time in power in the 1980s, young Conservatives Conservative Students John Christmas Møller - Wartime resistance figure. In 1989, Hedegaard became first spokesperson for the Conservative Peoples Party, but left politics for journalism in 1990
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
DR Koncerthuset by Jean Nouvel is a part of the new DR Byen, that houses the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR. The concert hall and the DR Town are located in the part of Ørestad - an ambitious development area in Copenhagen. The concert complex consists of four halls with the auditorium seating 1,800 people. It is the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra, with a total surface of 25000 m², the concert hall complex designed by Jean Nouvel includes a concert hall of 1800 people and three recording studios with variable acoustics. The scenography of the hall and three recording studios was designed with dUCKS scéno. The acoustic studies were realized by Nagata Acoustics, the construction, begun in February,2003, was finished in January,2009. The Queen of Denmark inaugurated the venue on January 17,2009, pritzker Prize winner Jean Nouvel is the architect of the project. The structure can be likened to a covered by big blue screens, supposed to resemble water. Nouvel says on the project, Building in emerging neighborhoods is a risk that has proved fatal in recent years.
We can respond positively to an uncertainty by using its most positive attribute, mystery is never far from seduction. In other words we need to bring value to the context, for this we must establish a presence, an identity. I propose to materialize the context by creating an urban building respecting the planned layout of the site. It will be a volume, a mysterious parallelepiped that changes under the light of day, at night the volume will come alive with images and lights expressing the life going on inside. The interior is a world in itself and diversified, an interior street lined with shops follows the path of the urban canal, a restaurant and bar spill into it. The restaurant is dominated by a square, a large empty volume beneath the wooden “scales” cladding the concert hall above. It is a world of contrasts and surprises, a labyrinth, on one side, the world of musicians, with courtyards and exterior terraces, and vegetation. On the other, Piranesian public spaces link together the different performance halls, the restaurant, the abstract is invaded by the figurative, the permanent is complemented by the ephemeral.
The facades are diaphanous filters permitting views of the city, the canal, at night these facades become screens for projecting images
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The Bridge (2011 TV series)
The Bridge is a Scandinavian crime television series created and written by Hans Rosenfeldt. A joint creative and financed production between Swedens Sveriges Television and Denmarks DR, it has shown in over 100 countries. Three series have been broadcast, all starring Sofia Helin as the Swedish police detective Saga Norén, in the first and second, her Danish counterpart, Martin Rohde, is played by Kim Bodnia, and in the third Thure Lindhardt plays Henrik Sabroe. The bridge is the Øresund Bridge, which links Malmö with Copenhagen, the first series begins with the discovery of a dead body exactly on the centre of the bridge. It was broadcast on the Swedish SVT1 and Danish DR1 during the autumn of 2011, the second series aired in Sweden, Norway and Iceland during the autumn of 2013, and in the UK in early 2014. The third series was aired in Denmark and Finland during the autumn of 2015 and it has been confirmed that the fourth season is in production and is scheduled to air in 2018. It is not one corpse but two halves of two women, the upper-half being that of a female Swedish politician, the lower-half being that of a Danish prostitute.
Two detectives, Saga Norén from Sweden, and Martin Rohde from Denmark, in the course of the investigation and Saga develop a close working relationship. August, a son from his first marriage is now living with Martin and his current wife, Mette. Saga lives alone and rather than have serious relationships, she prefers to pick up men in bars for casual sex, the investigation quickly escalates as a journalist, Daniel Ferbé, whose car was used in the crime, begins receiving phone calls. The caller, who known as the Truth Terrorist, claims to be committing crimes in order to draw attention to various social problems. A social worker, Stefan Lindberg, whose estranged sister is a victim, working together, the Danish and Swedish police conclude that the killer must have a connection with them. After the killer has murdered people, his true motivation begins to seem personal. They discover that he has been planning his campaign over a period of several years, Series two starts 13 months later. A coaster veers off course and rams into the Øresund Bridge, Saga arrives on the scene and finds the ship deserted save for five people – three Swedish and two Danish – chained and in poor condition below deck.
Saga arranges to have Martin assigned to the case, though he has gone through a nervous breakdown following his sons death, after the victims on the coaster die from pneumonic plague, a viral video appears in which four disguised eco-terrorists claim responsibility for the incident. They embark on further attacks, including blowing up a petrol tanker, as the police close in on the group, they are all found dead in a shipping container, thus raising the question of whether there are other terrorist cells or a larger group. The keynote speaker of an upcoming EU climate conference in Copenhagen is one of those killed by poisoning, Caroline Brandstrup-Julin, the head of the conference, appoints Viktoria Nordgren, head of the Medisonus pharmaceutical company, as his replacement
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which communication takes place include a variety of outlets. Broadcast media transmit information electronically, via such media as film, recorded music, digital media comprises both Internet and mobile mass communication. Internet media comprise such services as email, social sites, websites. Print media transmit information via physical objects, such as books, magazines, event organizing and public speaking can be considered forms of mass media. The organizations that control these technologies, such as studios, publishing companies. In the late 20th century, mass media could be classified into eight mass media industries, the Internet, movies, radio and television. The explosion of digital technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries made prominent the question. For example, it is whether to include cell phones, computer games. In the 2000s, a called the seven mass media became popular.
For example, the Internet includes blogs, web sites, the sixth and seventh media and mobile phones, are often referred to collectively as digital media, and the fourth and fifth, radio and TV, as broadcast media. Some argue that video games have developed into a mass form of media. While a telephone is a communication device, mass media communicates to a large group. In addition, the telephone has transformed into a phone which is equipped with Internet access. A question arises whether this makes cell phones a mass medium or simply a device used to access a mass medium. There is currently a system by which marketers and advertisers are able to tap into satellites and this transmission of mass advertising to millions of people is another form of mass communication. Video games may be evolving into a mass medium, video games provide a common gaming experience to millions of users across the globe and convey the same messages and ideologies to all their users. Users sometimes share the experience with one another by playing online, excluding the Internet however, it is questionable whether players of video games are sharing a common experience when they play the game individually
The Killing (Danish TV series)
The Killing is a Danish police procedural three-series-long television drama created by Søren Sveistrup and produced by DR in co-production with ZDF Enterprises. It was first broadcast on the Danish national television channel DR1 on 7 January 2007, the series is set in Copenhagen and revolves around Detective Inspector Sarah Lund. Each series follows a murder case day-by-day, each fifty-minute episode covers twenty-four hours of the investigation. It has singled out for the photography of its Danish setting. The Killing has proved to be an international hit—garnering significant critical acclaim—particularly in the United Kingdom, novelizations of each series have been published by Macmillan. Søren Sveistrup, series creator and head writer, worked closely with lead actress Sofie Gråbøl throughout the process to successfully develop the character of Detective Inspector Sarah Lund. Gråbøl, in particular, became eager to defend her character, as a result she began acting like a man until the character took shape.
During filming of the first series Sveistrup refused to reveal the identity of the murderer or even specific plot points to members of the cast, the actors would receive the scripts only on an episode-by-episode basis just moments before shooting was scheduled to begin. Gråbøl was told only that she was not the killer, the first series consists of 20 fifty-minutes episodes, which follow the police investigation into the murder of a young woman from its commencement on 3 November to its conclusion on 22 November. Detective Chief Inspector Sarah Lund is in her last day with the Copenhagen police force, about to move to Sweden to join her fiancé, everything changes when 19-year-old Nanna Birk Larsen is found raped and brutally murdered. Sarah heads the investigation and is teamed up with her replacement, troels Hartmann, politician, is in the midst of a hard-fought mayoral campaign when evidence links him to the murder. The girls family and friends struggle to cope with their loss, over a span of 20 days suspect upon suspect is sought out as violence and political pressures cast their shadows over the hunt for the killer.
Forbrydelsen II is set two years and consists of ten episodes and it aired in Denmark between 27 September and 29 November 2009. Episodes were screened eleven days on Thursdays on Norwegian NRK1 and it was shown on German TV channel ZDF and on Swedish SVT in the autumn of 2010. The Region 2 DVD with English subtitles was released on 19 December 2011, following the resolution of the Larsen case, Lund was demoted. She is a police officer in the southern town of Gedser. Lund joins the investigation and suspects that the murder is not as straightforward as it seems, Lund is about to be discharged from the case when a second murder, that of a Danish military veteran, leads to the conclusion that Islamic extremists are behind the killings. Raben escapes, and two members of the unit are murdered
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies, the term FM band describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions, In the former Soviet republics, and some former Eastern Bloc countries, assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the 87. 5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz.
In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines, in some parts of Europe and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74,500. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used, in the Americas and South Korea,75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing.
They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e. g. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated
1968 Winter Olympics
The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1968 in Grenoble and opened on 6 February. Norway won the most medals, the first time a country other than the USSR had done so since the USSR first entered the Winter Games in 1956, frenchman Jean-Claude Killy won three gold medals in all the alpine skiing events. In womens figure skating, Peggy Fleming won the only United States gold medal, the year 1968 marked the first time the IOC first permitted East and West Germany to enter separately, and the first time the IOC ever ordered drug and gender testing of competitors. The application was given to the IOC during a meeting between IOC executives and representatives of international sport agencies in Lausanne in February 1963. Between 1946 and 1962 the number of inhabitants in Grenoble increased from 102,000 to 159,000, the development of the infrastructure could not keep up with this rapid increase and was for the most part at the same level as before the Second World War.
The 61st IOC session, where the awarding of the Olympic Games should have been voted for and this session was moved to Baden-Baden because Kenya refused entry to IOC members from Portugal and South Africa for political reasons. Due to a lack of time only the Summer Games of 1968 could be voted for, the vote finally took place in Innsbruck on 28 January 1964, one day before the start of the 1964 Winter Olympic Games. After Grenoble was voted as the host city the French National Olympic Sports Committee decided the foundation of the organisation committee. The Comité d’Organisation des dixièmes Jeux Olympiques, the committee for the organisation of the 10th Olympic Games, albert Michallon, alongside being the former mayor of Grenoble, was president of COJO. The upper panel was made up of the assembly with its 340 members and the supervisory board conduct business with 39 members,19 of which were appointed. The general secretary consisted of five departments and 17 subordinate departments. The number of employees grew to 1920 in February 1968, minister for Youth and Sport Francois Missoffe formed an interministerial committee for the coordination of the work commissioned by prime minister Georges Pompidou.
Just over 7000 soldiers of the French armed forces and employees of the ministries for Youth and Sport, Social Building, Post, the sum of the investments contributed to 1.1 billion Francs. The government contributed 47. 08%, the Isere Department 3. 65%, the city of Grenoble 20. 07% and the surrounding communities 1. 37%. Different institutions, such as the train company SNCF, the television broadcaster ORTF, the government housing association, to test the new sport complex and to improve organisational processes they organized International Sports Weeks. From 20 January to 19 February 1967 speed skating competitions and ski races took place, from 12 to 15 October 1967 an ice hockey tournament, on 16 December 1967, the olympic torch was lit in ancient Olympia in Greece. The route of the relay at first led over Mount Olympus to Athens. From there, the torch was flown by an Air France Boeing 707 to the Paris-Orly airport
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère, the city advertises itself as the Capital of the Alps, due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenobles history goes back more than 2,000 years, to a time when it was a small Gallic village, industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble, through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries. The city has grown to be one of Europes most important research, the population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832. The residents of the city are called Grenoblois, the many communes that make up the metropolitan area include three suburbs with populations exceeding 20,000, Saint-Martin-dHères, Échirolles, and Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble, the first references to Grenoble date back to 43 BC.
Cularo was at time a little Gallic village founded by the Allobroges tribe near a bridge across the Isère River. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the peoples welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381, Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, and the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city, until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the bishops and princes of Grenoble. Arletian rule was interrupted between 942 and 970 due to Arabic rule based in Fraxinet, Grenoble grew significantly in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region, the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority.
When they took the title of Dauphins, Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné, despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble. One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh, under his rule, the citys bridge was rebuilt, and both a regular hospital and a leper one were built. The inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights and that charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal and he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Aging and heirless, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the only Dauphin who really governed his province was Louis XI, whose reign lasted from 1447 to 1456